The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N- Nitroso Compounds: Part 1 of a 2-part Study, 第 1 篇
National Academy Press, 1981 - 529 頁
Abstract: This first volume of a 2-volume report attempts to assess the health risks associated with overall exposure to nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds, with emphasis on the risks from natural and supplemented nitrate and nitrite in foods and the use of nitrite as a food preservative. An evaluation was made of the toxicologic and carcinogenic significance of exposure to these chemical species and their potential health risks. A number of conclusions are developed from this evaluative report. These include: nitrate is neither carcinogenic nor mutagenic; nitrite is not a direct-acting carcinogen; most N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic in laboratory animals, but the experimental data are of limited value in predicting their quantitative risk to humans; the nitrosation-inhibiting effects of ascorbate and other substances have been established; and, due to possible health risk in using nitrate as a curing agent, a search for alternatives should be continued. The use of nitrate and nitrite in foods and the chemistry of these materials are discussed. (wz).
THE USE OF NITRATE AND NITRITE
MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NITRITE 316
ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF NITRITE 341
Agency for Research Agric ascorbic acid bacon bacteria botulism carcinogenic Castegnaro Challis chemical cigarette Clostridium botulinum color committee containing cooked Cosmet cured meat flavor cured meat products cured products Department of Agriculture dimethylamine dinitrogen tetroxide dinitrogen trioxide E. A. Walker effect of nitrite endogenous Environmental estimates exposure of humans factors Food Chem Food Sci Food Technol formation of N-nitroso gastric Griciute hams IARC IARC Scientific Publication ingested inhibition intake International Agency level of nitrite Lijinsky metabolism methods mg/kg mg/liter microorganisms Mirvish morpholine myoglobin N-nitroso compounds NDMA nitrate and nitrite nitrate content nitric oxide nitrogen dioxide nitrosamine formation nitrosamines nitrosatable nitrosating agents nitrosation nitrosation reactions nitrous acid occur phenols rats reduced reported Research on Cancer residual nitrite samples sausages secondary amines smoke sodium chloride sodium nitrite specific spoilage spores stomach studies Table Tannenbaum temperature thiocyanate tobacco tobacco smoke tumors U.S. Department vegetables vivo volatile nitrosamines µg/kg