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PREFACE Though the advent of a Republican Congress and administration in 1953 marked the beginning of a period of adjustment in U.S. foreign policy, one must not lose sight of the underlying continuities. There were changes, to be sure, but also an enduring element in adherence to the fundamentals of policy that had animated U.S. behavoir abroad since early in the postwar period.

This pattern of continuity and change was reflected most conspicuously in the mutual security program, the centerpiece of postwar legislative action. The program came before Congress in the form of amendments to earlier legislation. The new administration requested a reduction in the funding authorization, primarily by suggesting further cuts in non-defense-related assistance, and by the decision to "stretch out” the military buildup and hardware deliveries. The program was promoted as one geared to the “long haul," a plan of action that would enable the Western Powers to deal with the long-term Soviet threat without disrupting their still fragile economies. The administration's program also gave increased attention to the Far East and carried with it an administrative reorganization that included abolition of the Mutual Security Agency and its replacement with the new Foreign Operations Administration.

But a large part of the Committee's time was spent wrestling in more direct fashion with the perplexing and intractable political and security issues confronting the country. The instruments here were the resolution and executive-legislative consultations. Resolutions were passed protesting the treatment of minorities in the U.S.S.R., condemning Soviet actions derogatory to the rights of free men, reaffirming the Senate's commitment to the principles of arms limitations, and lending moral support to the East Germans in their brief June revolt against Soviet rule. A resolution concerning “captive peoples” in the satellite countries was debated at length, but then deferred when it became clear that differences over the issue of how wartime agreements made by Presidents Roosevelt and Truman had contributed to the post war fate of these peoples could not be resolved in Committee. The Committee also consulted on several occasions and at length with the Secretary of State and other officials on such pressing matters as the armistice in Korea, the growing crisis (and U.S. involvement) in Indochina, and the many problems associated with the defense of Europe, especially as reflected in debate over the European Defense Community (EDC).

The Committee continued, of course, to devote considerable attention to the more "routine" matters on its agenda-bridge conventions, taxation treaties, and the like-but it also considered and approved major legislation authorizing construction and operation of the St. Lawrence Seaway. The oversight examination of the overseas information program begun in the previous Congress was continued and a second major study—this time of the United Nations Charter-was launched. In addition, the changeover of administrations produced an unusually heavy workload of high-level nominations to be considered, a task made even more burdensome, however, by growing concern with the internal security issue, which led to the institution of a more formal and rather cumbersome procedure for examining the background of nominees. The nomination of Charles Bohlen to be Ambassador to the Soviet Union became controversial and occupied the Committee's attentions for several sessions before it was approved.

A good portion of the executive proceedings relating to these various matters was published contemporaneously in "sanitized” form. With two exceptions, this material is not being republished here. Matters originally excised from an executive hearing on the Bohlen nominațion and from a report by General Gruenther on the situation in Europe have been reproduced in this volume, both for their intrinsic interest and as reflecting the scope and nature of U.S. security sensitivities in 1953. For the rest, a selection has been made from the Committee's files of matter illustrating the major trends and events confronting the Committee in this first session of the 83rd Congress. In those cases where it did not seem worthwhile to publish the verbatim transcript, the official minute has been reproduced. A more coherent and comprehensive picture of the Committee's executive proceedings is thus attained. Unpublished transcripts are held at the National Archives where they are accessible to scholars in accordance with the rules of that agency.

in earlier volumes, the transcripts contained in this volume are published with a minimum of editorial revision. Texts were submitted in galley to the State Department and participating Senators for review and comment, but no changes or deletions of substance were recommended. Subheads, documents immediately useful to a comprehension of the discussions, and a limited number of explanatory notes have been supplied. Otherwise, the text stands as transcribed by the Committee's reporters.

Inquiries from users of earlier volumes in this series suggest that the textual interpolation "off the record” (the exact phrasing varies) is not widely understood. In fact, it means just what it says: No official record is kept of these "off the record” discussions.

This volume was prepared for publication by Harry L. Wrenn on temporary assignment with the Committee staff from the Congressional Research Service.

JOHN SPARKMAN.

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CONTENTS

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Preface.

Minutes. January 14.

Report by the Secretary of State (Acheson). January 19.

Testimony of: Acheson, Dean G., Secretary of State

Minutes. January 21.---

Minutes (Information Subcommittee). January 21.

Minutes. January 22.

Minutes. January 23.

Minutes. January 26.--

Committee procedure on nominations. January 28.

Minutes. January 29.

Minutes. January 30.

Minutes. February 2.

Minutes. February 3.-

Minutes. February 4.

Loyalty-security problems in the Department of State. February 5.---

Testimony of: Humelsine, Carlisle H., Deputy Under Secretary of

State

Minutes. February 9..

Minutes. February 10 (morning session).

Report by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. February 10 (afternoon

session)

Testimony of: Bradley, Omar, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

Report by the Secretary of State (Dulles). February 13.

Testimony of: Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State

Minutes. February 17----

Persecution of minorities in the Soviet Union. February 24.

Persecution of minorities in the Soviet Union-continued. February 25.

Minutes (Information subcommittee). February 25.

Declaration on captive peoples. February 26..

Testimony of: Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State

Minutes. February 27..
Nomination (Bohlen). March 2..

Testimony of: Bohlen, Charles E

Declaration on captive peoples-continued. March 3..

Report by the Under Secretary of State. March 5.---

Testimony of: Smith, Walter Bedell, Under Secretary of State

Minutes. March 10..

Minutes. March 18.

Minutes. March 24.

Nominations (Bohlen)-continued. March 25..

Minutes. March 31..

Report by the Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe.

April 1.

Testimony

of: Alfred

Gruenther, Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters

Allied Powers, Europe

Minutes. April 9.-

Minutes. April 10.--

An informal meeting with Rene Pleven, French Minister of Defense,

April 13..

Testimony of: Rene Pleven, French Minister of Defense

Report by the Secretary of State. April 17.

Testimony of: Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State

Minutes. April 17 (afternoon session).

Testimony of: Merchant, Livingston T., Assistant Secretary of State

Minutes (Information subcommittee). June 9..

Mutual Security Act-continued. June 10..

Minutes. June 11.----

European integration; request for a committee transcript--continued;

Mutual Security Act-continued. June 12..

Minutes. June 16.-

Minutes (Subcommittee To Consider Commercial Treaties). June 16..

Minutes. June 23..

Minutes. June 29.

Resolution on the situation in Germany. July 2..

Minutes. July 2 (afternoon session).--.

Minutes (Subcommittee To Consider Commercial Treaties). July 13.

Minutes (Subcommittee on Disarmament). July 13.---

Minutes. July 14.-

Report by the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs. July 16..

Testimony of: Walter S. Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for

Far Eastern Affairs

Minutes (Subcommittee on Disarmament). July 16..

Minutes. July 17---

Minutes. July 21.

Minutes (Subcommittee on the Passamaquody Tidal Basin Project).

July 21..--

Minutes (Subcommittee on Disarmament). July 21.

Report by Ambassador Lodge; Senate Concurrent Resolution 27, Senate

Concurrent Resolution 32, relating to disarmament. July 23....

Minutes. July 27-

Minutes. July 29..

Minutes. July 30..

Minutes. August 1..

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APPENDIXES

A. Volumes published to date in the "Historical Series”.
B Persecution of minorities in the Soviet Union...-
C. Declaration on captive peoples.
D. Mutual Security Act of 1953...
E. Armistice in Korea...
F. Disarmament resolutions...

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