## Fractals in the Earth SciencesFractals have changed the way we understand and study nature. This change has been brought about mainly by the work of B. B. Mandelbrot and his book The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Now here is a book that collects articles treating fractals in the earth sciences. The themes chosen span, as is appropriate for a discourse on fractals, many orders of magnitude; including earthquakes, ocean floor topography, fractures, faults, mineral crystallinity, gold and silver deposition. There are also chapters on dynamical processes that are fractal, such as rivers, earthquakes, and a paper on self-organized criticality. Many of the chapters discuss how to estimate fractal dimensions, Hurst exponents, and other scaling exponents. This book, in a way, represents a snapshot of a field in which fractals has brought inspiration and a fresh look at familiar subjects. New ideas and attempts to quantify the world we see around us are found throughout. Many of these ideas will grow and inspire further work, others will be superseded by new observations and insights, most probably with future contributions by the authors of these chapters. |

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### 內容

1 | |

Some LongRun Properties of Geophysical Records | 41 |

Some Remarks on the Numerical Estimation of Fractal Dimension | 65 |

Example of Rough | 77 |

Review of the Fractal Character of Natural Fault Surfaces with | 89 |

A Review and a Model | 107 |

Fractal Transitions on Geological Surfaces | 131 |

Fractal Fragmentation in Crustal Shear Zones | 179 |

Implications of Brittle | 205 |

Fractal Dynamics of Earthquakes | 227 |

Fractal Method | 237 |

Fractal Structure of Electrum Dendrites in Bonanza Epithermal AuAg | 251 |

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### 常見字詞

abyssal hills algorithm American Geophysical Union amplitude analysis approximately average Barton behavior Biegel blocks Cantor dust cell characteristic correlation crossover length crystals data sets deformation dendrites displacement divider method Earth earthquakes electrum estimate Euclidean example fault gouge fault lengths fault surfaces fault zones FIGURE fractal dimension fractal distribution fractal geometry fractal limit fracture networks fracture patterns fracture trace maps frequency friction function Geol geological Geophys Koch curve linear Lorraine coal basin Malinverno Mandelbrot and Wallis map in Fig measured Mechanics Menger sponge natural fault observed obtained offset parameters particles plot power law power spectra pox diagram Pure Appl random range rock roughness Sammis sample scale seismicity self-affine self-affine fractal self-organized critical self-similar shear shown in Fig slope spacing spatial spectral method spectrum statistical synthetic tectonic topography Tullis Turcotte two-dimensional values versus volcanic wavelength Yucca Mountain