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total sum of various relative truths. This was what they had discussed, and this is what many philosophers have mentioned. I say that I have never seen "house" and I have never eaten “fruit." What I have seen is the Great Hall of the People, or such things like the Beijing Hotel where you are staying. Except for these things, the so-called "house" is something that you cannot see. I have not eaten “fruit." Probably you have, but I have not. I have not had peach, or pear, or apple. These are all very special names. All apples - big apples and small apples; apples produced in this province, and apples produced in that province; apples from this country, and apples from that country the final analysis apples. "Fruit" is an abstract concept, although it is impossible to leave abstract concepts aside. Therefore, to follow people's customs, we may still say that we eat fruit, or say that we live in houses. Lenin points out that the specific is one aspect or one part of the general. For example, Comrade Hill, you have a very common name, and there are people with the surname Hill everywhere. Where did the name come from?

Hill: According to the tradition in England, people often take the place where they live as their name. The name Hill probably came from people who lived on a hill. For another example, there is a name Mill, which probably comes from those whose work was related to the mill.

Mao Zedong: Do you have people with the surname Water in your country?

Hill: Yes.

Mao Zedong: In China, there are the surnames Sui (water) and Jin (gold). But there is no such surname Yin (silver) in China, though Silver is a surname in foreign countries. In China there is also the surname Tian (field).

Zhou Enlai: Even the surname Xi (tin).
Hill: This is quite similar to tradition in England.
Mao Zedong: Is Stone a surname in your country?
Hill: Yes.

Mao Zedong: The situations in China and in other countries are quite similar, and many surnames come from feudal states in ancient times. For example, my surname is Mao, which came from a small state about 2,000 years ago under the rule of a dynasty. It was the Zhou Dynasty, Comrade Zhou Enlai's Zhou. (Pointing to Yao Wenyuan) Your surname is Yao, and you are the descendent of Emperor Yao. You are a descendant of an Emperor. In reality, whether or not Emperor Yao ever existed is a question.

Yao: It was legendary.

Mao Zedong: There is no evidence for the existence of Emperor Yao, Emperor Shun, or Da Yu.21 Probably there were some tribes with those names at that time.

Zhou Enlai: And they have changed from legendary figures to historical figures.

Mao Zedong: It is said that the Zhou, which had only about 3,000 slaves, defeated the state ruled by King Zhou of the Yin,22 which had several hundred thousand slaves. You see, how did we shift our discussion from the war issue to historical issues?

Hill: It is a pleasure to discuss them anyway.
Mao Zedong: Have you been to the United States?

Hill: No. They do not welcome a person like me and refuse to issue me a visa.

Mao Zedong: How about Europe?
Hill: That is OK.

Mao Zedong: Do you need a visa to travel from
Australia to Britain?

Hill: In the past we did not need a visa. But now permission is required mainly because of labor laws. This is a problem concerning labor. For example, if I want to travel to Britain, I must first go to the British consul's office to have my passport stamped, proving what I am going to do in Britain.

Mao Zedong: What do you tell them?

Hill: During my last two visits, I had legitimate reasons. So long as you tell them that you are a tourist and that you will be staying there only for a limited time period, they will approve your application. However, the change indicates that Great Britain has been declining. In the past traveling (from Australia to Britain was completely (dependent) upon one's free will. But now procedures have changed.

Mao Zedong: I am told that this is for solving the problem of unemployment. Britain has been sending its people to Canada, and sometimes also sends its people to the United States. Do they also send people to your country?

Hill: Yes, there are many British residents immigrating to Australia.

Mao Zedong: I do not mean immigration. I mean whether or not they still send people to your country now.

Hill: Yes, there are still people moving from Britain to Australia now. But they are not sent by the government; they move there by themselves.

Mao Zedong: The British government allows them to do so?

Hill: Not just allow, but even encourage.

Mao Zedong: This is for reducing the pressure on employment in its own country. I am told that the population in your country has doubled in thirty years, from six million to twelve million.

Hill: That is correct.

Mao Zedong: How long does it take to fly from your country to Hong Kong?

Hill: More than ten hours by air. The distance between Australia and Hong Kong is about 4,500 miles, which is equal to more than 7,000 kilometers.

Mao Zedong: In my opinion, the world needs to be unified. There are miles, kilometers, and sea miles, and there are also so many different languages. It is difficult to unify the language immediately, but if the world is unified these problems can be solved. In the past, many, including the Mongols, the Romans in the West, Alexander the Great, Napoleon, and the British Empire, wanted to unify the world. Today, both the United States and the Soviet Union want to unify the world. Hitler wanted to unify the

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world. The Japanese wanted to unify the Pacific area. But they all failed. It seems to me that the possibility to unify the world has not disappeared. The capitalist system is forcing the peoples in the world to accept capitalism, and this is a way by which to unify the world. Another way is that the peoples of the world will rise to make revolution and then unite together. In my view, the world can be unified. Now the United States is maneuvering the United Nations. I am afraid that it is not easy for either the imperialists or the revisionists to unify the world. Can they make a nuclear war, by which they will almost eliminate the population of the world, and then let the United States and the Soviet Union unify the world? But these two countries have too small a population, and they will not have enough manpower if it is dispersed. Further, they are also afraid of fighting a nuclear war. They are not afraid of eliminating population in other countries, but they are afraid of their own population being eliminated. Those countries located in the second intermediate zone, such as Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Italy, are secondary powers. I am afraid that they are unwilling to fight a war. After all, I am afraid that we still must go the path directed by Marxism, first let peoples in various countries make revolution, and then freely unite together. Why is it necessary to have all these differences at this time? At first, the Americans loved to talk about cosmopolitanism, but later they no longer talked so much about it. In fact, they favor unifying the world. I have read your articles. The intrusion of American capital into your country has caused discontent with the Americans. There is a difference between the Vietnam War and the Korean War, that is, the European countries are not there. Britain, France, Turkey, and Belgium all participated in the Korean War. Let me put forward a question, I will try to answer it, and you will try to answer it. I will consider it, and I ask you also to consider it. This is an issue with worldwide significance. This is the issue about war. The issue about war and peace. Will we see a war, or will we see a revolution? Will the war give rise to revolution, or will revolution prevent war? All in all, now there is neither war nor revolution. Such a situation will not last long. Is it about the time to finish the meeting?

Hill: Thank you very much.

Mao Zedong: I am told that you are leaving tomorrow?

Hill: Yes:
Mao Zedong: Have a safe journey.

Hill: Thank you very much. I thank the Chairman and the Chinese Communist Party for inviting us to visit China again. This visit is of great value for me, and it is also a great inspiration for my comrades.

Mao Zedong: Is it valuable?

Hill: Yes, extremely valuable. I fully agree with the Chairman's opinions on the “absolute authority” issue, and I also fully agree with the Chairman's opinion about the “thoroughly establish" question. But I also feel that we have a very important task, that is, we should go all out to

spread and to apply Chairman Mao's thoughts. In this regard, we had not anticipated the great developments that have been achieved as we see it now.

Mao Zedong: We are planning to compile a collection of quotations by Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. (Pointing toward Chen Boda and others) You are compiling the collection. Do not make it too long. If it is too long, people will have no time to read it. But do not make it too short either, if it is too short their basic ideas cannot be reflected. For example, capitalism is war. It seems that this rule no longer works now.

Zhou Enlai: Certainly it still works. After the end of World War II, small wars have never ended.

Hill: Yes.

Mao Zedong: There were also big wars, such as China's War of Liberation.23

Hill: I have debated with the revisionists in Australia on this issue.

Mao Zedong: After World War I, there were China's Northern Expedition and the ten-year Land Revolution War.24 There was also the Spanish Civil War. (Pointing toward Zhou Enlai) Where did those five persons go?

Zhou Enlai: They were sent to Algeria by train.

Mao Zedong: We have five students in Morocco to study the language. The Moroccan government did not like these five students and expelled them. They were expelled to Algeria. Are they staying at our embassy?

Zhou Enlai: Yes, they are staying at our embassy. It (the Moroccan government) fears students.

Mao Zedong: Now some governments fear students very much. How can these five students be feared?

Yao Wenyuan: Somehow they also fear the Red Guards.

Mao Zedong: Let's stop here.

(Source: CCA)

Document No. 3 Mao Zedong's Comments on an Article by Commentator of Renmin ribao (People's Daily) and

Hongqi (Red Flag),25 January 1969

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Publish the article as it is. Nixon's [inaugural] speech should also be published in the paper.

(Source: Wenhua dageming yanjiu ziliao (Research Materials on the Great Cultural Revolution] (Beijing: National Defense University, 1988), vol. 2, p. 517.]

Document No. 4 Mao Zedong's Talk at a Meeting of the Central Cultural Revolution Group (Excerpt),26 15 March 1969

Mao Zedong: Every county should establish a (militia) regiment, this should be done all over the country. its opinions to the Chinese government through formal diplomatic channels.28 Mao Zedong's comments on Zhou Enlai's report:

[I] agree with the stand of the minute. Immediately prepare to hold diplomatic negotiations.

(Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao (Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the Formation of the People's Republic) (Beijing: The Central Press of Historical Documents, 1987-1997), vol. 13, p. 21.)

In a big county, three battalions should be established; in a middle-size county, two battalions; and in a small county, one battalion. During peacetime, they will stay in the locality; when the war breaks out, they will supplement the field army. When the war breaks out, it will not be enough to rely upon the annual conscription....

Mao Zedong: The northeast, the north, and the northwest should be prepared. Once we are prepared, if the enemy does not come, that does not matter. We are now confronted with a formidable enemy. It is advantageous to have the mobilization and the preparation. The Soviets know that we will not invade their country as it is so cold there. We will try to gain mastery by striking the enemy only after he has struck. Our nuclear bases should be prepared, be prepared for the enemy's air bombardment.

Lin Biao: The actions today [by the Soviet border forces]were directed by Moscow. It was initiated [by the commanders) on the front.

Mao Zedong: We protest, but they will not listen to us. Both sides are competing to gain time. They try to save face.

Document No. 6 Mao Zedong's Addition to Lin Biao's Political Report

at the Party's Ninth Congress, April 196929

With regard to the question of world war, there are but two possibilities: that the war will give rise to revolution and that revolution will prevent the war.

(Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, vol. 13, p.32.]

(Source: Zhonghua renmin gongheguo shilu (A Factual History of the People's Republic of China] (Changchun: Jilin People's Press, 1994), vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 467-469.]

Document No. 7 Report, Zhou Enlai to Mao Zedong and Lin Biao,

3 April 1969

Document No. 5 Zhou Enlai's Report to Mao Zedong and Mao's

Comments, 22 March 1969

Zhou Enlai's Report (main points)

During the evening of March] 22 the Soviet side has inquired several times about Chairman (Maol's phone number. The Soviet embassy in China also has visited our foreign ministry several times, stating that "following the instructions of the Soviet Council of Ministers, (we) have messages to convey.” In the meantime, our side discovered that the Soviet Army was moving in the Zhenbao Island area, and, through reconnaissance, we learned that superiors on the Soviet side had been pushing the [units on the) front-line to take action. It is estimated that it is possible for the enemy to occupy the Zhenbao Island by force today, and that what they have been doing is no more than making an empty gesture. After discussions with comrades in relevant positions, we have reached the decision to strengthen our troop and weapon deployment on the river bank, wait for the enemy's fatigue, and prepare to defeat the enemy by letting him initiate offensive action. In the meantime, we will present a formal diplomatic note to the Soviet side in a meeting with the Soviet charge d'affaires. The note will point out that considering the current status of the relationship between China and the Soviet Union, it is no longer proper for the two sides to maintain contact via telephone. If the Soviet government has something to say, it should present

Chairman (Mao) and Vice Chairman Lin:

It is estimated that the Soviet military border garrisons acted and put forward their demands to follow the instruction from the Soviet Party Center to respond to the public announcement of the opening of our Party's Ninth Congress. They intended to make an empty show of strength, a show that was designed for others to watch. Our proposals are: (1) Our border garrisons should not respond to the demands of the Soviet border garrisons. (2) We should adjust the positions of our cannons, aiming at the enemy's artillery posts and concealed concentration areas for T-62 tanks and armored vehicles. After the enemy artillery has fired for a few days, we should suddenly fire back, causing heavy casualties for them. We should then issue our protest statement. The timing (for taking this action) should be on the eve of the publication of Vice Chairman Lin's report. We are waiting for Chairman (Mao]'s instructions on whether or not this idea is appropriate.30

Zhou Enlai

S

(Source: Zhou Enlai junshi wenxuan (Zhou Enlai's Military Papers) (Beijing: The Central Press of Historical Documents, 1998), vol. 4, pp. 554-555.]

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Document No. 8

put making profits as the top priority, while at the same Mao Zedong's Speech at the First Plenary Session of time failing to promote the proletarian politics, but instead the CCP's Ninth Central Committee, 28 April 1969.31 pursued a system of bonuses. In some factories, they have

been liberated now, and they have participated in the new What I am going to say is what I have said before, leadership, combining the three elements.35 But in some which you all know, and I am not going to say anything factories, this has not been done. There are indeed bad new. Simply I am going to talk about unity. The purpose elements hiding in the factories. For example, the of unity is to pursue even greater victory.

February Seventh Factory, which repairs railway Now the Soviet revisionists attack us. Some broadcast locomotives and carriages at Changxindian, is a big reports by Tass, the materials prepared by Wang Ming?? factory, with 8,000 workers and, if you include them, and the lengthy essay in Kommunist all attack us, claiming several tens of thousands of workers' family members. In that our Party is no longer one of the proletariat and the past, there once existed nine Guomindang district calling it a “petit-bourgeois party.” They claim that what branches, three Sanmin zhuyi Youth League 36 organs, and we are doing is the imposition of a monolithic order and eight (Guomindang) secret service organs. Of course, a that we have returned to the old years of the base areas. careful analysis of the situation is needed here. In those What they mean is that we have regressed. What is a days, it wouldn't do if one refused to join such a thing monolithic order? According to them, it is a military- called Guomindang. Some of them are old workers. Are bureaucratic system. Using a Japanese term, this is a we going to get rid of these old workers? We should not "system.” In the words used by the Soviets, this is called do that. We should make distinctions between those big “military-bureaucratic dictatorship.” They look at our list and small cases. Some of them were only nominal of names, and find many military men, and they call it members of the Guomindang, and they were forced to join “. "military."33 As for "bureaucratic," probably they mean a it. They only need to talk (to clarify the situation). Some of batch of “bureaucrats,” including myself, [Zhou] Enlai, them were in relatively more responsible positions. A Kang Sheng, and Chen Boda.34 All in all, those of you small minority of them were deeply involved and have who do not belong to the military belong to this

done bad things. We must make distinctions between these "bureaucratic” system. Therefore it is called the military- different cases. Even for those who have done bad things, bureaucratic dictatorship.” I say, let them talk, talk about we should also make distinctions among them. Leniency all of this. Whatever they want to say, let them say it. But to those who confess, and severity to those who resist. If there is a characteristic in what they say, that is, they never they conduct a satisfactory self-criticism, we should let scold us as a bourgeois party. They label us a "petit- them keep their jobs. But, of course, we should not allow bourgeois party.” On our part, we call theirs a bourgeois them to stay in the leadership. If we do not give these dictatorship. They are restoring the bourgeois dictatorship. people jobs, what will they do at home? What will their

We are talking about victory, this means that we must children do? Further, old workers usually are skillful, guarantee that we should unite the vast masses of the although some of them are not so skillful. entire country to pursue victory under the leadership of the I have brought up this example to point out that the proletariat. The socialist revolution must continue. There revolution has not been completed. Therefore, all are still unfinished tasks for this revolution to fulfill, such members of the Central Committee, including those as to conduct struggle, to conduct criticism, and to conduct alternate members, should pay attention to conducting transformation. After a few years, we will probably need your work in a very careful style. In dealing with things to carry out another revolution.

like this, you should be very careful. It is not good to be Several of our old comrades have been stationed in crude and careless, which often leads to mistakes. In some the factories for a period. I hope that when you have places, many people have been arrested. This is not right. opportunities in the future you will go down to have a look You have arrested so many people, why did you do so? again, and to study the problems existing in various

Have the arrested committed homicide, arson, or factories. It seems to me that the Great Proletarian Cultural poisoning? It is my opinion that if someone has not Revolution must be carried out. Our foundation was not committed any of these crimes, you should not arrest him. solid and stable. According to my observation, not in all As for those who have mistakenly followed the capitalist factories, not in an overwhelming majority of the factories, path, it is even less necessary for you to arrest them. In the but in quite a large majority of the factories, the leadership factories, they should be allowed to work, and should be is not controlled by true Marxists, or controlled by the allowed to participate in the mass movement. They have masses of the workers. Among those who led the factories committed mistakes, and have committed the mistakes in in the past, I cannot say that there were no good people. the past. They either joined the Guomindang, or did some There were good people for sure. Among party committee bad things, or have committed mistakes in the recent past, secretaries, assistant secretaries, committee members, that is, have committed the mistake of following the there were good people, and among party branch

capitalist path. You should allow them to be with the secretaries, there were good people. But they followed Liu masses. If you do not allow them to be with the masses, Shaoqi's lines, which emphasized material incentives and that is not good. Some of them have been detained for two

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years, detained in the “cattle pens.

937 As a result, they

scale invasion the fighting will be waged on the border. If know nothing about what is happening in the world. When it is a large-scale invasion, I am in favor of giving up some they come out and listen to other people, they find the land. China is not a small country. If there is no benefit language the other people use is different. They are still waiting for them, they will not come. We must let the talking in the language of two years ago. They have been whole world see that when we are fighting the war we separated from life for two years. We should help these have both reason and advantage in our hands. If they do people and should hold study sessions for them. We come, I think it is more advantageous to us, as we will should tell them about history and tell them about the have both reason and advantage in our hands. It is easy for history of the advance of the Great Cultural Revolution in us to fight (an invading enemy) since he will fall into the the past two years, so that they gradually will awaken. people's encirclement. As far as such things like planes,

We should unite together for one purpose, that is, to tanks, and armored vehicles are concerned, experiences consolidate the proletarian dictatorship. This should be everywhere prove that they are easy for us to deal with. solidly carried out in every factory, every village, every

In order to achieve victory, we must have more office, and every school. In the beginning, we should not people. Isn't this correct? (We must have) people from all spread this out too widely. We may spread it out, but backgrounds, no matter to which “mountain stronghold" should not stop taking charge of it when it has been spread they used to belong or in which province they used to out. We should not just do this for half a year or a little bit work, either in the north or in the south. Is it better to unite longer, and then have no one take charge of it. The

with more people or to unite with fewer people? It is experiences must be summarized factory by factory, always better to unite with more people. Some people may school by school, and office by office. Therefore,

have different opinions from ours, but that is not a Comrade Lin Biao emphasizes in his report that this must relationship between us and the enemy. I simply do not

I be done factory by factory, school by school, commune by believe, to take a specific example, that the relationship commune, party branch by party branch, and working unit between Wang Xiaoyuand Yang Dezhio is, as some by working unit. There is also the question of rectifying people say, one between us and the enemy. Is the the [Communist] Youth League, which should be done relationship between you two one between us and the League branch by League branch.

enemy, or is it one among the people? In my opinion, it is In addition, there is the question of being prepared for a quarrel among the people. The Central Committee has war, which I have mentioned in the past. We should be been somewhat bureaucratic, and has failed to pay enough prepared for war year by year. People may ask: What if attention to you. On your part, you never bring this matter they do not come? No matter whether they come or not, to the Central Committee for discussion. Shandong is such we should be prepared. Do not wait for the Party Center to a big province, and there are contradictions among the distribute materials even for manufacturing hand grenades. people. Would you two please take this opportunity to Hand grenades can be manufactured everywhere, can be have a good discussion? In my opinion, there are such manufactured in every province. Such things as rifles and contradictions among the people in East China too. There light weapons can be manufactured in every province. I is also the case of Shanxi province, which involves am talking here about being prepared in a material sense. problems among the people too. You support one faction, But what is more important is to be prepared in a spiritual and I will support another faction. But is this endless sense. To be prepared in a spiritual sense is to be prepared quarreling necessary? There are also problems in Yunnan, for war. Not only [members of] our Central Committee, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces. Every province has some but also the majority of the people of the whole country, problems, but, compared with the situation of last year or should have such spiritual preparation. Here I do not the year before last, things are already much better. You, mean to include the enemies of the (proletarian]

comrade, isn't your name Xu Shiyou 40 ? When we were in dictatorship, such as landlords, rich peasants, reactionaries, Shanghai the year before last, during the three months and bad elements. This is because these people are quite from July to September, all under the heaven was great happy to see the imperialists and revisionists invade our chaos. Now life is a bit better. What I am talking about is country. They suppose that if the invasion occurred, the the whole situation. In Nanjing, where you are, there world would be turned upside down, and that they would emerged a so-called “Red Headquarters."41 You have come out on top. We should also be prepared for dealing worked on them and they became cooperative. In the end, with this situation. In carrying out the socialist revolution, the “August 27th"42 and the “Red Headquarters" are

7% we should also carry out this revolution.

united together. When others invade our territory and attack us, we

I believe that the main problem still lies in how we shall not invade others' territory. We must not invade conduct our own work. Did I make two statements in the others' territory. I say this because we should not be past? The problems of the localities lay in the army, and provoked. Even if they invited me to come out, I will not the problems of the army lay in its own work. You are not come out. But if they invade my territory and attack me, I enemies of life and death, why should you treat each other will deal with them. My response depends on whether like that? If personal gratitude or hatred is involved, it is they come on a small scale or a large scale. If it is a small- not such a big matter and so much weight should not be

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