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after payment of operating expenses and all income charges. The Spanish-American war first delayed action on this project; next the Empress Dowager, in control at Peking, apparently put obstructions in the way of progress; but in the course of time surveys were made, followed by some construction work, which ultimately resulted in the completion of the Canton-Samshui and the Chuchow-Pinghsiang sections, now operated by the Ministry of Communications, and the Kwangtung Yueh-Han Railway, as already mentioned.

The death of Senator Brice removed the chief personal force of this enterprise and later resulted in Belgian interests' getting majority control of the development company, though it was against the spirit (and probably the actual terms) of the agreement to allow the nationality of the control to change. After considerable agitation and insistence on the part of the Chinese, American interests again obtained control of the Development Co.; but the Chinese authorities were not satisfied to allow the work to proceed and the American interests were not energetic in pushing the matter, with the result that the project was taken over by the Chinese Government and the transaction with the American-Chinese Development Co. was finally concluded in 1905 by the payment of $6,750,000 (gold) for title to all the work done and the profits and good will of the entire enterprise.

It was first attempted to raise these funds among the Chinese gentry and the interests in South China that had so constantly opposed the construction of this line by the American-Chinese Development Co., but when the time actually came to subscribe, the funds were not forthcoming, and the above amount was finally obtained from the government of the British colony of Hongkong and thus became a British loan. It was contemplated, after the elimination of the American-Chinese Development Co., that the Chinese should take the work in hand and complete this line from native resources, but conditions finally led to the Hukuang Railway loan, the downfall of the Manchu dynasty, and Mr. Sheng's dismissal,

The Hukuang Railway loan agreement has already been mentioned, as has the combining of the funds from the American and British loans to complete the Wuchang-Changsha section, which has recently been put in service but which has exhausted all the available funds. The question of additional funds to complete this important trunk line will doubtless come up in the course of a short time.

The failure of the American-Chinese Development Co. to complete this project was no doubt a real misfortune from the standpoint of Chinese interest and very regrettable from the American point of view.

The Chuchow-Pinghsiang branch was surveyed by the American engineers, although this branch line was not included in the original agreement with the American-Chinese Development Co.

Work was started in 1899 for the specific purpose of completing this line for the transportation of coal from the Anyuen coal mines at Pinghsiang to Chuchow, to be taken from there by water to the Han-Yeh-Ping Iron Works at Hankow. Although the construction was rather difficult, the cost, according to Mr. Kyle's study, totals a little less than $50,000 per mile. .

Work on the Canton-Samshui line was started in the latter part of 1902. The first section to Fatshan, which is double track, was completed and put in service before the end of 1903, and the entire line, the remainder of which is single track, was completed and put in service September, 1905. The construction cost of this line, according to Mr. Kyle's study, is about $107,500 per mile. The line runs through a very densely populated district and has been profitable on account of the large passenger business carried ever since the completion of the line, although the freight business is negligible. A connection from this line at Fatshan to Kongmoon, a distance of about 40 miles, to connect with the Sunning (privately owned) railway has been discussed, but at present nothing tangible is being done toward its actual construction.

The Kwangtung section, extending from Canton to the Kwangtung. Hunan border, a distance of about 210 miles, was taken in hand by the Kwangtung mercantile administration of the Yueh-Han Railway, a Chinese company with a nominal capital of $4,000,000, of which only a portion was paid up. This took place after the American-Chinese Development Co. interests had been bought out and taken over by the Chinese Government.

This Chinese company is now known as the Kwangtung YuchHan Co. (Ltd.). The line from Kwangtung to Shiuchow, a distance of about 140 miles, has been put in service and surveys have been made for the remaining section of about 70 miles. The construction of this latter will be rather difficult and expensive, because of the fact that the line runs through very rough country, where about 60 tunnels with a total length of 10,000 feet will be iequired, as well as some rather expensive bridge work.

SOURCE OF CAPITAL AND PRESENT CONTROL. The writer was unable to obtain information that would make possible an understanding of the general balance sheets of the CantonHankow system as a whole or even in part. The Chinese Government Railways consolidated report shows no interest charges for the Chuchow-Pinghsiang and Canton-Samshui sections, leading to the conclusion that these lines are now coming entirely under the head of permanent Chinese Government investments--the investment assets being $4,750,000 and $16,750,000, respectively. The Kwangtung Yueh-Han Railway Co. (Ltd.) seems to cariy the obligation of the loan from the Hongkong government for £1,350,000, which bears interest at 4} per cent and the proceeds of which were used to pay the $6,750,000 (gold) for the purchase of the AmericanChinese Development Co.'s interest, as previously explained.

The line from Changsha to Wuchang is covered by the Hukuang Railway loans, as already explained, but the writer was unable to obtain the detaiis of these amounts or their allocation to the different sections of the Hukuang railways, if there is such an assignment of these expenditures.

CLASS OF TRAFFIC.

The Wuchang-Changsha section has not been in service long enough for one to arrive at any conclusion as to the traffic that will develop. However, in view of the fact that about 85 per cent of the traffic on the Chuchow-Pinghsiang consisted of mineral products

(nearly all coal), it is probable that, notwithstanding water competition from Chuchow and Changsha, considerable through-coal traffic will develop, particularly during the dry season when water transportation is at times suspended.

Traffic on the Canton-Samshui line is almost entirely passenger business and, on account of the dense population in this section, this will no doubt continue to constitute the largest part of the business. The results from this line seem to justify the suggestion made later concerning the construction of electric lines in this and similar districts of China for the handling of passenger and light goods business by electric railways, as has been done in Japan, particularly in the Osaka industrial district. The traffic on the Sunning Railway, a private corporation in the same district (see p. 119), affords further evidence in support of this suggestion.

PRESENT EARNING CAPACITY AND OUTLOOK FOR FUTURE.

The Chuchow-Pinghsiang section has shown a smail net profit for several years, but it is doubtful whether this will be the case with the line now from Wuchang to Pinghsiang, even including the traffic to the important intermediate centers of Changsha and Yochow, both of which have water transportation facilities.

The Canton-Samshui has shown very satisfactory profits for several years, but it is not probable that these will be materially increased until extensions are made to draw more traffic over this line and also to develop freight traffic. The proposed connection with the Sunning Railway would doubtless benefit both lines.

There are no published reports of the Kwangtung Railway and it is impossible to obtain reliable data, but it is understood that this line shows no profit and probably will not do so until the main trunk line is completed and both through and local traffic developed.

As regards the prospective earning capacity of this system as a whole, it is very likely, on account of the high costs up to the present time and the probable heavy expense for completion, that the system will not show any profits for several years until the through and local business has expanded-especially the coal traffic that may be expected to develop from the Pinghgiang fields to Canton and through that port to the other markets of South China, Indo-China, the East Indies, and the Philippine Islands.

ROADWAY AND TRACK MATERIALS.

A clear statement of the materials used in these lines thus far is a rather difficult matter, on account of the length of time involved and the changes of engineers during this interval. The materials used on the new line from Wuchang to Changsha have conformed, in general, to British standards and practice, preference being given to Chinese sources and next to British manufacturers, although a good many of these articles have come from America. The bridges on this line are largely from American concerns, although there was considerable controversy over the specifications, finally resulting in the recall of the first specifications and the sending out of invitations for second tenders. The specifications were reduced from Cooper E-45 to Cooper E-40, although the increase in the price of steel in the

meantime resulted in a substantially higher price for the lighter bridges.

The Chuchow-Pinghsiang was built mostly with American materials, but under the direction of a German engineer in charge of the coal mines who also had charge of this line. Most of the renewals have been made with German materials.

The Canton-Samshui line was also constructed mostly with American materials, but a variety of materials have been used in the renewals. The rail is 75 pounds, American Society of Civil Engineers section, of American manufacture. The double-track section is now laid with steel ties of the same design as those mentioned later in connection with the Yunnan line (see p. 129 and figs. 14 and 15). These came from France or Belgium. White ants are very destructive to wooden ties in this part of China, eating all kinds of ordinary timber. It is said that they do not attack creosoted timber, and about 80 per cent of this line is now laid with creosoted Oregon pine ties, which, it is stated, have a life of from seven to eight years.

The roadway and track materials for the Kwangtung line that are not of Chinese manufacture came from American sources. The rail and fastenings were furnished from the Han-Yeh-Ping Works.

ROLLING STOCK,

As with the roadway and track materials, it is rather difficult to cover by a clear statement the situation with regard to rolling stock on these lines.

The equipment on the Wuchang section conforms, in general, to British specifications and practices, and, although the last locomotives bought were of American manufacture, they were built to meet British specifications. This point gave rise to much controversy as to the interpretation of the terms of the loan agreement; the matter should be fully clarified in the making of any future joint loans.

The original equipment of the Pinghsiang section was practically all of American manufacture and, as in the case of the road and track material, the German engineer in charge of the mines and of this line has largely substituted equipment of German manufacture.

The equipment on the Samshui line is mostly of American manufacture. The first three engines were small secondhand locomotives formerly used on the Manhattan Elevated Railways in New York. These are still in service. This line at present has 6 large and 3 small locomotives, 33 passenger cars, 29 freight cars, and 3 service cars.

The Kwangtung line has 21 locomotives, 35 passenger cars, and 195 freight cars. Fifty-nine of the freight cars came from the Tongshan shops of the Peking-Mukden Railway, and most of the other equipment is of American manufacture, particularly the locomotives. A good many of the freight cars were originally used for construction and the handling of ballast but are now being employed for commercial traffic.

WORKSHOPS.

The new section of this line has complete and up-to-date shops at Wuchang, which are capable of handling all classes of repair work for the 264 miles of line, although the old shops of the Pinghsiang section will probably be continued in service.

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The shops of the Samshui section are small and have relatively little equipment, but they seem to be capable of handling the repairs for this short line.

The Kwangtung line has small shops in temporary buildings near Canton, but these are less capable than the Samshui shops of handling all classes of repair work necessary for the maintenance of the equipment.

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.

The Wuchang section is under the general supervision of the director general of the Hukuang Railways, Dr. Jeme Tien-Yow, the well-known Chinese civil engineer, whose headquarters are at Hankow. The administration of this section is in the hands of a managing director located at Wuchang, and the present technical staff is largely British, in accordance with the terms of the loan. The former staff of the Pinghsiang section has been merged with this staff and the separate organization discontinued.

There is a managing director and a small staff of Chinese for the Canton-Samshui line, with headquarters at Canton. There is also a director, a small staff of Chinese, and an American advisory engineer for the Kwangtung line, with headquarters at Canton. For directories of the officials of these lines, see pages 265 and 266.

PURCHASE OF STORES.

The purchases for the Wuchang section are handled by the chief storekeeper (British), who is located at Wuchang. The purchases of material for the construction of this line were made under the terms of the Hukuang Railway loan agreement, concerning which there has been considerable controversy, as already mentioned. It is probable that there will be a continuance of the preference given to materials of British origin

after those from Chinese sources. Chief Engineer Johnson (Chinese) of the Samshui line has charge of technical matters and recommends purchases, which are made through the managing director of this line, located at Canton.

On the Kwangtung line the director, Mr. K. H. Au, appears to have full authority in the matter of purchases. Mr. D. S. Williams (American) acts in an advisory capacity in this connection. CANTON-KOWLOON (CHUI-KUANG) RAILWAY (CHINESE SECTION).

LOCATION AND EXTENT. This is the line between Canton and the British colony of Hongkong and is in two sections. The British section starts at Kowloon, opposite the city of Victoria on the island of Hongkong (there is a ferry connection between these cities), and runs through the leased territory of Kowloon to Sam.chun, a distance of 22 miles.

The Chinese section starts at Samchun and runs to the southeastern part of the Chinese city of Canton, a distance of 89 miles, making a total of 111 miles from Kowloon to Canton. A line around the city of Canton has been suggested in connection with the Kwangtung line, but no action has been taken toward the actual construction of this link.

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