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Lake transportation lines, the conclusion seems warranted that profitable business will not develop until the line is extended, particularly as outlined in connection with the Shanghai-HangchowNingpo Railway. No information was obtained as to actual official results, but it is understood that the line has shown no net profit to date.

EQUIPMENT AND PURCHASES.

The roadway and track materials are almost entirely from Chinese, Japanese, and American sources-largely the last-named.

All the locomotives and a large part of the passenger and freight cars are of American manufacture.

The head office of this railway is at Kiukiang, and the present staff is partly Chinese and partly Japanese. Considerable preference is probably given at the present time to material from Japanese sources.

NANKING CITY RAILWAY.

LOCATION AND EXTENT.

This is what might be considered a heavy steam tramway using ordinary steam-railway equipment. It starts on the bank of the Yangtze River near the landing hulks of the Yangtze River lines and not far from the Nanking terminal passenger station of the ShanghaiNanking Railway. It runs a distance of about 8 miles to the center of the Chinese city of Nanking, which at one time was the capital of the Chinese Empire.

The greater part of the line is inside the walled city. It passes through the wall at a point less than 2 miles from the terminal on the bank of the Yangtze River.

HISTORY.

Mr. Tuan Fang, then viceroy of the Liang Kiang Provinces, built the line out of provincial funds, and it has been known as the “Viceroy's Railway.” The line was first opened for traffic in August, 1908. Mr. Leeme (British) was the engineer in charge of construction. The gauge of the track is 4 feet 8] inches.

EQUIPMENT AND TRAFFIC.

The roadway and track materials seem to have come from various sources, but å considerable amount is of American manufacture. This line has only a small amount of rolling stock. The two locomotives are of American manufacture. The freight and passenger cars were formerly used on the Woosung branch of the ShanghaiNanking Railway

before this branch was taken over by the present administration. This equipment was refitted with Janney couplers and Westinghouse air brakes. When the writer inspected the line only one engine was in service; the other was undergoing badly needed repairs. The rolling stock was in a more or less run-down condition, as was the track also.

The traffic is mostly passenger business, and during the recent political troubles the use of the line has been largely monopolized by the provincial military authorities. It is understood that the lino does not meet operating expenses—to say nothing of showing any profit--and this condition has prevailed for some time.

VII. CHINESE INDUSTRIAL RAILWAYS.

INTRODUCTION.

The following account does not attempt to cover all the short industrial railways that may exist in China at present. In the case of those mentioned, the information was obtained chiefly in connection with the industries that the lines serve. In each instance the lines discussed may in time come to assume much more importance than they possess at present, on account of the probable growth of the industries served and the fact that in the future such concerns will probably be required to provide most, if not all, of their industrial-railway facilities.

The prediction seems justified that, in the future railway development of China, the Ministry of Communications will largely direct, if not entirely control, the construction and operation of all commercial railways, although, in conformity with the present policy, branch railways may be occasionally built and in some instances operated by provincial or private interests. But it will be only a question of time until the control of all commercial railways will pass to the Ministry of Communications. It is felt, however, not only that industrial railways such as the following will be under the control of the industries served, but also that there will be a growing tendency to force the industries to build their own railways—including, in special instances, branches of considerable length.

TAYEH RAILWAY (HAN-YEH-PING CO.).

LOCATION AND OWNERSHIP.

This is a railway of 2-foot gauge, from the ore-shipping port of Hwangchow on the Yangtze River to the Sztse-Shan and Tieh-Shan mines, generally known as the Tayeh iron deposits. The present line is 17 miles in length, with a considerable amount of tracks at each terminal, particularly at the mines. The Han-Yeh-Ping interests are in charge of these operations, although the mines are supposedly worked for the Chinese Government. The writer was unable to ascertain the details of the arrangement. The products of these mines are depended upon entirely for the operations of the HanYeh-Ping Iron and Steel Works at Hanyang (Hankow); a considerable amount of the ore goes to the Japanese Imperial Steel Works at the port of Wakamatsu near Moji; and there are in course of construction two 400-ton blast furnaces on the Yangtze River near the present terminal of this line, which will also depend on these ores.

TRAFFIC AND EQUIPMENT.

The traffic of this line consists almost entirely in the handling of these ores; it is very heavy for this 2-foot-gauge railway, with its present small equipment. A number of the locomotives and some of the other rolling stock are of American manufacture, but most of

this equipment has been in service for a number of years and is now more or less obsolete, considering the advance in recent years in industrial railway equipment for the handling of iron ores. It seems probable that this railway will have to be largely rebuilt and a considerable amount of additional equipment provided to handle this growing, important traffic.

MANAGEMENT.

The line is under the management of a superintendent, Mr. C. Y. Wang (Chinese). Several members of the technical staff are Japanese. The chairman of the Han-Yeh-Ping interests is Mr. Sun Pao Chi, and the general business manager is Mr. Wong Kokshan, both of whom are located in the company's Shanghai office at 36 Szechwan Road. Mr. Wong Kokshan has general direction of all purchases for the Han-Yeh-Ping interests, which include the Tayeh iron mines, the Pinghsiang coal mines, and the iron and steel plant at Hanyang (Hankow). Mr. S. O'Hara, Grosvenor Mansions, 76 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S. W., is resident agent in England for these interests.

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KAILAN MINING ADMINISTRATION RAILWAYS (KAIPING COAL FIELD).

LOCATION. These are branches of 4-foot 81-inch gauge, connecting the mines and works of the Kailan Mining Administration with the PekingMukden Railway where the latter passes through the Kaiping Basin, which lies between the stations of Tangshan and Kuyeh, 168 and 183 miles, respectively, northeast of Tientsin. These branch rail are used entirely for the handling of this concern's products.

The Kaiping Basin covers an area of about 95 square miles and is intersected by the Peking-Mukden Railway at the above points. The coal of the “Permo-Carboniferous” beds is deposited in some 13 seams, with a total thickness of from 40 to 60 feet at the Tangshan shafts in the southwestern part of the basin, 60 to 80 feet at the Machiako, 80 to 90 feet at the Chaokochwang shafts in the southwestcentral and north-central parts of the basin, and 40 to 50 feet at the Linsi shaft in the northeastern part of the basin. The proving has shown that there are about 1,000,000,000 tons of coal in this mining concession. These coal deposits are underlaid with seams of good fire clay.

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HISTORICAL SURVEY.

The coal and fire-clay outcrops of the Kaiping Basin have no doubt been known and worked by Chinese methods for several thousand years. The present administration came into existence July 1, 1912, by the amalgamation of the Chinese Engineering & Mining Co. (Ltd.), a British company registered in London, and the more recent native concern known as the Lanchow Mining Co. This combination has a share capital of £2,000,000 and, in addition, an issue of £1,200,000 of 6 per cent debentures. As already mentioned, the Tangshan mine was first opened in 1878 in connection with the mule tramway, 7 miles long, that was later extended until it became the Peking-Mukden Railway system. This is the oldest mine in China using modern methods. The Machiako mine represented the first operation of the Lanchow Mining Co. There are now five sets of mining operations, with the following daily capacity: Tangshan,

2,200 tons (of 2,240 pounds); Tangshan North West, 800 tons; Machiako, 2,500 tons; Chaokochwang, 2,500 tons; Linsi, 2,500 tons; total capacity, 10,500 tons.

OUTPUT OF MINES--NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

The annual output of these mines is about 3,250,000 long tons of reasonably good bituminous coal, of which about 100,000 tons are at present converted into coke. This concern also produces a very considerable quantity of fire bricks, floor tiles, glazed tiles, stone piping, and similar fire-clay products. It appears proper to mention in this connection that the works of the Chee Hsing Cement Co. (Ltd.) are located in the Kaiping Basin near Tangshan.

The total number of employees in the administration mines is about 25,000, of which 14,000 are underground workers, 6,000 overground, 1,000 in the fire-clay works, and 2,500 at the docks (particularly at Chinwangtao)-leaving about 1,500 miscellaneous employees.

MANAGEMENT.

Mr. Yuan Ke Fung is director-general of the administration. Maj. S. W. Nathan, R. Ë., is general manager in general charge of ali departments. The head Chinese office is in Meadow Road, Î'ientsin. Mr. A. Docquier, located at Tangshan, is engineer-in-chief and directly in charge of operations in the field.

EXTENSIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS. The writer learned from authoritative sources that this concern contemplates the expenditure of about £2,000,000 after the end of the war, in extensions and improved by-product methods. The future prospects of this project seem very bright, and one appears entirely warranted in saying that, with the large deposits of reasonably good coal controlled by this concession, the short railway haul (averaging a little more than 75 miles) to the ice-free port of Chinwangtao, the very large markets easily reached by ocean shipping, and the ample supply of robust labor in the district, this concern should find a ready market for any increased production. These conditions seem to point to large profits in the future, justifying this very considerable expenditure in extensions and improvements.

TAI-TSAO RAILWAY (CHING HSING COAL CO.). This line is located in the southern part of the Province of Shantung, connecting the coal mines north of Yihsien with the Grand Canal. Connections are also made with the Tientsin-Pukow RailThere are about 27 miles of railway, of 4-foot 81-inch

gauge, and the concern has a large coal yard and wharf at its terminal on the Grand Canal.

All materials and equipment are of German manufacture. The head office is at No. 8 Taku Road, Tientsin, Mr. C. von Hanneken and Mr. Hsu Shi Kang were the directors of this enterprise before China entered the war, All the other officials were Germans, and it is understood that the enterprise was largely financed with German capital, though there were supposed to be a number of Chinese shareholders.

So far as can be learned, no extensions or improvements are contemplated. It was impossible to get definite information regarding the probable future of this development.

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VIII. FOREIGN-CONCESSION RAILWAYS.

INTRODUCTION.

Five different railways come under the above classification, as shown by the table on page 43. The British section of the CantonKowloon Railway has already been covered (see p. 116). The Chinese Eastern Railway and the South Manchuria system, both of which are in Manchuria, will be included in the discussion of the Manchurian group of railways. This leaves the French Indo-China line from Haiphong to Yunnanfu (287 miles of which is in the Chinese Province of Yunnan) and the Shantung (Santo) Railway, through the Province of Shantung, formerly a German line but now under the control and management of the Japanese.

As already stated, these concessions, with the exception of the Canton-Kowloon, were exacted from China during the Battle for Concessions," the lines were built with foreign funds, and they have been operated entirely in the interest of the foreign countries concerned. In all instances except that of the Canton-Kowloon the concessionaires have claimed the right to investigate and develop the resources of the regions traversed by the railways, particularly coal and other mineral deposits.

YUNNAN (TIEN-YUEH) RAILWAY.

LOCATION AND EXTENT.

This line is located in Yunnan, one of the southwestern Provinces of China, lying next to Indo-China. This railway crosses the Tongking border at Laokai and runs in a northwesterly direction to Yunnanfu, the capital of Yunnan, a distance of 287 miles. The section of the line in French territory starts at the seaport of Haiphong and runs in a northwesterly direction through Hanoi, the capital of Tongking, to Laokai, a distance of 248 miles, making the total length of the lines 535 miles. There are no branches in Chinese territory.

HISTORICAL SURVEY.

The history of the Chinese section of the Yunnan Railway is closely connected with that of the French Railway in Tongking. The first railway in Tongking was of 60-centimeter (23.56-inch) gauge, and extended from Langson on the Kwangsi-Tongking border to Phulangthuong (Kent's “Railway Enterprise in China"). This line was later changed to meter gauge when extended to Hanoi. It is now the Hanoi-Langson section of the French Indo-China Railways and is the line that has been suggested to extend to Lungchowfu and from this point to Nanning, the capital of the Province of Kwangsi. The first step toward the present meter-gauge lines was

. taken in the latter part of 1897 by M. Doumer, the new Governor General, who had assumed his duties in the early part of that year. He submitted to the Conseil Supérieure of Indo-China a scheme involving the construction of some 2,000 miles of line, which was

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