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ORGANIZATION OF CHINESE GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS.

As already stated, the Ministry of Communications is organized for the regulation rather than for participation in the administration of the railways. At present there is a closer supervision of the accounts than of any other branch of the railway department, with a tendency toward extending the supervision or direction of purchases, which may, in the course of time, be centralized in Peking so far as the loan agreements will permit this to be done. General regulations governing the organization, grading of salaries, free travel, and similar matters are promulgated from time to time.

The following is a translation from the Chinese text of the regulations promulgated August 31, 1916, covering the organization for the construction period and for maintenance and operation after the completion of construction. It represents, in general, the organization now in effect on all the principal railways coming under the direction of the Ministry of Communications. It should be understood that these regulations are in no way effective on any of the foreign railways.

1. Previous to the establishment of the official system the organization of Government railway offices shall be in accordance with these regulations.

2. Administration oífices and construction offices of Government railways shall be under the immediate control of the Ministry of Communications. The names of such offices and the lines under their control will be designated in the regulations governing the organization of those offices.

3. Railway administration offices shall have charge of the traffic, maintenance, business, and accounts of the whole line and of all other matters pertaining thereto.

The extension of new lines and the addition of branch lines shall be carried out by the administration offices concerned.

4. Railway administration offices shall establish the following departments for the management of the affairs listed in article 3: (1) General department, (2) traffic department, (3) engineering department, (4) locomotive department, and (5) accounts department.

These departments may, according to special circumstances existing in a particular administration office, be combined, or the duties of a particular department may be attended to by an officer of another department.

5. Railway construction offices shall have charge of the survey, construction, establishment, and accounts of the whole line and of all matters pertaining thereto.

In case traffic is commenced on one section before the construction of the whole line is completed, the traffic business shall be managed by the construction office. Upon the completion of construction work the construction office shall be changed to an administration office.

6. Railway construction offices shall establish the following departments for the management of the affairs listed in article 5: (1) General department, (2) engineering department, and (3) accounts department.

Construction work may be divided into sections and a construction department created.

The provisions given in paragraph 2 of article 4 may be applied to railway construction offices.

Upon the commencement of traffic on any one section a traffic department may be established for the management of that business.

7. The officers of an administration office or a construction office shall be as follows: Director, assistant director, chief of construction department, chiefs of departments, chiefs of subdepartments, general officers, chiefs of sections, assistant chiefs of sections, station masters, assistant station masters, chiefs of train squads, chief engineer, engineers, engineering assistants.

There are chiefs and assistant chiefs of sections in the traffic, engineering, and locomotive departments. There are engineers and engineering assistants in the engineering and locomotive departments.

The officers listed in paragraph 1 may be appointed according to the individual requirements of the railway offices.

8. The director of a railway shall be appointed by the Minister of Communications and shall receive his orders from the Minister of Communications regarding all matters concerning his railway and shall have supervision of all subordinate officers under him.

9. The assistant director of a railway shall be appointed by the Minister of Communications to assist the director in the management of affairs.

10. The chief engineer, chief of construction department, and chiefs of departments shall be appointed by the Minister of Communications and shall obey the orders of their superior officers in the management of the affairs of their respective departments.

11. Chiefs of subdepartments, engineers, and chiefs of sections shall be appointed by the Minister of Communications upon the recommendation of the director and shall obey the orders of their superior officers in the performance of their respective duties.

12. General officers, assistant chiefs of sections, station masters, assistant station masters, and engineering assistants shall be appointed by the director, but all such appointments shall be reported to the Minister of Communications for record.

13. Railway administration offices and railway construction offices, according to the length of the line and the amount of business, shall be classified as first-class, secondclass, or third-class offices. The grading of these offices and the number of officers in them will be defined in a separate table.

14. Railway administration and construction offices may employ such clerks and writers as may be required.

15. Regulations governing the appointment of officers of Government railway offices, their grading, salaries, and the employment of clerks and writers, will be promulgated separately.

16. Any provisions in these regulations that may be in conflict with mandates or agreements concerning Government railways ma" be considered as void in these special cases.

17. These regulations shall take effect one month from the date of promulgation.

The salaries of officers are governed by regulations issued by the Ministry of Communications. Station masters (station agents), assistant station masters, and chiefs of train squads (train conductors) are ranked as officials. The following is a translation from the Chinese text of the regulations now in effect on the Government railways, issued under date of October 20, 1916, and effective November 1 of that year:

1. The salaries of all officers of Government railways, except those engaged under contracts, shall be paid in accordance with these regulations.

2. The salaries of officers of Government railways shall be divided into 48 grades, in accordance with the form showing the grading of monthly salaries.

3. Officers of Government railways are classified as follows: Officers of first-class offices shall be paid according to classification No. 1. Officers of second-class offices shall be paid according to classification No. 2. Officers of third class offices shall be paid according to classification No. 3. 4. The grading of directors, assistant directors, chief engineers, chiefs of construction departments, chiefs of traffic, locomotive, engineering, and accounts departments shall be determined by the Minister of Communications. The grading of chiefs of subdepartments, engineers, and chiefs of sections shall be determined by the Minister of Communications on the recommendation of the director. The grading of general officers, assistant chiefs of sections, station masters, assistant station masters, chiefs of train squads, and engineering assistants shall be determined by the director, but shall be reported to the Minister of Communications for record.

5. In the grading of officers of Government railways the Minister of Communications or the directors shall consider the work of the officer, his qualifications, his performance of duty, and the results attained in his work. Promotion above the twenty-seventh grade will not be made for service of less than one year, and below the twenty-seventh grade for less than half a year's service.

The directors shall report to the Minister of Communications all promotions of officers under them.

6. Directors, assistant directors, chiefs of construction departments, and chief engineers may be given special allowances. The amounts shall be determined by the Minister of Communications but shall not exceed half a month's salary.

7. In the matter of traveling allowances the directors shall follow the rules as fixed by the Ministry of Finance governing the traveling expenses of Government officials.

8. There shall be detailed regulations governing the payment of salaries and deduction of salary for absence.

9. These regulations shall take effect from November 1.

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FIG. 7.-TYPICAL WAY STATION ON THE GERMAN-BUILT RAILWAYS IN CHINA.

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FIG, 8.-TYPICAL WAY STATION ON THE CHINESE-BUILT PEKING-SUTYUAN RAILWAY.

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FIG. 9.–OVERHEAD FOOTBRIDGE BETWEEN TRACKS AT TSINANFU ON THE

TIENTSIN-PUKOW RAILWAY.

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FIG. 10.-OVERHEAD FOOTBRIDGE BETWEEN TRACKS AT TANGSHAN ON

THE PEKING-MUKDEN RAILWAY.

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FIG. 11.-TYPICAL CHINESE GRAVEYARD AT TANGSHAN.

The monthly salaries of officers of Government Railways are:

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The following table shows the classification of salaries on the Chinese Government Railways:

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NOTE.-Chiefs of shops in railways of the first class may be graded up to the eleventh grade, those in railways of the second class to the fifteenth grade, and those in railways of the third class to the eighteenth grade.

For each of the principal Chinese Government Railways the Ministry has outlined a detailed administrative organization. The following is a translation from the Chinese text of the regulations promulgated October 20, 1916, for the Peking-Mukden Railway. These are similar to the regulations issued for the other lines, such as the Tientsin-Pukow and Peking-Hankow:

1. The Peking-Mukden Railway administration office shall have charge of the railway line between Peking and Mukden and its branch lines.

2. The Peking-Mukden Railway administration shall have charge of such matters as are outlined in article 3 of the regulations governing the organization of Government railways.

3. The Peking-Mukden railway administration shall, in accordance with the provisions of article 4 of the regulations governing the organization of Government railways, have the following departments: (1) General department, (2) traffic department, (3) engineering department, (4) locomotive department, and (5) accounts department.

4. The general department shall be divided into the following subdepartments for the distribution of work:

The secretarial department shall have charge of all clerical work, files, confidential matters, the seal, the receipt and dispatch of correspondence, and the efficiency records of all employees of the railway.

106229°—19-5

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