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and a loan of $500,000 was made from the Bank of Communications, which institution is under the direction of the Ministry of Communications. By 1914 only the present length of line had been constructed and further subscriptions from the merchants could not be secured. About this time the project, in some way, was transferrod to the Ministry of Communications; the owners of the debentures made some claims on account of their interest, but these seem to have been disallowed. Since that time the line has been operated i as one of the Chinese Government Railways, under the direction of the Ministry of Communications, It is generally understood that a Japanese loan is now held against this line and that any further extensions will be financed by the Japanese.

OPERATING REVENUES AND EXPENSES-FUTURE PROSPECTS.

There seems to be no funded debt on this line, but operating revenues were insufficient to meet operating expenses for both 1915 and 1916, and after the payment of all income charges there was a deficit of more than $150,000--this with less than $50,000 operating revenues for both these years.

This line is entirely disconnected and many miles away from any of the other Chinese Government Railways, and it is not likely that it will be extended beyond Changchow for some years, although it was first planned to build this line to Chaochow, where it would connect with the privately owned line from Swatow to Chaochowfu, which project, in turn, may be extended to connect with the CantonKowloon at Shikling, near the Canton end of this latter line. The building of these extensions is probably remote, especially as they are both paralleled by ocean transportation lines.

ROADWAY AND TRACK MATERIALS-ROLLING STOCK.

The rails for this line were furnished from the Han-Yeh-Ping Works, the ties were purchased from Japan, and the bridges and other track materials came from American sources.

Of the first two locomotives, one was of American manufacture and the other German. The remainder of the rolling stock is largely of American manufacture,

ADMINISTRATION AND PURCHASE OF STORES.

The administration of this line at present is under a managing director, Mr. Wang Ching Hsien, with headquarters at Amoy. A very small Chinese staff is employed in the maintenance and operation of the line. All purchases are made under the direction of the managing director.

V. CHINESE PRIVATE RAILWAYS.1

SUNNING (HSINNING) RAILWAY,

LOCATION AND EXTENT.

This line, which is very frequently spoken of by foreigners as tho Hsinning Railway (its Chinese name), runs through the Province of Kwangtung from Kongmoon to the harbor of Samkaphoi, a short distance southwest of the Portuguese settlement of Macao. The length of the line is about 67 miles, and it is stated that a population of considerably more than one million people is now served directly by this line. Sunning and Kungyi are two of the larger towns served in this densely populated district.

Some extensions are contemplated, one of which has already been mentioned in connection with the Samshui line to extend from Fatshan to Kongmoon, a distance of something more than 40 miles. It would seem that a system combining the Sunning Railway, the Samshui line and the contemplated extensions might be electrified and be made to yield unusually good returns, like the electric lines in the Osaka industrial district of Japan. This suggestion will be referred to later (see p. 252).

HISTORICAL SURVEY.

This railway is the only real example of private railway enterprise in China depending on the individual initiative of one man. The line has been financed, constructed, and operated by Mr. Hee Chin-Gee, who was formerly a resident of Seattle, Wash., worked on the Great Northern Railway, returned to China some years ago, and has since devoted all his time to this project, although he is now quite an elderly man.

The first section built, from Kungyi to Sunning, a distance of 15 miles, was opened in January, 1908, and since that time extensions have been added from Kungyi to Kongmoon and from Sunning to Samkaphoi, making a total mileage of something more than 67 miles. The original Sunning company had a capital of $2,660,000; this was later increased to $4,360,120, of which $1,000,000 represents loans from Chinese merchants, particularly from Mr. Hee's Hongkong friends. Mr. Hee claims that the project now represents an investment of about $4,500,000 and that the road has, in general, paid well. He also states he could use about $3,000,000 Mex. in making extensions that would not only pay well themselves, but would also make the existing line show increased earnings. This line is characterizeil by a number of features that were designed to conform to Chinese beliefs with regard to grades and the crossing of ponds and streams, one result being some rather sharp curvatures in the alignment.

The Kwangtung Yueh-Han Railway Co. (Ltd.) has been referred to at length as part of the Cant17Hankow Railway system, although at present it is privately operated and is so shown in the table un page 43.

The greater part of the earnings are from passenger traffic, but sufficient freight traffic has been developed to show the possibility of such lines if the enterprise of private ownership is put behind the development of the traffic.

ROADWAY AND TRACK MATERIALS-ROLLING STOCK-WORKSHOPS.

The rail is mostly 60-pound. Some of the first came from Belgium and Germany. In recent years preference has been given to Chinese materials, and next, to those of American manufacture.

The present rolling stock consists of 15 locomotives (12 American and 3 German), about 50 passenger cars, and about 100 freight cars. These last are largely of American manufacture, although equipped with side buffers and the screw-ball type of couplers. Two of the locomotives were recently furnished by one of the large American locomotive companies.

There are small shops at Sunning for the making of repairs to this equipment.

ADMINISTRATION AND PURCHASE OF STORES.

Mr. Hee is president and general manager, and the railway is run entirely under his direction with the assistance of a small Chinese staff. He has an office in Hongkong where he spends a portion of his time. Mr. Hee gives his personal attention to all purchases, most of which are made when he is in Hongkong.

SWATOW-CHAOCHOW (CHAO-SHAN) RAILWAY.

LOCATION AND EXTENT.

This line starts at a point on one of the branches of the Han River across from the city of Swatow, and runs in a northerly direction to Yeekai, a distance of about 27 miles. Yeekai is about 3 miles past Chaochow, a city of some 400,000 people. The population of Swatow is estimated at about 31,000, of whom several hundred are foreigners.

HISTORY.

The Chaochow & Swatow Railway Co. (Ltd.), a distinctly Chinese company, was organized about 1903, when concessions were granted to a Chinese merchant named Chang Yu-nan, who had amassed a fortune in Java. The company is registered under the Hongkong ordinances and has a director residing there.

Construction work was started in 1904 and carried out under the direction and management of the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha (Japanese). The line was completed in November, 1906.

The business consists la rgely of passenger traffic, and only a small amount of freight is carried. This is largely on account of the fact that the line competes at all points with the Han River transportation lines.

EARNING CAPACITY.

It is stated that in some years this railway does not pay operating expenses. No dividends have ever been paid, and it is not probable that the line will show a profit until extensions are built to develop districts where water competition will not prevail, particularly for the handling of freight. It appears that this is a district where electrified lines would be much better adapted to serve the traffic, a large part of which, in any event, would be passenger business.

EQUIPMENT-ADMINISTRATION.

The track materials came mostly from American sources. The ties are Japanese hardwoods. The line was cheaply constructed, with a small amount of ballast.

Most of the rolling stock is of American manufacture.

The line is under the administration of a managing director general, Mr. Chong Hong Nam, who is located at Swatow. Mr. W. T. Ching is secretary. Purchases are made by the managing director general.

VI. CHINESE PROVINCIAL RAILWAYS."

INTRODUCTION,

The earlier railways whose construction was undertaken with Chinese capital were largely of the class that has been called provincial. These generally encountered financial difficulties of some sort in the course of time and have generally disappeared as provincial projects. Most of them have been taken over by the Ministry of Communications as Chinese Government Railways. The following are the only ones left, and it is unlikely that any provincial railways of any large importance will be undertaken in the future. .

KIANGSI (NAN-SHAN) RAILWAY.

LOCATION AND EXTENT.

This line starts at the Yangtze River port of Kiukiang and runs in a southerly direction a distance of about 87 miles to Nanchang, at the mouth of the Kan River, at the head of steam navigation on Poyang Lake.

The extension of this line has been mentioned in connection with the Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Railway (see p. 106).

HISTORICAL SURVEY.

This line was first projected in 1904. The funds were to be raised by native debenture subscriptions and by increasing the provincial salt tax. The project finally received official sanction, including permission from the Board of Commerce to raise capital by the issuance of lottery tickets. But these efforts resulted in building only part of the present line, and in 1912 resort was had to loans from the Japanese Bank of Taiwan, which finally made possible the completion of the present line of 87 miles. This Japanese loan has been much objected to by the local merchants and gentry who have interests in the project.

The construction was under the direction of Japanese engineers, and the first 20-mile section was opened for service in December, 1910. The line to Nanchang was opened the latter part of 1915, but with one bridge incomplete, where traffic had to be transferred. It is understood that the Japanese loan carries the right to finance any other extensions that can not be taken care of by native subscription.

TRAFFIC AND PROFITS.

No reliable data are obtainable regarding the traffic and revenues of this line, but from investigation on the ground it would seem that earnings depend on passenger traffic rather than freight business, and, as this line is paralleled throughout its entire length by the Poyang

1 The Tsitsihar (Angangki) Light Railway is a typical Chinese provincialrailway, but, on account ofits being located in Manchuria and connected with the Chinese Eastern Railway, it is shown with the Man. churian group of railways on page 219.

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