第 122 頁
讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
Regional Features in Colloquial Speech in Bohemia
Czech in Contact with Other Languages
Lexical Polyphony in Chicago Czech Texts
The Language of the Czech Minority in Vienna
Some Aspects of the Relationship Between Czech
according adjectives American appears attitudes authors become BMJB Bohemia borrowings Brno central changes characteristic codification colloquial Common Czech compared context cultivation cultural dialect discourse discussion elements endings English especially example expression fact factors foreign formal forms function German grammatical groups Havránek immigrants important indicate individual influence inscriptions instance jsem language variety less lexical linguistic Literary Czech literary language marked masc means Moravian morphological names nature norm nouns novel occur original past phonetic phrases play Prague present published referent region represent result setting situation Slovak social sociolinguistic speak speakers specific speech spelling spoken Spoken Czech stage standard structural style stylistic switching tombstones traditional translation University usage Vaculík variants variety verb writing written
第 122 頁 - NOTES Research for this article was supported in part by a grant from the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), with funds provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the United States Information Agency, and the US Department of State.
第 63 頁 - By foregrounding, on the other hand, we mean the use of the devices of the language in such a way that this use itself attracts attention and is perceived as uncommon...
第 57 頁 - As characterized here, diglossia differs from the more widespread standard-with-dialects in that no segment of the speech community in diglossia regularly uses H as a medium of ordinary conversation, and any attempt to do so is felt to be either pedantic and artificial (Arabic, Greek) or else in some sense disloyal to the community (Swiss German, Creole).
第 20 頁 - I (1960) tentatively defined a standard language as "a codified form of a language, accepted by, and serving as a model to, a larger speech community.
第 63 頁 - By automatization we thus mean such a use of the devices of the language, in isolation or in combination with each other, as is usual for a certain expressive purpose, that is, such a use that the expression itself does not attract any attention;, the communication occurs, and is received, as conventional in linguistic form and is to be "understood...
第 116 頁 - ... the caught fish, the married girl, the bought car. Coreference then is not directly between the noun phrase in the first part of the sentence and that in the second; the antecedent for the coreference is in fact not expressed as a noun phrase anywhere in the sentence. Coreference rather seems to be with that unique though hypothetical entity which would be crucially involved in actualizing the possible world characterized in the first part of the sentence.
第 21 頁 - By this criterion, if a person uses a word or a phrase from another language, he has mixed, not switched. But if one clause has the grammatical structure of one language and the next is constructed according to the grammar of another, a switch has occurred (Fasold 1984: 182).
第 24 頁 - Okoly spisovneho jazyka a jeho kultura' (The Tasks of the Standard Language and its Cultivation) SCjK (Prague 1932) 32; in the same volume cf.
第 22 頁 - Fasold writes, in almost all cases of societal language shift, a substantial proportion of the individuals in a society seldom completely give up the use of one language and substitute another one within their lifetime. In the typical case, one generation is bilingual, but only passes on one of the two languages to the next.
第 61 頁 - ... Jedlicka, and Frantisek Travnicek. (1961) "K otazce obecne cestiny a jejiho pomeru k cestine spisovne". Slovo a slovesnost 22(2): 98-107. Belie, Jaromir, Bohuslav Havranek, and Alois Jedlicka. (1962) "Problematika obecne cestiny a jejiho pomeru k jazyku spisovnemu". Slovo a slovesnost 23(2): 108-26. Havranek, Bohuslav. (1963) "Na zaver dvoulete diskuse o obecne a hovorove cestine".