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sider the threatening relations with France.
Jonathan Dayton, Federalist, of New Jer-
sey, was elected Speaker of the House. The
use of the three frigates already built was
authorized and 80,000 militia were called
for. An act was passed punishing priva.
teering on a friendly nation by a fine of
$10,000, and imprisonment for ten years.
The House Committee on Ways and Means
was first organized at this session.

War with France Threatened. — Adams
appointed John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry
and C. C. Pinckney commissioners to treat
with France. They met in Paris Oct. 4,
1797, and were approached with a proposi.
tion to bribe members of the French Direc-
tory. They refused with indignation, im.
plicating Talleyrand, the French Minister
of Foreign Afairs, and were ordered out of
France. It was on this occasion that Mr.
Pinckney is reported to have given utter-
ance to the famous sentence declaring that
the United States had "Millions for de
fense ; not one cent for tribute." Partisan
feeling was general and bitter throughout
the country and diplomacy was strained to
the utmost to avert actual hostilities with
France.

Congress organized the Navy Department
and authorized a provisional army of 10,-
000 men. Harper's Ferry was selected as a
site for a government armory and manu-
factory. Washington was appointed com.
mander-in-chief of the army with the rank
of Lieutenant-General. The patriotic song
"Hail, Columbia," was first sung in May,
1798. Commanders of ships of war were
instructed to seize French armed vessels
attacking American merchant-men or hov.
ering about the coast for that purpose.
Commercial intercourse with France was
suspended and in July all treaties with
that country were declared void. Although
several naval engagements took place, a
state of war did not exist according to inter-
national judicial opinion. The passage of
the Alien and Sedition laws (9. v.) was one
of the notable acts of the Fifth Congress.

March 30, 1799, upon assurance from
France that representative from the
l'nited States would be received with the
"respect due a powerful nation" Adams sent
William Vans Murray as Minister and as.
sociated with him Chief Justice Ellsworth,
of Connecticut, and Gov. Davie, of North
Carolina. All were received by Napoleon,
first Consul.

Foreign Policy.-Party lines and party
strife during the Adams administration were
more largely influenced by foreign than by
domestic political issues. Despite the hu.
miliation inflicted upon the young Republic
by both France and Great Britain, Adams
resolutely followed Washington's policy of
strict neutrality. It was difficult to steer
safely between the bitter feeling against
Great Britain which the Democrats dis-
played, and the dislike for France mani.
fested by the Federalists. The decrees is-
sued by France against American commerce
caused Adams to convene Congress in spe-
cial session Soon after his inauguration.
In his message on this occasion he reviews
the situation and asks Congress to consider
how war with France may be averted, He
said: (page 226) "I shall institute a fresh
attempt at negotiation and shall not fail
to promote and accelerate an accommoda-
tion on terms compatible with the rights,
duties, interests, and honor of the nation.
The special commission composed of Pinck-
ney, Marshall and Gerry was sent to
France, but was not openly received.

Then followed the X. Y. Z. affair (q. v.),
and the publicity of the despatches relating
to it aroused great excitement in Europe

and a storm of indignation in America
From all parts of the United States (ame
the war-cry. “Millions for defense ; not one
cent for tribute." It was then that the
nucleus of the navy was formed, and the
army strengthened and commanded by Wash-
Ington, who accepted the rank of lieutenant
general. Then the French directory saw
the error they had committed and made
overtures to the United States. Adams met
them, though his manner of doing so by
appointing Vans Murray to negotiate peace
antagonized Hamilton and his friends and
brought about a rupture in the Cabinet.
Adams always stoutly maintained that this
was the most meritorious act of his life;
and later generations have so testified. "I
desire," he said, “no other inscription over
my gravestone than this: 'Here lies John
Adams, who took upon himself the responsi.
bility of peace with France in 1800. The
stringent alien and sedition acts, passed
later in this administration, greatly in.
creased the unpopularity of Adams.

Finances.-Adams very closely followed
Washington's policy of paying off the na-
tional debt as rapidly as possible, so far
as the exigencies of war would permit. He,
however, deprecated doing so by means of
loans. In his First Annual Address ,(page
253) he said: "The national defense must
be provided for as well as the support of
Government; but both should be accom-
plished as much as possible by immediate
taxes, and as little as possible by loans."
Feb. 12, 1798, in a special message (page
252) be reports a balance on hand at the
beginning of the year of $15,194.24. In his
Fourth Annual Message (page 297) he is
able to report to Congress a greater rev:
enue during the year than ever before, and
says: “This result affords conclusive evl.
dence of the great resources of this coun.
try and of the wisdom and efficiency of the
measures adopted by Congress for the pro.
tection of commerce and preservation of
public credit." In his reply to the Senate
(page 302) be fully agrees that the great
increase in revenue is a proof that the meas.
ures of maritime defense were founded in
wisdom. This policy bas raised us in the
esteem of nations.'' By proclamation of
July 22, 1797 (page 239) all foreign silver
coins, except Spanish milled dollars and
parts of such dollars, shall cease to pass
current or to be legal tender within the
United States after Oct. 15, 1797; and all
foreign gold coins shall cease to be legal
tender after July 31. 1798, It also re.
cords the fact that coinage of silver began
at the Mint of the United States on Oct.
15, 1794 ; and of gold on July 31. 1795.

Tariff.--July 8, 1797. an act was passed
"laying additional duty on salt imported
into the United States and for other pur.
poses.

Public Debt. During the administration
of John Adams the publle debt of the United
States stood as follows: January 1, 1798,
$79,228,529.12; 1799, $78,408,669.77 : 1800,
$82,976,294.35; 1801, $83,038.050.80.

Commerce.-The retallatory prohibition of
trade with certain of the French West Indies
was removed by proclamations in 1799.
These applied to ports in the Island of
Santo Domingo. The defensive measures
adopted by Congress for the protection of
merchant vessels under convos of an armed
frigate, together with the renewal of amily
and friendship with France, caused a rapid
recuperation in commercial circles. Com
mercial transactions in the country for the
year 1800 are represented as follows:

Total money in circulation. $26,500,000 ;
Revenues, $10,848,749; Expenditures, $7,
411,370: Imports, $91,252,768; Esports,
$70,971,780

a

Political Complerion of Congre88.-In the
Firth Congress the Senate of thirty-two
members was made up of twenty-one Feder-
alists and eleven Democrats ; the House, of
105 members, was made up of fifty-one Fed-
eralists and fifty-four Democrats. In the
Sixth Congress the Senate, of thirty-two
members, was made up of nineteen Federal.
ists and thirteen Democrats ; the House, of
105 members, was made up of fifty-seven
Federalists and forty-eight Democrats.

The Sixth Congress, the last to assemble
in Philadelphia, met Dec. 2, 1799, and
Theodore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, was
elected Speaker of the House. The death
of Washington (Dec. 14) was announced to
Congress Dec. 19 (page 287), and in his
eulogy Henry Lee of Virginia used the
memorable phrase, “First in war, first in
peace and first in the hearts of his coun-
trymen." At this session a gold medal was
awarded to Thomas Truxtun, who, in com-
mand of the Constellation, had captured the
French ship of war L'Insurgente and the
frigate La Vengeance. The frigate George
Washington carried tribute money from the
United States to the Dey of Algiers and was
required to carry the Dey's ambassador to
Constantinople.

Successor Elected.-Wben the electoral
votes were counted in February it was
found that Jefferson and Burr, Democratic-
Republican candidates, had each 73 votes ;
John Adams, Federalist, 65, and C. C.
Pinckney, Federalist, 64, and John Jay, 1.
The tie between Jefferson and Burr was
sent to the House to decide, and after
seven days, in which thirty-six ballots were
taken, Jefferson and Burr were elected.
Adams, John:

Annual addresses of, 240, 261, 279, 295.
Addresses of Senate in reply, 244,

265, 282, 298.
Replies of President, 246, 267, 283,

299.
Addresses of House in reply, 247, 267,

283, 300.
Replies of President, 248, 270, 286,

302.
Liographical sketch of, 217.
Constitutional amendment relative to

postponement of meeting of Con-

gress suggested by, 240.
Death of, announced and honors to be

paid memory of, 914.
Referred to, 930.
Death of Washington announced by,

287.
Address and replies, 288, 289, 290.
Division between people and govern-

ment discouraged by, 229.
Exequaturs issued consuls of France

revoked by, 260.
Finances discussed by, 228, 243, 252,

265, 281, 297.
Foreign policy discussed by, 228.
Hostile policy of France discussed by,

262.
Inaugural address of, 218.
Oath of office, notifies Congress of

time and place of taking, 1220.
Pardons granted insurgents in Penn-

sylvania by, 293.
Portrait of, 216.

Proclamations of-
Commerce with France, restraints

on, removed, 278, 292, 294.
Exequaturs of French consuls re-

voked, 260.
Extraordinary session of-

Congress, 222.

Senate, 306, 1220.
Foreign coins, legal tender of, 239.
Insurrection in Pennsylvania, 276.
Land for light-house designated,

1221.
Pardons to insurgents in Pennsyl-

vania, 293.
Restraints on commerce with

France removed by proclamation,
278, 292, 294.
Thanksgiving, 258, 274.
Property of United States in posses-

sion of, discussed by, 305.
Senate requested by, to postpone ad-

journment, 257.
Special session message of, 223.
Address of Senate in reply, 229.

Reply of President, 232.
Address of House in reply, 232.

Reply by President, 234.
Thanksgiving proclamations of, 258,

274.
Adams, John Quincy.-1825-1829.
Tenth Administration-Democratic-

Republican.
Vice-President-John C. Calhoun.
Secretary of State-

Henry Clay.
Secretary of the Treasury-

Richard Rush.
Secretary of War-

James Barbour.

Peter B. Porter, from May 26, 1828.
Secretary of the Navy-

Samuel L. Southard (continued).
Attorney-General-

William Wirt (continued).
Postmaster-General-

Jobo McLean (continued).
Party Affiliation.--Though trained in
politics and diplomacy by his father, John
Quincy Adams soon manifested independ.
ence of political thought and action. He
broke with the Federalists when he gave
unqualified support to Jefferson the
Louisiana Purchase, and, later, on the em-
bargo. Speaking of the Federalists defend-
ing the Leopard affair, he said: “This was
the cause which alienated me from that day
and forever from the councils of the
Federalist party.” It was not long until he
became active in Republican circles, both as
a diplomat and as a Cabinet officer. During
his administration, he was Whig so far as
favoring internal improvements, the national
bank, and high tariff on importations. As
ex-President, he was elected to Congress
(1831) by the anti-Masonic party, but he
there maintained a perfectly independent
attitude. When he left Congress he sup.
ported the Abolitionists, and from 1836
until 1845 he was fierce in his denunciation
of gag-rule.

John Quincy Adams became Chief Magis-
trate by popular choice in an election where
personality was concerned more than party
afiliation. The election of 1824 was not
regulated by Congressional caucus, which
had lost its importance with the waning of

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EXTENT OF THE UNITED STATES DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT J. Q. ADAMS, 1825-1829.

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the Federalists, nor by national convention,
which mode of nomination did not originate
until formed by the Anti-Masons in 1830.

Vote.-The contest was free for all, and
narrowed down to four candidates : Adams,
Jackson, Crawford, and Clay. Twenty-four
States took part in the election, which was
held Nov. 2. This is the earliest election in
which there appears a record of the popular
vote, as most of the electors were chosen
by that means. That record shows that
Andrew Jackson received 155,872 votes ;
John Quincy Adams, 105,321 ; William H.
(rawford. 44.282; and Henry Clay, 46.587.
'The electoral vote, counted on Feb. 9. 1825,
gase Andrew Jackson, 99: John Quincy
Adams, 84; William H. Crawford, 41; and
Henry Clay, 37.

Tote in House.-As no one received a
majority, the House proceeded on the same
day to elect a President from the three
highest candidates. This excluded Clay, the
most popular of the candidates in the House.
John Quincy Adams was elected by the
rotes of thirteen States; Jackson received
seven, and Crawford four. The electoral
college had elected John C. Calhoun Vice.
President, with 182 votes. In the electoral
college, had three New York men, who were
returned as Clay men. voted in accordance
with their instructions, Clay would have
been one of the three to go to the House,
and the result might bave been very dif.
ferent. This was the second time that the
House was called upon to choose a Presi.
dent.

Political Complerion of Congre88.- In the
Nineteenth Congress (1825-1827) the Senate,
of forty-eight members, was made up of
thirty-elgbt Democrats and ten Whigs; and
the House, of 213 members, was made up
of seventy-nine Federalists and 134 Demo-
crats. In the Twentieth Congress (1827-
1829) the Senate, of forty-eight members,
was made up of thirty-seven Federalists
and eleven Whigs; and the House, of 213
members, was made up of eighty-five Fed-
eralists and 128 Democrats.

John W. Taylor, of New York, was elected
Speaker of the House in the Nineteenth Con-
gress, which numbered among its members
Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, and
James K. Polk, of Tennessee.

In 1826 the South American States called
a general congress to meet in Panama and
invited the United States to be represented
(page 884). During the debate on the sub-
ject in the Senate John Randolph referred
to the association of Adams and Clay as
that of the Puritan and the blackleg. A
duel followed between Clay and Randolph.

The disappearance of William Morgan
from Cannvidaigua, N. Y., Sept. 12, 1826,
gave rise to the Anti-Masonic party.

Indian Affairs.-Numerous treaties were
made with Indians during Adanıs' adminis-
tration, among them the cession of the lands
of most of the tribes inhabiting territory
east of the Mississippi River and their re-
moval to the ludian Territory. The refusal
of the Creeks to be bound by a treaty signed
by their chiefs formed the subject of special
message by Mr. Adams (page 890).

Tarifl.-Two acts relating to the tarir
were passed in this administration—that of
May 22, 1824, and of May 19. 1828. Speak.
ing of the latter in his Fourth Annual Mes.
sage (page 980) President Adams said:
*The tariff of the last session was in its
details pot acceptable to the great interests
of any portion of the Union, not even to
the interests which it was specially intended
to serve. Its object was to balance the
burdens upon native industry imposed by
the operation of foreign laws, but not to

aggravate the burdens of one section of
the Union by the relief afforded to another.

But If any of the duties imposed by
the act only relieve the manufacturer by
aggravating the burden of the planter, let
a careful revisal of its provisions, enlight.
ened by the practical experience of its ef-
fects, be directed to retain those which
impart protection to native industry and re-
move or supply the place of those which
only alleviate one great national interest
by the depression of another."

Internal Improvements.--The policy of
President Adams differed materially in re.
gard to internal improvement from those of
bis immediate predecessors. In his Inaugural
Address (page 864) he said : "To pursue
to their consummation those purposes of
improvement in our common condition in-
stituted or recommended by him (Monroe)
will embrace the whole sphere of my obli-
gations. To the topic of internal improve-
ment emphatically urged by him at his
Inauguration, I recur with peculiar satis-
faction. It is that from which, I am satis-
fed, the unborn millions of our poster-
ity who are in future ages to people this
continent will derive their most fervent
gratitude to the founders of the Union :
that in which the beneficent action of its
Government will be most deeply felt and
acknowledged.

The extent and linn-
itation of the powers of the General Gov.
ernment in relation to this transcendepily
important subject will be settled and ac-
knowledged to the common satisfaction of
all, and every speculative scruple will be
solved by a practical public blessing."

Public Debt.-The public debt of the
United States during the administration of
President Adams stood as follows: Janu-
ary 1, 1826, $81,054,059.99; 1827, $73,-
987,357.20 ; 1828, $67,475,043.87 ; 1829,
$58,421,413.67.

In his Second Annual Message (page 924)
the President says: "It is well for us,
however, to be admonished of the necessity
of abiding by the maxims of the most
vigilant economy, and of resorting to all
honorable and useful expedients for pur-
suing with steady and inflexible persever-
ance the total discharge of the debt." In
his Third Annual Message (page 952) he
says: "The deep solicitude felt by our
citizens of all classes throughout the Union
for the total discharge of the public debt
will apologize for the earnestness with
which i deem it my duty to urge this topic
upon the consideration of Congress-of rec-
ommending to them again the observance
of the strictest economy in the application
of the public funds."

Finance.-In his Fourth Annual Message
(page 977), at the close of his administra-
tion, President Adams was able to

say:
"The condition and prospects of the revenue
are more favorable than our most sanguing
expectations had anticipated.” He reported
a balance in the Treasury, Jan. 1, 1828, of
$5,861,972.83 : with a prospect of a balance
of over $5,000.000 on the first of the com-
ing year. “The receipts for the present
year have amounted to near two millions
more than was anticipated at the com.
mencement of the last session of Congress.

Slarery.- "The African Slave Trade.''
said President Adams in his First Annual
Message (page 875), "has long been exclud.
ed from the use of our flag, and if some few
citizens of our country have continued to
set the laws of the Union, as well as those
of nature and humanity, at defiance by per.
severing in that abominable traffic, it has
been only by sheltering themselves under the
banners of other nations less earnest for
the total extinction of the trade than ours."

!

BY BUREAU OF NATIONAL LITERATURE

COPYRIGHT

sider the threatening relations with France.
Jonathan Dayton, Federalist, of New Jer-
sey, was elected Speaker of the House. The
use of the three frigates already built was
authorized and 80,000 militia were called
for.

An act was passed punishing priva.
teering co a friendly nation by a fine of
$10,000, and inprisonment for ten years.
The House Committee on Wars and Means
was first organized at this session.

War with France Threatened. — Adams
appointed John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry
and C. C. Pinckney commissioners to treat
with France. They met in Paris Oct. 4,
1797, and were approached with a proposi.
tion to bribe members of the French Direc-
tory.

They refused with indignation, im.
plicating Talleyrand, the French Minister
of Foreign Affairs, and were ordered out of
France. It was on this occasion that Mr.
Pinckney is reported to have given utter.
ance to the famous sentence declaring that
the United States had “Millions for de
fense ; not one cent for tribute." Partisan
feeling was general and bitter throughout
the country and diplomacy was strained to
the utmost to avert actual hostilities with
France.

Congress organized the Navy Department
and authorized a provisional army of 10,-
000 men. Harper's Ferry was selected as a
site for a government armory and manu.
factory. Washington was appointed com-
mander-in-chief of the army with the rank
of Lieutenant-General. The patriotic song
"Hail, Columbia," was first sung in May.
1798. Commanders of ships of war were
instructed to seize French armed vessels
attacking American merchant-men or hov-
ering about the coast for that purpose.
Commercial intercourse with France was
suspended and in July all treaties with
that country were declared void. Although
several naval engagements took place, a
state of war did not exist according to inter-
national judicial opinion. The passage of
the Alienand Sedition laws (q. v.) was one
of the notable acts of the Fifth Congress.

March 30, 1799, upon assurance from
France that representative from the
United States would be received with the
“respect due a powerful nation" Adams sent
William Vans Slurray as Minister and as.
sociated with him Chief Justice Ellsworth,
of Connecticut, and Gov. Da vie, of North
Carolina. All were received by Napoleon,
first Consul.

Foreign Policy.-Party lines and party
strife during the Adams administration were
more largely influenced by foreign than by
domestic political issues. Despite the hu-
miliation indicted upon the young Republic
by both France and Great Britain, Adams
resolutely followed Washington's policy of
strict neutrality. It was difficult to steer
safely between the bitter feeling against
Great Britain wbich the Democrats dis-
played, and the dislike for France mani-
fested by the Federalists. The decrees is.
sued by France against American commerce
caused Adams to conrene Congress in spe.
cial session soon after his inauguration.
In his message on this occasion he reviews
the situation and asks Congress to consider
how war with France may be averted. He
said : (page 226) "I shall institute a fresh
attempt at negotiation and shall not fail
to promote and accelerate an accommoda.
tion on terms compatible with the rights,
datles, interests, and honor of the nation.
The special commission composed of Pinck.
aey. Marshall. and Gerry was sent to
France, but was not openly received.

Then followed the X. Y. Z. affair (9. r.),
and the publicity of the despatches relating
to it aroused great excitement in Europe

and a storm of indignation in America
From all parts of the t'nited States ('Line
the war-cry. *Millions for defense ; Dot one
cent for tribute." It was then that De:
nucleus of the nary was formed, and the
army strengthened and commanded by Wast.
Ington, who accepted the rank of lieutenant
general. Then ihe French directory Saw
the error they had committed and made
overtures to the United States. Adams met
them, though his manner of doing so by
appointing Vans Murray to negotiate peace
antagonized Hamilton and his friends and
brought about a rupture in the cabinet.
Adams always stoutly maintained that this
was the most meritorious act of his life ;
and later generations have so testified. "I
desire," he said, “no other inscription orer
my gravestone than this: 'Ilere lies Joha
Adams, who took upon himself the responsi.
bility of peace with France in 1800.' The
stringent" allen and sedition acts, passed
later in this administration, greatly in-
creased the unpopularity of Adams.

Finances.-Adams very closely followed
Washington's policy of paying off the na-
tional debt as rapidly as possible, so far
as the exigencies of war would permit. Не.
however, deprecated doing so by means of
loans. In his First Annual Address page
253) be said: “The national defense must
be provided for as well as the support of
Government; but both should be accom-
plished as much as possible by immediate
iaxes, and as little as possible by loans."
Feb. 12, 1798, in a special message (page
252) he reports a balance on hand at the
beginning of the year of $15,494.24. In his
Fourth Annual Message (page 297) he is
able to report to Congress a eater rer.
enue during the year than ever before, and
says: "This result affords conclusive eri.
dence of the great resources of this coun-
try and of the wisdom and efficiency of the
measures adopted by Congress for the pro-
tection of commerce and preservation of
public credit." In his reply to the Senate
(page 302) he fully agrees that the great
increase in revenue is a proof that the meas.
ures of maritime defense were founded in
wisdom. This policy has raised us in the
esteem of nations. By proclamation of
July 22, 1797 (page 2391 all foreign silver
coins, except Spanish milled dollars and
parts of such dollars. shall cease to pass
current or to be legal tender within the
United States after Oct. 15, 1797 ; and all
foreign gold coins shall cease to be legal
tender after July 31. 1798. It also re-
cords the fact that coinage of silver began
at the Mint of the United States on Oct.
15, 1794; and of gold on July 31. 1795.

Tarift.-July 8, 1797, an act was passed
"laying additional duty on salt imported
into the United States and for other pur-
poses."

Public Debt.-During the administration
of John Adams the public debt of the United
States stood as follows: January 1, 1798.
$79.228,529.12; 1799, $78.408.669.77 1800,
$82,976,294.35; 1801, $83,038,050.80.

Commerce.-The retallatory prohibition of
trade with certain of the French West Indies
was removed by proclamations in 1799.
These applied to ports in the island of
Santo Domingo. The defensive measures
adopted by Congress for the protection of
merchant vessels under convoy of an armed
frigate, together with the renewal of amity
and friendship with France, caused a rapid
recuperation in commercial circles. Com
mercial transactions in the country for the
year 1800 are represented as follows:

Total money in circulation, $26.500.000 :
Revenues, $10,848,749; Expenditures $7.
411,370: Imports, $91,252,768; Exports,
$70,971,780

a

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