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the liability for military service. The men from the maritime cities and provinces recruited the navy. All the officers of the German army were professional military men, and those citizens who were trained for the upper classes in the military service received only one year of training. From 22 to 27 the German man was under the first reserve, and from 27 to 45 in the second reserve. The normal professional army of Germany in peace times was about 870,000.

France, although with a smaller population, by a system of three years' military service and of fewer exemptions has been able to maintain a peace army of about 720,000, including her colonial troops-only 150,000 less than the German army. (See Swiss System of Military Training. Australian System of Military Training: also Armies of the World, Military Training in Schools, World War, Preparedness.) Concessioner.-One who obtains a special privilege from the Government, like the privi. lege of cutting timber or of using waterways. Concessions, The.—The privileges enjoyed by New Jersey as a Province in 1664 ; these privileges having been granted by Berkeley and Carteret. who held authority from Charles II. These privileges served as a constitution for the Province of New Jersey until the Revolution. Conciliation and Mediation. (See Medi.

diation and Conciliation.) Concord (Mass.), Battle of.-One of the opening skirmishes of the Revolutionary War. A detachment of 800 British soldiers under Lieut.-Col. Smith and Maj. Pitcairn had been sent from Boston to de. stroy or capture some military stores collected at Concord by the Americans. Af. ter a brief engagement at Lexington they reached Concord April 19, 1775, where they were opposed by 300 minutemen under Col. Barrett and Maj. Buttrick. After a short conflict, in which several were lost on each side, the British fled to Boston under a harassing fire of the Americans. (See also Lexington (Mass.), Battle of.) Concord, The, mentioned, 6298, 6414,

6766, 6769, 6771. Concurrent Resolution. -A resolution passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate not of sufficient importance to require the President's signature. Confectionery.

As early as 1816 there were twenty confectioners in Philadelphia, and perhaps as many in New York. Lach dealer, as a rule, manufactured his own stock by band and sold it at retall. In 1845 machinery was introduced into the business, and the trade has so increased that today the manufacture of special machinery for confectioners' use has become a separate and important industry.

Among the pioneers in the business were Sebastian Henrion, succeeded in 1844 by Henrion & Chauveau and later by Sebastian Chauveau, who was the first to manufacture gum-drops, ju-jube paste and marshmallows in this country ; Paul Lajas, who became a sugar refiner; George Miller, William N. Herring. S. S. Rennels and J. J. Richardson, of Philadelphia. In New York, Ridley & Co. was established in 1806'; R. L. Stuart in 1828, followed by Thompson, Stryker and the Delmonico Brothers. In Boston, the Chases, Copen. hagen, Nichols and Fenno were leaders, while in Baltimore the pioneers were Bouvey, Price and Bridges.

In 1850 there were in the United States 383 factories, employing 1,733 persons and producing $3,040,671 worth of goods, with an

Investment of $1,035.551. By 1900 the number of establishments had grown to 4,297, with a capital of $35,155,361, employing 33,583 persons, paying in wages $10,867,687, and turning out $81,290.543 worth of goods. Ten years later the value of the output was $134,795,000.

In 1884 the National Confectioners' As. sociation of the United States was formed by leading candy manufacturers. One of it's stated purposes is "to advance the standard of confectionery in all practicable ways, and absolutely to prevent harmful adulterations." In most states the sale of candy containing harmful ingredients is forbidden by law. Confederacy, United Daughters of the. -This organization was organized at Nasbville, Tennessee, on September 10, 1894, with a membership of 90,000 in its 3,000 chapters. It is composed of the widows, wives, or female descendants of military or civil workers under the Confederacy. Its objects are the unification of the woman. hood of the South, and the preservation of objects and data of historical interest. Confederate Flags: Captured, to be presented to Congress,

3309. Return of Union and, to respective

States recommended, 5163, Proposition withdrawn, 5164. Confederate Soldiers, proposed national

care of graves, 7006. President Wilson's speech at dedi.

cation of monument to, at Arling.

ton, 7948. Confederate Soldiers' Homes. (See Sol.

diers' Homes.) Confederate States.-A government organized in February, 1861, by the states of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. Later Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, and Teo. nessee seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. The provisional Congress met at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 4, 1861, and adopted a provisional constitution Fel). ruary 8. Jefferson Davis was elected provisional president and Alexander H. Ste. phens provisional vice-president. Later a permanent government was organized. A permanent constitution was adopted March 11, 1861. Mr. Davis and Mr. Stephens were elected president and vice-president, respectively, and they were inaugurated Feb. 22, 1862, at Richmond, Va., which was made the permanent seat of government.

The history of the Confederate States is almost entirely confined to a history of the Civil War. The United States Government denied the right of any state to se. cede from the Union, refused to recog. nize

the Confederate States as anything more than rebellious members of the Union, and immediately took measures to bring them into subjection The Confederate States were granted belligerept rights by most of the maritime nations, but their in. dependence was recognized by none (pages 3327, 3565). Money was obtained by the issue of treasury dotes and bloons on cotton. After a war of four years the gor. ernment of the Confederate States prac. tically came to an end with the surrender of Gen, Lee at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. Confederate Cabinet.-The Confederate
States had a cabinet composed of the heads
of executive departments, similar to the
l'oited States Government and created for
like purposes. The heads of the depart.
ments exercised similar powers and were
clothed with duties and responsibilities cor-
responding to those of Cabinet officers in
the United States. The President was em-
powered to remove members of his cabi-
net. Congress was authorized to provide
for the admission of cabinet officers to a
seat in either house, with the privilege of
participating in debates pertaining to their
departinent. This provision remained in-
operative, as the congress failed to pro-
vide the appropriate legislation. The sec.
retaries of state were Robert Toombs, of
Georgia, Robert M. T. Hunter, of Virgin.
la, and Judah P. Benjamin, of Louisiana ;
of the treasury, Charles G. Memminger and
George A. Trenholm, of South Carolina ; of
war, L. l'ope Walker, of Alabama, Judab
P. Benjamin, of Louisiana, George W. Ran.
dolph, of Virginia, James A. Seddon, of
Virginia, and John C. Breckinridge, of Ken.
tucky; of the nary, Stephen R. Mallory,
of florida : postmaster-general, John H.
Reagan, of Texas; attorneys-general, Judah
P. Benjamin, of Louisiana, Thomas Bragg,
of North Carolina, Thomas H. Watts, of
Alabama, and George Davis, of North
Carolina. The last member of this cabi.
net, John H. Reagan, died at Palestine,
Texas, on March 6, 1905.

Confederate Congress.—The provisional
congress of the seceding southern states
met at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 4, 1861.
Two sessions were held here.

The gov
ernment removed to Richmond, Va., May
24, 1861. The last two sessions were held
in the latter city, final adjournment tak.
ing place Feb. 17, 1862. The first con-
federate Congress held four sessions be-
tween Feb. 18, 1862, and Feb. 18, 1864,
to organize the Confederacy, frame a con-
stitutlon, and devise means for carrying
on the war. It consisted of twenty-four
senators and about one hundred represent-
atives. The second Confederate Congress
had two sessions between May 2, 1864, and
March 18, 1865.

Confederate Constitution.—The constitu-
tntion adopted by the Confederate States
of America at Montgomery. Ala.

A pro-
visional congress, composed of delegates
from the seceding states, met in that city
Feb. 4, 1861, and on the 8th adopted
A provisional or temporary constitution.
March 11 they agreed upon a permanent
constitution, which was afterward ratified
by all the seceding states. It was based
upon that of the United States, with the
following chief exceptions: It recognized
the principle of state sovereignty and the
protection of slavery in all new territories;
It prohibited internal improvements at fed-
eral expense and contained a prohibition
against laying any duties on imports to
promote or foster any branch of indus-
try"; new states were to be admitted by
1 vote of the states: state legislatures
could impeach Confederate officers acting
within their jurisdiction; the president
was to be elected for a term of six years
and was ineligible for re-election; the ap-
proprlating power of congress was lim-
ited, and the right of debate in congress
was extended to heads of departments.

Commissioners to Europe.-There were
sent abroad to secure assistance and co-op.
eration in Europe William L. Yancey and
James M. Mason to the Court of St. James,
John Slidell to Paris, Pierre A. Rost to
Madrid. A. Dudley Mann to Brussels, and
L. Q. C. Lamar to St. Petersburg, although

each made visits to other capitals. The
arrest of Mason and Slidell aboard a Brit.
ish steamer and their subsequent release
upon demand of Great Britain points to the
probability of intervention by that power
in behalf of the Confederate States.
Confederate States (see also Confeder-

ate Constitution; Reconstruction;
Restoration; Secession; Slavery;

Southern States; Civil War):
Acts for admission of certain South-

ern States vetoed, 3846, 3848.
Acts to provide for more efficient

government of rebel states vetoed.

(See Reconstruction.)
Agents of, abroad, suits instituted in

English courts against, 3661.
Aid furnished to, by Great Britain.

(See Alabama claims.)
Belligerent rights accorded, by for-

eign powers discussed, 3259, 3327,

Recognition and aid from foreign

powers invoked by, 3221, 3246.
Blockade of ports of.

(See Block
Circuit courts to be re-established in,

recommendations regarding, 3556.
Correspondence regarding, referred

to, 3576.
Claims against citizens of, and

means of collecting discussed, 3251.
Commercial intercourse with, prohib.

ited, 3238, 3366, 3483.
Restrictions on, removed from cer.

tain ports, 3290, 3310, 3372, 3375,
3417, 3431, 3482, 3507, 3515, 3524,

3529, 3531, 3537.
Constitution of. (See Confederate

Courts of justice for, recommended by

President Lincoln, 3251.
Direct tax, collection of, referred to,

Envoys of, sent to France and Great

Britain. (See Mason and Slidell.)
Executive departments of, historical

statement of Gen. Sherman con-
cerning public policy of, referred

to, 4850.
Flags of-

Captured, to be presented to Con.
Return of, to respective States, rec-

ommended, 5163.

Proposition withdrawn, 5164.
Government employees assisting in

rendition of public honors to rebel

living or dead, referred to, 3591.
Government of, first located at Mont.

gomery, Ala., 3225.
Transfer of, to Richmond, Va.,

Governments to be re-established in
Act to guarantee republican form

of government to states whose

gress, 3381.

governments have been

overthrown, 3424. Discussed, 3390.

Proclamations regarding, 3414, 3423. In which insurrection exists pro

claimed, 3238, 3293, 3358, 3366. Proclamations declaring insurrec

tion at an end, 3627, 3632. Joint resolution declaring certain

States not entitled to representation in electoral college discussed,

3461. Joint resolution excluding electoral

votes of states lately in rebellion,

vetoed, 3849. Policy of President of United States

toward, referred to, 3667. President of. (See Davis, Jefferson.) Products of, authority given to pur.

chase, 3441. Rebel debt, referred to, 3583, 3588. Reconstruction of. (See Reconstruc

Restoration of. (See Restoration.)
Secretary of War of. (See Seddon,

James A.)
Union and Confederate flags, return

of, to respective States recom.

mended, 5163.

Proposition withdrawn, 5164. Confederate Veterans. (See United

Confederate Veterans.) Confederate Veterans, United. (See

United Confederate Veterans.) Confederate Veterans, United Sons of. -This organization was formed in Richmond in 1896 for charitable, historical and social purposes. It is composed of male descendants of men who served the Confederacy actively during the Civil War. Confederation, Articles of.—The Second Continental Congress appointed on June 11, 1776, a committee to draw up Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. This committee presented a draft to Congress July 12, 1776. Nov. 15, 1777, they were adopted with amendments as "Arti. cles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States. July 9, 1778, the Articles were signed by delegates from eight states. March 1, 1781, the delegates from Maryland also signed, and on the same date the final ratification was ordered by Congress. The original is indorsed: “Act of Confederation of the United States of America." These Articles provided for a single House of Congress with power to raise money by requisition on the states. Ratification of the articles by all the states was necessary, and they could not be amended save by the consent of every state. They did not operate on individuals and could not command respect abroad or enforce order at home. After numerous futile attempts 10 amend them a convention, following the suggestion of the Virginia and Maryland boundary commissioners, was called at Annapolis, Md., in 1786, which in turn called a convention at Philadelphia in 1787. The last-named body rejected the Articles of ('onfederation and framed instead the present Constitution, which, after its ratifica. tion by nine states, became the supreme law of the land (page 5).

Confederation, Articles of, 5.

Signers of, 13. Congo Conference, at Berlin, referred

to, 4823, 4855, 4865, 4915. Congo Free State.-A dependency of Belglum in the heart of Africa. It extends from 5° 30' north of the equator to about 12° south, and from the central lake reglon north and west to the Congo River. The northwest boundary follows that river to its mouth, which provides an outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. The exact boundaries were defined by the neutrality declarations of August, 1885, and December, 1894, after treaties with Great Britain, Germany, France and Portugal. The country bas access to the Nile at the Lado enclave, of which that river forms the eastern boundary The area of the country is estimated at more than 900,000 square miles, and the inhabitants at 20,000,000. The European population, Jan. 1, 1908, numbered 2,943, including forty-seven Americans, The state had its origin in the companies formed for trade and exploration in that region.

The African International Association, founded in 1877, sent Henry M. Stanley on an expedition up the Congo River to estab. lish trading posts and report on the possibilities of travel and transportation. After Stanley's return the Comité d'Etudes du Haut Congo was formed under the auspices of Leopold II, King of Belgium, and in 1879 this became the International Association of the Congo. This organization again sent Stanley up the great river. He and his men built roads, founded trading stations and made more than 400 treaties with native chiefs, conveying the sover: eignty of these chiefs to the International Association of the Congo. The association then appealed to the Powers of the world for permission to combine these numerous sovereignties into one independent state. The United States was the first country to recognize the International Association of the Congo as a sovereign independent power, under the name of the Congo Free State. This was done in accordance witli the report of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Forty-eighth Congress, which reported that the acts of the native chiefs were clearly within their rights and that the association could lawfully accept them (pages 4823, 4914). Within a year Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and Sweden followed the example of the United States.

A general act of the International Congo Conference, held at Berlin in 1883, estal). lished freedom of trade in the basic of the Congo, declared absolutely free the navigation of the Congo, its tributaries and the lakes and canals connected with it, laid down rules for the protection of the natives and the suppression of the slave trade, aud imposed upon the powers which signed the act the obligation to accept the media. tion of one or more friendly governments should any serious trouble a rise in the ('ongo basin. The United States declined to ratify this act, on the ground that such action imposed upon it international obli. gations at variance with its traditional pol. icy. The Conference placed the state un der the sovereignty, of King Leopold n of Belgium, on the basis of personal union with Belgium, though perpetually neutral and free to the trade of all nations, and guaranteed equality of treatment to all settlers of whatever nationality. By a will dated Aug. 2. 1889, Leopold bequenthed to Belgium all bls sovereign rights in the

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Congo Free State. The atrocities committed by the Belgians against the natives became an international scandal, and merit rank with the most bestial persecutions of modern times, such as those of the Turks against the Armenians and Bulgarians, the Russians against the Jews, or the Germans against the Belgians.

July 21, 1890, the territory of the state was declared inalienable, but a convention of July 3, 1890, reserved to Belgium the right to annex the Congo after a period of ten years. A treaty for annexation was signed Nov. 28, 1907, approved by the Belgian legislature in August, 1908, and by the King Oct. 18, 1908. By February, 1909, Germany had recognized the annexation. The exports of the country consist of rubber, ivory, palm nuts, palm oil, white copal, cocoa, coffee, gold, and copper ore, Cottons, provisions, clothing, wines and spirits, machinery, building material, arms, ammunition are sold to the country. The bulk of the trade is with Belgium.

In 1914 the Congo completed its sixth year as a Belgian colony. The Belgian Parliament provided for its administration and appointed Baron Wahis governor. Many complaints have been made of cruel treatment of natives by traders. Great Britain withheld her recognition of the annexation until there was evidence of satisfactory conditions in the Congo. Nov. 21, 1911, British consuls in the country reported that conditions in general had improved but that abuses continued in those districts where rubber is demanded in lleu of taxation. (See also Belgium.) Congo Free State: Act for reform of revenue tariff of,

referred to, 5621. Arms and ammunition, act prohibit

ing sale of, to natives of, recom

mended, 5868. Discussed, 4914. International Association of the Con.

go recognized by United States,

4823, 4914. Referred to, 4988. Reform in, prospect of, discussed, 7412. Report on conditions in, discussed,

7393, Slave trade inConference at Brussels for suppres.

sion of, 5543. Recommendations regarding, 5868. Valley of Congo opened to commerce,

discussed, 4762. Congo, Treaties with.—The International Assoclation of the Congo declared in 1884 that by treaties with the legitimate sovereigns of the basin of the Congo and adjacent territory, on the Atlantic it had established supervision over the commerce of the several countries and adopted a common standard for said free states consisting of a blue flag with a golden star in the cen. ter. Recogoition of this pag was accorded by the United States by declaration of Secretary Frelinghuysen April 22, 1884. Congress.-A formal meeting or associa. tion of persons having a representative character for the enactment of laws, or the consideration of some special subject, or the promotion of some common interest. In the United States all legislative powers are granted by the Constitution to Con.

gress. This body consists of the Senate (q. v.) and the House of Representatives (g. v.). The powers of Congress are enumerated in the Constitution, Article I, section 8, and all the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectively or to the people. The power of Congress is abso. lute within the scope of its authority ex. cept as it may be restrained by the veto of the President. The Senate is composed of two members from each state regardless of size or population. The members of the House are apportioned on the basis of Federal population. The Constitution provides (Article V) that "no state, without Its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate." The Senate is presided over by , the Vice-President of the United States, who is also President of the Senate, and the House of Representatives by a Speaker chosen by its members. The Vice-President has no power except in cases where the Senate is equally divided. Congress is required to "assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December unless they shall by law appoint a different day." Measures that have passed both Houses are sent to the President, who may either approve or veto them, or do neither, in which latter case the measure becomes a law after ten days from the time it is presented to him, unless in the meantime Congress shall have adjourned.

If prove the bill and sign it, it becomes a law, but if he disapprove it he must return it with his objections to the House in which it shall have originated for reconsideration by them. In such a case, after reconsideration, it requires the afirmative vote of two-thirds of the members in each of the two bodies to pass the measure. Legislation which exceeds the constitutional power of Congress may be declared unconstitutional and void by the Supreme Court of the United States when that body is properly appealed to by either party in any controversy arising in an at. tempt to enforce such legislation.

Each House is by the Constitution “the judge of elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members" (page 17). (See also Senate and House of Representatives ; United States, Government of, and Apportionment.) Congress: Act appointing day for annual meet.

ing of, vetoed, 1450. Act of Approved, but not signed, whether

in force, discussed, 856. Duly certified and approved, which

had not passed, discussed, 1353. Effect on, of adjournment of Con.

gress before expiration of 10 days after presentation to Presi

dent, discussed, 3797. Acts of, to be published in certain

newspapers, 4116. Address from committee of public

safety of France transmitted to,

Adjournment of-

Denounced, 8697.
Postponement of recess requested,

Postponement of, recommended,

3021, 3286, 4034.



Resolution authorizing, not

proved, 257. Appropriations, power to designate

officer to expend, discussed, 3128. Appropriations should not be made

by, unless necessary, 1248. Bills, time allowed for consideration

of, discussed, 2993, 3060. Cabinet members should have seats in,

7811. Capital, longitude of, west of Green

wich, report, 688.
Capitol prepared for. (See Capitol.)
Carpenter's painting of Lincoln aná

Cabinet at reading of Emancipa.
tion Proclamation presented to,

Constitution, copies of, printed for

members of, 634, 678. Constitutional amendments

mended to. (See Constitution.) Contingent expenses of, discussed,

3179. Declaration of Independence, first

copperplate of, bequeathed to, by Lafayette, letter of son presenting,

1342. Diligence and good temper of, ad

mired, 7913.
Desk on which Declaration of Inde-

pendence was written presented
to United States by heirs of Jo.

seph Coolidge, Jr., 4540.
Letter of Robert C. Winthrop re-

garding, 4541. Discretionary authority which can be

regulated by, should not be exer.

cised by Executive, 1387. District of Columbia should be repre

sented in, 1091, 1120, 3652. Extraordinary sessions of, convened

by proclamation of President-
Adams, John, 222.
Cleveland, 5828.
Harrison, W. H., 1876.
Hayes, 4399, 4472.
Jefferson, 345, 412.
Lincoln, 3214
McKinley, 6470.
Madison, 476, 509.
Pierce, 2927.
Taft, 7586.
Van Buren, 1538.

Wilson, 8709.
House of Representatives (see also

Representatives) -
Address of, in reply to President

Washington's inaugural, 48.
Reply of President, 49.
Address of, to President Adams on

death of Washington, 290. Appropriations in, should be initiated and prepared through single com

mittee, 8405, Calls on President, 290.

Contested elections in, act regu.

lating taking of testimony in, reasons for applying pocket veto

to, 2108. Expresses regret upon being noti.

fied of President Washington's

intention to retire, 200. Information regarding foreign in.

tercourse refused, 186, 2281,

2416, 2452. Referred to, 2529. Letter of John Randolph, Jr., de.

manding punishment of certain officers of Army and Navy for insulting conduct, referred to, 291. Members of. (See Representatives.) Privileges of, letter relating to,

transmitted, 293. Protests of Presidents against ac.

tion of. (See Protests.)

Assent of, to, not required, 188.
Transmission' of, to, declined,

Information regarding foreign affairs

requested by, refused, 186, 2232, 2281, 2416, 2452, 2690, 2691, 2695,

6101. Joint resolution ofDeclaring freedom of Cuba and au

thorizing intervention, etc.,

6297. Discussed, 6311. Regarded by Spain as "equiva

lent to an evident declaration

of war,” 6312. Loyal Senators and Representatives

denied admission to seats in, dis

cussed, 3644, Mail, rates of transportation of,

should be regulated by. (See Post

al Service.) Meeting ofAct appointing day for annual, ve

toed, 1450. Constitutional amendment regard

ing, recommended, 240.
Members of. (See Representatives;

Notification to, of discontinuance of

addresses, by President Jefferson,

313. Permanent seat of Government oc

cupied by. (See Seat of Govern

Powers of, to regulate monopolies and

evil practises of trusts, 6712.
Praised by President Wilson, 8000.
Protests of Presidents against action

of. (See Protests.)
Public and private acts of, list of,

transmitted, 3963,
Reception of President by, plans for,

36-7, 39-41.


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