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but must have had a very high first cost, though it was impossible to obtain any data on that point. On account of the entire lack of any kind of timber for a supply of crossties, and in view of the large supply of iron ore and fuel, it would seem that the final solution of the crosstie problem in China is likely to be the use of a steel tie. One of the many desirable features of such ties would be the possibility of laying them on the subgrade and using them, at least temporarily, without ballast. Figures 14 and 15 show steel ties mentioned later in connection with the Samshui and the French Yunnan lipes.
The Han-Yeh-Ping steel works at Hankow are supposed to furnish all the rail and joint material required for the construction and renewals of the Chinese Government Railways, but because of the limited output (not exceeding 30,000 tons of rail a year), the rapidly growing demand for all kinds of iron and steel products has been so much beyond the capacity of this plant that a considerable amount of rail has been imported, and until there is an increased production this will probably continue to be the case in the future. On page 75 is shown the detailed section of an 85-pound rail, which can be considered the Chinese standard section and has been used on the Peking-Suiyuan, the British section of the Tientsin-Pukow, the northern section of the Canton-Hankow, the Shanghai-HangchowNingpo, and the Pienlo. As illustrating the restrictions resulting from some of the loan agreements it may be mentioned that, although the rail for the German section of the Tientsin-Pukow line was furnished from the Han-Yeh-Ping works, it was insisted that this be a German section weighing 67.3 pounds per yard. The Belgians used a 76-pound Belgian section on the Peking-Hankow Railway, and in several other instances special sections were required, with the wellknown disadvantages and expense to the steel company involved in providing special rolls.
The details of angle bars, joint bolts, and track spikes in general use are shown on page 75. This applies particularly to the lines on which the Chinese standard section of 85-pound rail is used. It will be noticed that the spike is the typical dog-eared British track spike, usually spoken of as a “dog spike." Except for the jarrah and apítong ties, it is not the rule to bore the spike holes or seat the rail. Screw spikes have been used on a very considerable portion of the PekingHankow line. Figures 20 and 21, facing page 77, show these screw spikes, and the application is very similar to the general American practice where tie plates are used. On the German section of the Tientsin-Pukow, German tie plates and screw spikes have been used that are different from those employed on any other line in China, and, again, on the pressed steel ties on the Shantung Railway & different fastening of German design was used
FROGS AND SWITCHES.
In the Chinese Government Railways system of uniform accounts, points and crossings (frogs and switches), signals and interlocking gear, and electric staff apparatus all come under one construction account, which is divided into three subaccounts. The design of
switch stand shown in figure 20 is in very general use on all the lines, although in some instances the lever throws parallel to the track instead of across as on this line, the Peking-Hankow. All the other materials coming under this account conform, in general, to the practice of the country furnishing the loan funds for the construction of the line. Figure 20 shows a typical construction of switch used on all the German, Belgian, and French lines. These are made from a heavy rolled form, which is planed down, making a very robust switch point; and it will be noticed that the installation is substantial with a heavy iron plate extending the entire length of the point. The frogs used are of the same general design. The British design of points and crossings is very similar to the American switch-and-frog practice. There is a growing tendency for all the lines to manufacture their own switches, frogs, and switch stands in their own workshops and, in doing so, to follow the general lines of the British practice. Figure 21 shows one of the various types of derailers; there is a very great variety of these, but in nearly all instances they might be called “home-made' devices.
Thus far very few anticreepers or rail anchors have been used on any of the Chinese Government Railways, but it is apparent at many places that their use would be very beneficial, although rock ballast in fairly liberal quantities has been used on many of the lines. The Shanghai-Nanking Railway has used some rail anchors with satisfactory results.
AMOUNT OF ROLLING STOCK.
One of the great needs of the Chinese Government Railways at present is a very considerable increase in freight cars and locomotives. On the Peking-Mukden Railway there has been an increase of 50 per cent in freight traffic in the last five years, with only a 22 per cent increase in freight cars and a 21 per cent increase in locomotives to handle this growing business. The following table shows a comparison of rolling stock:
42, 700 671,096 2,277,970
United States (1916)....
.26 104, 290