Coffee Flavor Chemistry
1. Introduction. A Short History of Coffee. Books, Reviews and Meetings. Abbreviations. 2. Green Coffee. The non-volatile constituents and their contribution as precursors of the flavor of roasted coffee. The volatile compounds identified in green coffee beans. Results. 3. From the raw bean to the roasted coffee. The roasting process: Strecker and Maillard Reactions. Identification and characterization of flavor constituents: extraction, isolation, identification and quantification. Sensory analysis: determination of qualities and defects. 4. A historical survey of coffee aroma research. The pioneers (From 1800 to 1956). Modern times: the advent of gas chromatography. Results. 5. The individual constituents: structure, nomenclature, origin, chemical and organoleptic properties. Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Aldehydes. Ketones. Acids and anhydrides. Esters. Lactones. Phenols. Furans and Pyrans. Thiophenes. Pyrroles. Oxazoles. Thiazoles. Pyridines. Pyrazines. Amines and miscellaneous nitrogen compounds. Miscellaneous sulfur compounds.
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2-methyl acetate Agric alcohol aldehydes amino acids analysis arabica arabica coffee Arctander ASIC Baltes and Bochmann beverage Bochmann 1987a Buttery Cantergiani Chem Chemistry chlorogenic acids chromatography coffee aroma coffee volatiles Colloq components constituents degradation dilution ester fatty FEMA Firmenich Firmenich & Cie Flament flavor Chemisis flavor is described flavor threshold Food Chem formation fruity Furan furfuryl GC/MS Gianturco glucose green and roasted green arabicas green beans green Mexican arabica Grosch headspace Identified by Stoll Identified by Vitzthum identified in green Identified in roasted isomer ketone Lebensm Liardon Maier Maillard reaction Merritt methyl model reactions odor threshold oxazoles phenolic ppm in roasted ppm in water Procida pyrazines pyridine pyrolysis pyrroles Ramos Reichstein and Staudinger roasted arabica roasted coffee flavor serine and threonine Shimoda and Shibamoto Silwar soluble coffee Spadone Stoffelsma sucrose synthesis taste thiophenes threonine threshold in water trigonelline Vitzthum and Werkhoff volatile compounds Werkhoff 1976b