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except the Atias, though isolated peaks
rise to a considerable elevation in Abys-
sinia, in East Africa (Kenya, Kiliman-
jaro and Ruwenzori), and in West Africa
(Kamerun Peak). If an irregular line is
drawn from a point on the West Coast,
a little south of the Equator, to a point
near the middle of the Red Sea, Africa
can be divided into two nearly equal parts
which differ considerably in character.
The northwestern part comprises two re-
gions of comparative lowland separated
by the Atlas and the plateaus of Tibesti
and Tasili. The southeastern part con-
sists of great masses of highlands and pla-
· teaus broken up by river valleys. The
rivers of Africa drain into the Atlantic,
the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean.
Both the Senegal and Gambia are navi.
gable for some distance in the rainy sea.
son, The most important river which
flows into the Gulf of Guinea is the Niger.
The Congo rises in the plateau southwest
of Lake Tanganyika. From Stanley Falls
to Stanley Pool, broad, navigable river
flows for 1,000 miles. As these are them-
selves great rivers, an enormous amount of
water is carried down to the mouth. Ow-
ing to the depth of the ocean, the sedi.
ment deposited does not r ach the surface
in the form of a delta, but forms subma-
rine ridges 5,000 feet in height for over
300 miles on each side of its ocean chan.
nel. The Orange River rises in the Drak.
ensberg Mountains not far f:om the East
Coast and receives the Vaal and other
large rivers. The Nile rises in the south
of Victoria Nyanza, the largest lake in Al-
rica, of about the area of Scotland, and
breaks through the plateau to the north
by the Murchison Falls into the Albert
Nyanza, some 1,600 feet below the level of
the larger lake. Owing to the flat char.
acter of the country and the large amount
of water which has no sufficient outlet, an
extensive swamp vegetation, the "sudd,'
has been formed in this part of its course.
At Khartum it receives the Blue Nile,
which, with the other Abyssinian rivers,
is largely the source of the Nile floods,
due to the monsoon lains of the Abyssin.
ian Plateau, and further north the At-
bara, which brings down the alluvium
which has helped to fertilize Egypt. From
this point it receives no permanent tribu.
taries and navigation is hindered by six
cataracts, of which the first is at Assuan.
The extensive delta formed north of Cairo,
where the Nile leaves its long narrow val.
ley, is the most fertile area in North Al-
rica. Between the Nile and Tunis the
Sahara reaches


Mediterranean and
there are no permanent streams. The Sa-
hara is partly occupied by plateaus and
mountains and partly by steppes and des-
erts which contain oases. Africa is cut by
the Equator nearly halfway between its
extreme points, so that rather more than
three-quarters of the continent lies with
in the Tropics and receives

rays vertically at least once a year. Ex-
cept on the more lofty mountains, Africa
has no areas with cold winters, where the
temperature is 32° F. or less for one
month, or cool summers, which are less
than 50° F. in any month. It is, therefore,
typical generally of tropical rather than
temperate conditions, in which there is no
resting season for vegetation, except in
consequence of want of rain.

Ethnography.-Four main groups of na-
tive races may be distinguished in Africa,
the Semitic and Hamitic, belonging to the
Caucasic type in the north, the Negro, and
the Hottentot and Bushmen in the south,

Political Divisions.-Because of the com.
parative backwardness of the civilization of
Africa most of that continent has been oe!
cupied by European nations; and the only
independent nations there at present are
Abyssinia and Liberia. Egypt and Mo.
rocco are theoretically independent, but in
actuality the former, along with Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan, is controlled by Great
Britain and the latter by France and Spain.
The Union of South Africa, although nomi-
nally a part of the British Empire, enjoy8
self-government nearly corresponding to

The Powers with the most extensive pos-
sessions in Africa are Great Britain and
France. Each of them has a solid block of
territory, with certain non-contiguous col-
onies. The solid block of British territory
extends from the Mediterranean to the Cape
of Good Hope. Roughly, 1t takes in the
southern end of the continent, then swings
northwestward to the east coast along the
Indian Ocean and then proceeds almost due
north through the Sudan and Egypt. The
great solid block of French territory lies in
the northwest of Africa. Its centre is the
Sahara. Desert, with Algeria on the north,
a number of colonies comprising French
West Africa along the Atlantic seaboard,
and cutting through the centre of Africa,
between Nigeria and Belgian Congo (French
Equatorial Africa) to extend along the At-
lantic below the equator.

Union of South Africa and Southwest Af.
rica, held by it under mandate of the League
of Nations, Bechuapaland, Basutoland. Rho-
desia, Swaziland, Nyasaland, Tanganyika
(under mandate), Uganda, British Kamerun
(under mandate), Kenya, Egypt and Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan, Gambia. British Togoland
(under mandate), Sierra Leone, Gold Coast,
Nigeria, Somaliland and the islands men.
tioned above.

Southwest Africa is the former German
Southwest Africa, captured by British South
African forces during the World War and
assigned by the League of Nations to the
Union of South Africa under a mandate. It
lies between Angola on the north and the
Union of South Africa (Cape Province) on
the south and between the Atlantic on the
west and Rhodesia on the east. It was ac-
quired by Germany in the last two decades
of the nineteenth century. The protectorate,
with an area of 322,400 square miles, 18
largely barren, with a population of only
190,000_natives, mostly in the north, and
20.000 Europeans. The capital is Windhuk.
The output of the diamond mines 18 valu-
able, and copper, tin and marble also are
worked. Southwest Africa is essentially a
stock-raising country and there is practi.
cally no agriculture.

Bechuanaland les east of Southwest Al-
rica, between the Molopo River on the south
and the Zambesi on the north. Its area is
about 275,000 square miles, with a popula.
tion of some 130,000 natives and 5.000 Euro-
peans. The territory was declared within
the British sphere in 1885. The country is
used chiefly for grazing, the aridity prevent
ing much agriculture. Maize and kafir cora,
however, are raised to a slight extent. The
telegraph and railroad proceeding northward
from the Cape of Good Hope traverse the


Basutoland is a plateau northeast of the
Cape of Good Hope Province of the Union
of South Africa, with an area of 11,716
square miles and a population of some 425,-
000 natives and 3,000 Europeans. It was
brought under the British Crown in 1884,
Much grain is raised, and the excellent
grasses have led to much cattle-raising also.
Recent foreiga trade bas been above $5,000,-
000 annually. The capital is Maseru.

Swaziland is at the southeastern corner
of the Transvaal. It has an area of 6,678
square miles and a population of about 105,-
000, of whom about 2,000 are Europeans.
There is much grazing of cattle, especially
in the winter. The staple agricultural prod.
uct is maize, but other crops also are grown
in small quantities. Tin is the only mineral

Tanganyika Territory is the former Ger-
man East Africa, acquired by Germany in
1885-1890, occupied by Allied troops in
1915-1918 and administered by the British
Empire under mandate from the League of
Nations after the World War, with a section
of the western border administered by Bel-
glum. The area is about 365,000 square
miles and the population, around 3,500,000.
The country is fertile and there is much
agriculture as well as cattle-raising. There
are a number of plantations of cocoa-palms,
coffee, caoutchouc, sugar and cotton. Sisal
and other fibre plants also are cultivated.
There are several railroads, and good po-
tential harbors along the coast. The forests
are especially valuable. There have been
found many traces of mineral deposits and
valuable stones, especially garnets. In a
recent year, the foreign trade amounted to
more than $12,000,000, the chief exports in
order of value being sisal, hides, coffee,
copra, grain and cotton. The capital 18

Kenya Colony is the former East Africa
Protectorate, and includes a strip of land
leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar. The
area is about 246,000 square miles, and the
population, about 2,800,000. Mombasa, the
largest town, with a population of 30,000,
has an excellent harbor. The capital is
Vairobi (15,000). The agricultural products
of the lowlands are chiefly tropical, includ-
ing rice, maize, cocoanuts, and in the high-
lands practically all crops of the temperate
zones are grown. Sisal hemp, rubber and
cotton are cultivated. The area under wheat
and maize is rapidly extending and there
are many coffee plantations. Ostrich farin-
ing is an established industry and dairying
is a profitable concomitant of the stock-
raising. The forests, especially in the high-
lands, are very valuable, but few minerals
have been found. There are more than 600
miles of railway and 3,500 miles of tele-
graph, and the colony is well provided with
roads. In a recent year, the foreign trade,
Including that of Uganda and the Congo,
was valued at more than $30,000,000, the
chlef export being cotton (chiefly from
Uganda), followed by coffee, carbonate of
soda and fibres.

Gambia fell under British control in the
latter part of the eighteenth century. It
has an area of 4,134 square miles, with a
population of 250,000. Capital, Bathurst.
In a recent year, the foreign trade, includ-

ing specie, was valued at more than $8,500,-
000. The principal export is ground nu's.

Nigeria, formerly owned by the Royal
Niger Company, was declared under Britieh
protection in 1884-7, and taken over by the
Crown in the following years. Lagos is the
capital, the whole territory being divided
into the Northern and the Southern Prov.
Inces. The total area is about 332,000 square
miles, with a population of some 17,500,000.
The chief products are palm-oil and -kernels,
rubber, ground-nuts, shea-butter, ivory,
hides, llve stock, ostrich feathers, capsicums,
cotton, cocoa, coffee. Tobacco is grown and
there are rubber plantations. Mahogany 19
exported. The deposits of tin are very
valuable and iron, lead and coal also are
worked. There are about 1,200 miles of rail-
way, several thousand miles of telegraph,
about 150 post-offices. There are a number
of ports, and the many navigable streams
form the chief method of transport, al-
though much of the considerable trade in
the north is done by means of caravans.
In a recent year the foreign trade, includ-
ing specie, was valued at more than $125,-
000,000, the chief exports, in order of value,
being palm-kernels and oil, tin ore, hides
and skins, cocoa, ground-nuts and raw

Somaliland or Somali Coast was admin-
istered by the Government of India after
1884, when Egyptian control ceased. The
area is about 68,000 square miles and the
population, chiefly Mohammedan and no-
madic, about 300,000. The chief town is
Berbera, with a population of about 30,000.
In a recent year, the foreign trade amounted
to about $3,500,000, the chief exports being
hides and skins, gum and resin, and sheep
and cattle.

Zanzibar was declared 2 British protec-
torate in 1890. The chief industry is the
clove, of which Zanzibar and Pemba furnish
most of the world's supply, followed by the
cocoanut and the copra. In a recent year,
the foreign trade, including bullion and
specie, was valued at slightly more than

British Togoland represents the western
third of the former German colony of Togo-
land, acquired by Germany in 1884 and
occupied by the Allies in the World War.
It has an area of about 12,500 square miles
and a population of about 300,000. Eco-
nomic conditions are similar to those of
French Togoland (see below).

British Kamerun is a western strip of
Kamerun, held by mandate of the League
of Nations. The area is about 30,000 square
miles and the population, about 400,000.
Chief exports-palm products, rubber, ivory.

Nyasaland lles between Northern Rhodesia
and Lake Nyasa, whence it extends toward
the Zambesi. It has an

area of 39,573
square miles and an estimated population
of some 1,200,000. There is much cultiva.
tion and exportation of coffee, tobacco, cot-
ton and tea. There is also much cattle-
raising. In a recent year, exclusive of specie
and transit trade, the exports were valued
at $2,000,000 and the imports at $2,500,000.
There is a railroad about 200 miles long,
and a telegraph line connecting with Cape
Town northward to Tanganyika passes
through the protectorate,

For the other British possessions, see the
articles on

Egypt. Sierra Leone.
Gold Coast. Sudan.
Mauritius. Uganda.
Rhodesia. Union of South Africa.

St. Helena.
possessions in Africa comprise Algeria, Tu-
nis, Morocco, French Equatorial Africa,
French Togoland (under mandate from the
League of Nations), French Somali Coast,
French West Africa and the Sahara, Mada-
gascar and the other islands mentioned
above, and Kamerun (under mandate from
the League of Nations).

Kamerun became a German protectorate
in 1884. In 1911, it was increased by 107,-
270 square miles ceded by France from
French Congo as a result of German con-
cessions to France in Morocco. During the
World War, it was occupied by French and
British troops and after the war given to
France under a mandate from the League
of Nations, with the exception of a strip
along the northern boundary mandated to
Great Britain, about 30,000 square miles in
area. The area of French Kamerun is 273,-
759 square miles, with a population esti.
mated at 3,500,000. In a recent year, the
foreign trade amounted to about $4,000,000.
The principal products and exports are cof-
fre, tobacco, palm-oil, Ivory, cacao, rubber.
There are about 360 miles of railway and
almost as many of good roads. The chief
town is Duala.

Ivory Coast was claimed by France as
early as 1843, but was not occupied until
1883. It has an area of about 122.000
square miles and a population of some
1.400,000. The natives grow maize, rice and
fruits and Europeans cultivate coffee and
cocoa plantations. Rubber and mahogany
also are collected. In a recent year, the
foreign trade was valued at about $10,000,-
000, the chief exports in order of value
being palm-oll and -kernels, mahogany, co-
coa, rubber and coffee.

French Sudan is composed of the larger
part of the territory formerly known as
Upper Senegal-Niger. It has an

area of
about 617,600 square miles and a popula-
tion of 2,200,000. The chief agricultural
products are ground-nuts, rubber, gum,
maize, millet, rice and cotton. There is
much cattle-raising.

Upper Volta Colony is the southern sec-
tion of the former Upper Senegal-Niger ter-
ritory. It has an area of about 154,400
square miles and a population of about

Mauritania lles to the northwest of the
Sahara Desert, with an area of about 345,-
000 square miles and a population of 255,-
000, chiefly Moorish Mussulmans.

French Togoland represents about two.
thirds of the former German colony of Togo-
land, acquired by Germany in 1884 and
occupled by Allied forces during the World
War. The western third, adjoining the Gold
Coast. was assigned to Great Britain. The
French territory has an area of 20,072
square miles and a population of 750,000.
The climate is moist and unhealthful, but
there are rich deposits of Iron ore and other
minerals. The chief exports are Cocoa.
copra and palm-oil products, but in addition
the Datives raise a little maize and rice and

there are a few small tobacco, rubber and
coffee plantations.

For the other French possessions, consult
the articles on-


French Equatorial Africa. Senegal.
French Guinea.

French Somali Coast.

French West Africa.
large stretch of territory known as Belgian
Congo and in addition i southwestern por-
tion of the former German territory of Ger-
man East Africa, administered under man.
date from the League of Nations. (See
Tanganyika, above, Congo Free State and

Angola (Portuguese West Africa), Mozam-
bique (Portuguese East Africa), Portuguese
Guinea and the islands mentioned above,

Angola has belonged to the Portuguese
since 1575. It has an area of about 485.000
square miles and a population of some
2,200,000. In a recent year, the foreign
trade was valued at about $20,000,000. The
chief exports are coffee, rubber and dried
ish, but there is also trade in oils, wax,
cocoanuts, ivory. Tobacco and cotton also
are grown, and asphalt and petroleum are
worked. There are other valuable mineral

For the other possessions, see Portugal.

Oro, Spanish Guinea, Spanish Morocco and
the islands mentioned above. (See Spain
and Morocco.)

trea, Italian Somaliland, Tripolt and Cyre.
naica (Libla). (See the articles under these

and Liberia (q.v.).
Agents sent to, to receive slaves

taken from vessels, 633.
Citizens of United States must not

violate rights of inhabitants of, 396.
German colonies in, mandatory system

for, 8679,
Natives of, in slavery. (See African

Slave Trade.)
Naval force of United States sta.

tioned on coast of, referred to,

2173, 3071.
Repressing liquor trade in, sugges-

tions made by Belgium, 6363, 6425.
Slavery on coast of, 4160.
Vessels of United States seized on

coast of, 1857, 3017.
Africa, The, attempted seizure of Mr.

Fauchet by commander of, 3344.
African Slave Trade.--Prior to the discor.
ery of America, negroes, like other savage
races, either enslaved or put to death the
captives taken in war. The deportation of
the captives to the mines and plantations
of the New World increased the value of
the African and made slavery rather than
death the prisoner's fate, This disposition


of captives also led many petty chiefs to
wage war for the prospective gain in hu-
man chattels. The aborigines of America
having proved too weak for the work re-
quired of them, the Portuguese, who
possessed a large part of the African coast,
began the exportation of negroes, in which
they were imitated by other nations of the
oid World. Sir John Hawkins was the first
Eaglishman to engage in slave traffic. The
first importation of negro slaves was au.
thorized in 1517. Extreme cruelty and
inhuman treatment characterized their
transportation. They were landed at Haiti
and Santo Domingo and placed in the
mines. In 1619 a Dutch vessel brought a
cargo of slaves into the James River.
Twenty gegroes were sola to Virginia
settlers. In 1713, by the treaty of Utrecht,
Great Britain obtained the contract for
supplying slaves to the Spanish West In-
dies. This stimulated the slave trade gen-
erally. Several of the Colonies attempted
to prohibit the importation of slaves, but
Great Britain forced the trade upon them.
Virginia passed several acts forbidding the
traffic, but they were vetoed by the Brit-
ish Government, as were also those passed
bg Pennsylvania in 1712, 1714, and 1717,
and by Massachusetts in 1774.

Slavery was prohibited by Rhode Island
and Connecticut in 1774, and by all the
Colonies under the non-importation cove-
dant of Oct. 24, 1774, and forbidden by
Dearly all the States during the Revolution.
The slave-trade question was an important
ode in the formation of the Constitution.
The Southern States, except Virginia and
Maryland, Insisted that

should be imposed upon the traffic.

A compromise was finally effected allow-
ing Congress to prohibit it after 1808. The
act of March 22, 1794, prohibited the carry-
ing of slaves from one foreign country to
another by American citizens ; that of May
10, 1800, allowed United States war ships
to seize vessels engaged in such traffic;
that of Feb. 28, 1803, prohibited the in-
troduction of slaves into States which had
forbidden slavery. In 1808 the importa-
tion of slaves into the United States was
forbidden. The acts of April 20, 1818, and
March 3, 1819, authorized the President to
send cruisers to the coast of Africa to
stop the slave trade. As no restrictions
were ever placed upon domestic slave trad-
Ing before its abolltion in 1865, the surrepti-
tious trade in imported slaves was not en-
tirely given up until that time.
African Slave Trade. (See also Com-

promise of 1850; Kansas-Nebraska
Act; Missouri Compromise; Ne-
groes; Slavery.)
Abuses of United States flag referred

to, 2134.
Act for suppression of, referred to,

Agents sent to Africa to receive

slaves, 663.
American citizens engaged in, 2215.
Information regarding, requested,

Cargo of African negroes
Captured on coast of Cuba, and re-

turn of to Africa, discussed, 3058,

3124, 3126.
Landed on coast of Georgia, ro-

ferred to, 3065, 3069, 3086.
Stranded on coast of Florida, and

removal of, discussed, 967.

Ceased in United States, 3779.
Correspondence regarding-
Referred to, 2268, 2287, 2426, 2428,

2538, 2765.
Surrender of slaves to United

States consul referred to, 1944.
Discussed by President-

Adams, J. Q., 875, 967.
Buchanan, 3086, 3124, 3126, 3180.
Lincoln, 3254.
Madison, 470, 562.
Monroe, 583, 631, 783, 812, 819.
Taylor, 2553.
Tyler, 2215.

Van Buren, 1836.
Excluded from use of United States

flag, 875.
Foreign slave traders discussed, 3446.
International congress at Brussels for

abolition of, 5471, 5543, 6363.
Interpretation given act prohibiting,

Laws for suppression of

Amendments recommended, 2553.

Should be more severe, 1903, 1931.
Liberation of slaves by authorities of

Nassau, New Providence, 2064.
Proposition to Great Britain to abol.

ish mixed courts created for sup-

pression of, 3989.
Treaty regarding, 4055.
Punishment for engaging in, should

be same as for piracy, 779, 812.
Referred to, 1755, 2064, 2173, 2202,

2219, 2268, 2587, 2630, 3015, 3071,

3121, 3185, 3413.
Removal of negroes-
Captured by American vessels, to

Liberia, recommended, 3058, 3124.
Captured on coast of Cuba, 3058,

3124, 3126.
Stranded on coast of Florida rec-

ommended, 967.
Seizure of slaves on board the En.

comium and Enterprise, 1499.
Suppression of and suggestions that

Great Britain be asked to discon-
tinue the naval force maintained

for its suppression, 3779.
Desired by Government, 631, 1836,

1930, 2082, 2215, 3086, 3254.
But interpolations into maritime

code not permitted, 1930.
Referred to, 649, 650, 651, 678, 827,

958, 1857, 2048, 2082, 2553, 3180.
Squadron kept on coast of Africa

for, 2173.
Treaty between five powers of Eu-

rope for, 2011.
Inquiry of Senate respecting,

and reply of President, 2068.
Protest of American minister to

France regarding, 2011, 2048,

Treaty with Great Britain regard-

ing, referred to, 810, 812, 819,

African Slave Trade

Encyclopedic Inder Agricultural Implements


886, 2016, 2048, 2071, 2082, 3272,

3281, 3328, 3366, 3380, 4017.
Vessels transporting slaves should

be seized, 632, 783.
African Squadron, instruction to com-

manding officers of, referred to, 2173,

Agitator. -A person who, either by speech
or action, endeavors to change existing con-
ditions, The term may be employed in a
complimentary sense as synonomous with
"reformer" (q. v.), but is often restricted to
a person who endeavors to disturb conditions
from ulterior or anti-constructive motives.
Agitators denounced by President-

Roosevelt, 7033.

Wilson, 8814.
Agricultural Census recommended, 5982.
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment

Stations. (See Agriculture, Depart-

ment of.)
Agricultural Credits. (See Agriculture.)
Agricultural Implements. -From the ear-
liest times and in all countries until the
beginning of the Nineteenth century agri-
culture was distinctly manual labor.
Horses and oxen were used for plowing and
harrowing, but the labor of planting, cul-
tivating and harvesting was all performed
by hand.

Grain was sown broadcast by
hand, cut with a sickle, gathered with a
fork and thrashed out the barn floor
with a club. Corn was cultivated with a
hoe and its husking was made a social
event of rural communities. . By these
primitive methods the farmer was unable
to produce much of a surplus to exchange
for the fabrics of the cities or for export.
The only part of America where farming
proved a commercial success was in the
South, where slave labor was employed in
the cultivation of cotton and tobacco. The
invention of the cotton gin, though not
strictly a farm implement, made a com.
mercial crop of a plant theretofore of only
ordinary domestic value.

From the first turning of the soil to the
gathering of the crops American inventive
genius has lightened the labor and in-
creased the profits of agriculture so that
the farmers today enjoy a greater amount
of comfort and wealth than any other class
of citizens.

Prior to 1850 the manufacture of agrl-
cultural implements could hardly be con
sidered as more than a hand trade, and
in no sense as a factory industry, as the
term is at present understood. Ideas had
been evolved, and, on a small scale, exe-
cuted, which contained much that the im-
proved processes and facilities of the lat-
ter part of the century brought to complete
fruition. Implements were made in small
shops with an average capital of $2,674
per establishment. The evolution of the
manufacture from the small shops of the
blacksmith and wheelwright to the im-
mense establishments of the present day
embodies all the phases of the develop-
wont of the modern factory system. In
a large western plant 600 men by the aid
a machinery, do the work that, without
machinery would require 2,145 men.

The McCormick reaper was first put on
the market as a successful machine for the
Larvest of 1845. In 1847 the exports of

wheat and flour jumped to $32,178,161,
about five times the average of the pre-
ceding forty years, and increased rapidly
to 1860. The wheat crop. which had not
kept pace with the growth of population
from 1839 to 1849, gained more than 70
per cent in the decade between 1849 and
1859, and from a total crop of 84,823,272
bushels in 1845 increased to nearly a bil-
lion bushels in 1915. Cyrus H. McCormick
inherited the idea of making a grain
reaper from his father, who had patented
an imperfect revolving scythe in 1816.
The essential elements which made the
reaper finally successful were the reel, the
divider, the reciprocating knife, and the
platform. Latera self-raking attachment
took the place of the man who had raked
the grain by hand from the platform.

The Marsh harvesting machine had
toothed belts which carried the grain from
the platform over the master wheel to two
men who stood on a footboard and bound
the sheaves on tables attached to the
machine. By 1875 twine binding attach-
ments had been patented.

The automatic self binder, invented by
John F. Appleby, seems to have been the
culminating improvement made in grain
harvesting machines, and is used in one
form or another as an attachment to the
harvester to bind by far the largest part
of the grain harvested in this and other
countries. Now a million binders are in
use on American farms and a large export
business has grown up. Through the use
of American harvesting machines Argen-
tina, Australia and Russia have become
large exporters of wheat, and single car:
goes shipped to Europe contain more of
these machines than the entire output of
any European manufacturer in this line.
In Kansas, Nebraska and other Western
States, headers are used, which cut off the
stalk just below the head, elevate the
wheat into a wagon ready to be hauled to
the thrasher, and leave the straw standing,
In California, Oregon and Washington the
combined harvester carries a thrashing at-
tachment, which is operated by the trac-
tion wheel, so that a wide swath is cut and
thrashed and delivered in bags as the
machine is drawn across the field by horses
or a traction engine.

The mowing machine, the corn planter
and the two-horse cultivator, distinctively
American inventions, have served the same
purpose in promoting the production of
corn and hay as the reaper in the cereal
fields. Farmers were unable to produce
live stock, poultry and dairy products on
a commercial scale until they had labor
saving machinery for the cheap production
of hay and corn.

The principal steps in the development
of the harvesting machine are recorded in
the Patent Office as follows:

Reapers-Harvester, handraker, 185.5 :
self-raker, 1856 : dropper. 1861: adjustable
sritch reel rakes, 1865, 1875, 1879 and

Harvester Binders-Cord knotter, 1853:
wire twister, 1856 : straw braid twister,
1857 ; gleaner and bioder. 1862: sell-trin.
ping cord knotter, 1867: wire twister,
1868; automatic trip. 1870; straw looper,
1870: vibrating binder. 1875: low-down
binder, 1878: compressor automatic trip,
1879 : low-down oblique delivery, 1884.

Bean and Clover Harvesters-Clover har.
vester, 1819; clover stripping drum har.
vester, 1854 : clover head

cutter and
breaker, 1856; bean

stalk cutter and
bundler, 1859; clover spiral drum har-
vester, 1861 ; bean underground cutter,

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