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NATURE AND CAUSES
WEALTH OF NATIONS.
By ADAM SMITH, L.L.D. F.R.S.
A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR.
A VIEW OF TH DOCTRINE OF SMITH, COMPA
THAT OF THE
IN THREE VOLUMES.
PRINTED FOR MUNDELL, DOIG, AND STEVENSON, EDINBURGH;
T. HAMILTON, LONDON; AND WILSON AND SON, YORK.
vol ADVERTISEMENT TO THE THIRD EDITION.
The first Edition of the following work was printed in the end of the year 1775, and in the beginning of the year 1776.—Through the greater part of the book, therefore, whenever the present state of things is mentioned, it is to be understood of the state they were in, either about that time, or at some earlier period, during the time I was employed in writing the book. To the third Edition, however, I have made several additions, particularly to the Chapter upon Drawbacks, and to that upon Bounties; likewise a new Chapter, intitled, The Conclusion of the Mercantile System; and a new article to the chapter upon
expences of the Sovereign.-In all these additions, the present state of things means always the state in which they were during the year 1783, and the beginning of the year 1784.
ADVERTISEMENT TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
In this fourth Edition I have made no alterations of any kind. I now, however, find myself at liberty to acknowledge my very great obligations to Mr. Henry Hope of Amsterdam. To that gentleman I owe the most distinct, as well as liberal information concerning a very interesting and important subject, the Bank of Amsterdam, of which no printed account had ever appeared to me satisfactory, or even intelligible. The name of that gentleman is so well known in Europe,
the information which comes from him must do so much honour to whoever has been favoured with it, and my vanity is so much interested in making this acknowledgment, that I can no longer refuse myself the pleasure of prefixing this advertisement to this new Edition of my Book.
ADVERTISEMENT TO THE PRESENT EDITION.
For this Edition an Account of the Life of the Author has been drawn up; and although it cannot be said that any Facts relating to that truly great Man are given, in addition to those which have already appeared, yet a more satisfactory Account, it is presumed, will now be found of his Studies and Doctrines, than has been prefixed to any other Edition of the Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
There are likewise prefixed, a Comparative View of the Doctrines of Smith and the French Economists, and a Method of facilitating the Study of Mr. Smith's Inquiry, by Germain Garnier, of the National Institute, Translator of this work into the French language.
The Advantage of some Directions to the Readers of this immortal Work, as it has justly been called,