A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev

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University of California Press, 1999年2月26日 - 570 頁
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While researching Russia's historical efforts to protect nature, Douglas Weiner unearthed unexpected findings: a trail of documents that raised fundamental questions about the Soviet political system. These surprising documents attested to the unlikely survival of a critical-minded, scientist-led movement through the Stalin years and beyond. It appeared that, within scientific societies, alternative visions of land use, resrouce exploitation, habitat protection, and development were sustained and even publicly advocated. In sharp contrast to known Soviet practices, these scientific societies prided themselves on their traditions of free elections, foreign contacts, and a pre-revolutionary heritage.

Weiner portrays nature protection activists not as do-or-die resisters to the system, nor as inoffensive do-gooders. Rather, they took advantage of an unpoliced realm of speech and activity and of the patronage by middle-level Soviet officials to struggle for a softer path to development. In the process, they defended independent social and professional identities in the face of a system that sought to impose official models of behavior, ethics, and identity for all. Written in a lively style, this absorbing story tells for the first time how organized participation in nature protection provided an arena for affirming and perpetuating self-generated social identities in the USSR and preserving a counterculture whose legacy survives today.

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Environmental Activism and Social Identity
23
Archipelago of Freedom
36
The Road to Liquidation Conservation in the Postwar Years
63
Zapovedniki in Peril 19481950
83
Liquidation The Second Phase 1950
104
The Deluge 1951
117
In the Throes of Crisis VOOP in Stalins Last Years
137
Death and Purgatory
161
Student Movements Catalysts for a New Activism
312
Three Men in a Boat VOOP in the Early 1960s
340
Storm over Baikal
355
Science Doesnt Stand Still
374
Environmental Struggles in the Era of Stagnation
402
Environmental Activism under Gorbachëv
429
Conclusion
441
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
449

VOOP after Stalin Survival and Decay
182
Resurrection
201
A Time to Build
240
A Time to Meet
260
More Trouble in Paradise Crises of the Zapovedniki in the Khrushchëv Era
288
NOTES
451
BIBLIOGRAPHY
509
INDEX
529
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第 291 頁 - I recall the first days when the conflict between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia began artificially to be blown up. Once, when I came from Kiev to Moscow, I was invited to visit Stalin who, pointing to the copy of a letter lately sent to Tito, asked me, 'Have you read this?' Not waiting for my reply he answered, 'I will shake my little finger — and there will be no more Tito. He will fall.
第 371 頁 - Collegium of the USSR Council of Ministers' State Committee for Science and Technology, and the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
第 291 頁 - ... But this did not happen to Tito. No matter how much or how little Stalin shook, not only his little finger but everything else that he could shake, Tito did not fall. Why? The reason was that, in this case of disagreement with the Yugoslav comrades, Tito had behind him a state and a people who had gone through a severe school of fighting for liberty and independence, a people which gave support to its leaders.
第 291 頁 - ... these mistakes and shortcomings were magnified in a monstrous manner by Stalin, which resulted in a break of relations with a friendly country. I recall the first days when the conflict between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia began artificially to be blown up. Once, when I came from Kiev to Moscow, I was invited to visit Stalin who, pointing to the copy of a letter lately sent to Tito, asked, "Have you read this?
第 375 頁 - Ecological and conservation thought at the turn of the century was nearly all in what might be called closed systems of one kind or another. In all of them some kind of balance or near balance was to be achieved. The geologists had their peneplain; the...
第 375 頁 - ... probably there is no consistent trend towards balance. Rather, in the present state of our knowledge and ability to rationalize, we should think in terms of massive uncertainty, flexibility and adjustability (Raup, 1964, p.
第 251 頁 - Representatives were sent by 35 organizations including the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Academies of the union republics, the USSR Ministry of Geology, geophysical trusts and universities.

關於作者 (1999)

Douglas R. Weiner is Professor of History at the University of Arizona. He is the author of Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia (1988; paperback edition, 2000)

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