Observations on the Phenomena of Plant Life: A Paper Presented to the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture

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Wright & Potter, 1875 - 111 頁
 

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第 18 頁 - The apparatus for testing its growing force consisted of a frame, or bed, of seven-inch boards, one foot long. These were arranged in a radial manner, like the spokes of the lower half of a wheel, their inner edges being turned toward the central axis. These pieces were held firmly in place by two end-boards, twelve inches square, to the lower half of which they were secured by nails and iron rods. A hemi-ellipsoidal cavity, about five inches deep in the centre and eight inches long, was cut from...
第 25 頁 - In summer, when the leaves are fully formed, the connecting links are supplied by the capillary vascular expansions formed in them, — the tubes are in fact converted into syphons. As both extremities of the syphons are full of sap in spring and early summer, an upward and a downward current is immediately established. When the downward current has nourished the plant and stored up its starched granules for the ensuing spring, the leaves fall, the syphon structure and action is interrupted, and...
第 19 頁 - ... cold-chisel, sometimes into several pieces, and draw them out endways. The growing squash adapted itself to whatever space it could find as readily as if it had been a mass of caoutchouc ; nor did it ever show the slightest tendency to crack, except in the epidermis. This would often open in minute seams, from which a turbid mucilaginous fluid exuded. In the morning, drops of this would frequently bedew the protuberances like drops of perspiration. In the sunshine these dried up and fell off...
第 9 頁 - A similar root of an elm was recently dug up in Westfield, Mass., and presented to the College Museum by Mr. BH Averell. Prof. Stockbridge, last fall, washed out a root of common clover, one year old, growing in the alluvial soil near the Connecticut River, and found that it descended perpendicularly to the depth of eight feet.
第 9 頁 - Stockbridge, last fall, washed out a root of common clover, one year old, growing in the alluvial soil near the Connecticut River, and found that it descended perpendicularly to the depth of eight feet. Mr. Mechi, of Tiptree Hall, England, tells us that the reason clover is usually so short-lived, is the fact that the lower roots are either unable to penetrate the subsoil or to find in it the requisite supplies of food. He also states that his neighbor, Mr. Dixon, of Riven Hall, dug a parsnip which...
第 7 頁 - A rich bed of compost from a spent hot-bed was prepared, which was four feet wide, fifty feet long, and about six inches in depth. Here, under the fostering care of Prof. Maynard, the seeds germinated, the vine grew vigorously, and the squash lifted in a most satisfactory manner. Never before has the development of a squash been observed more critically, or by a greater number of people. Many thousands of men, women and children, from all classes of society, and of various nationalities, and from...
第 26 頁 - ... and exosmose. As, moreover, the spongioles of the roots and the leaves are analogous structures, and certain tubes are united in the roots, the downward current in autumn is accompanied by a slight upward current. This accounts for the fact that at all periods of the year, the upward, downward and transverse currents exist ; the upward and downward currents being most vigorous in spring and autumn, and scarcely perceptible in winter. Furthermore, as some of the vascular expansions in the leaves...
第 65 頁 - ... of the vegetable world its peculiar form and characteristics, it is none the less important and interesting to exercise our utmost ingenuity in the effort to discover the times and modes of its operation, and its relations to the other forces of Nature. LATIN AND COMMON NAMES OF SPECIES. Abies bakamea, . . Balsam Fir.
第 46 頁 - LL.D., of Amherst College, will convince the inquirer that there is an intimate connection between these three sets of facts. The quantity of sap from a sugar maple during the season is much greater than from any other tree flowing from the same causes. Thus the entire flow from the butternut was less than the product of the sugar maple for a single day. The ironwood and the birches, however, surpass even the maple, both in the rapidity and amount of their flowing, if we make allowance for the difference...
第 60 頁 - ... remained in the soil just as it grew. Number four was fastened to a piece of gas-pipe one inch in diameter, which was screwed into the tree to the depth of ten inches, a thread having been cut for this purpose on the outside of it. No sap could enter this gauge except at the very centre of the heart-wood of the trunk. Number five was attached to the sap-wood among the branches, at an elevation of twenty feet above gauge number one. The gauges thus connected were then inclosed in tight pine cases,...

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