England and Russia in Central Asia, 第 1 卷
W. H. Allen, 1879
Demetrius Charles Boulger (1853-1928) was a British orientalist who wrote prolifically on topics mainly related to the British Empire. With Sir Lepel Henry Griffin (1838-1908), a British administrator in India, he co-founded the Asiatic Quarterly Review, which he edited for a time. Presented here is Boulger's two-volume England and Russia in Central Asia, published in 1879 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80). Boulger was an unapologetic imperialist with strongly anti-Russian views. In this book he predicts an "imminent" Anglo-Russian war, which, he argues, Great Britain should undertake at a time when it is still "strong enough to solve the Central Asian Question wholly in our own favour." Volume one is largely dedicated to matters pertaining to Russia. Its 11 chapters cover such topics as recent Russian explorations in Central Asia, the Amu Darya River, Russian government of Turkestan, Russia's military strength in Central Asia, and Russia's relations with Khiva and Khokand, Bukhara, and Persia. This volume has seven appendices containing official documents, including the texts of the treaties concluded by Russia with the khanates of Khiva and Bukhara. A "latest" Russian official map of Central Asia is also included at the end of volume one. Volume two covers matters relating primarily to Great Britain and British India. It has ten chapters, covering such topics as recent British explorations in Central Asia, the Anglo-Indian army, Afghanistan, and England and Persia. The final chapter, "The Rivalry of England and Russia," summarizes the main arguments and warns of Russian intentions. Two appendices contain the texts of the treaties of Gulistan and Turcomanchai, imposed by Russia on Qajar Persia in 1813 and 1828 respectively. A third appendix, entitled "A French Opinion upon England and Russia in Central Asia," contains an assessment of the strategic situation in the region that was published by the influential French daily Le Journal des Débats in the spring of 1878. At the start of volume two there is also a fold-out map of Persia and Afghanistan. In the end, the Anglo-Russian war that Boulger predicted never materialized, as Russia never seriously threatened India and as subsequent events such as the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), World War I, and the Russian Revolution shifted the focus of both powers to other regions.
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第 317 頁 - ... second when we undertake the duty of proving to neighbouring states by a policy of firmness as regards the repression of their misdeeds but of moderation and justice in the employment of armed strength and of respect for their independence that Russia is not their foe, that she cherishes no design of conquest, and that peaceful and commercial relations with her are more profitable than disorder, pillage, reprisals, and chronic warfare.
第 335 頁 - Peshawur. 6. The subsidy of one lakh per mensem shall 'cease from the date on which peace is made between the British and Persian Governments, or at any previous time at the will and pleasure of the Governor-General of India. 7. Whenever the subsidy shall cease the British Officers shall be withdrawn from the Ameer's country; but at the pleasure of the British Government, a Vakeel, not a European Officer, shall remain at Cabul on the part of the British Government, and one at Peshawur on the part...
第 332 頁 - Highness's possession, and never to interfere therein. Article III. — His Highness Ameer Dost Mohammed Khan, Walee of Cabul and of those countries of Afghanistan now in his possession, engages on his own part and on the part of his heirs to respect the territories of the Honourable East India Company...
第 310 頁 - The position of Russia in Central Asia is that of all civilized States which are brought into contact with half-savage, nomad populations, possessing no fixed social organization. In such cases it always happens that the more civilized State is forced, in the interest of the security of its frontier and its commercial relations, to exercise a certain ascendancy over those whom their turbulent and unsettled character make most undesirable neighbours.
第 327 頁 - All merchandise belonging to Russian traders, whether transported from the Russian possessions into Bokhara or from Bokhara to Russia, shall, without exception, be liable to a tax of two and a half per cent, ad valorem, in the same way as a duty of one-fortieth is charged on merchandise in the Turkistan province. Besides this ziaket, no other supplementary tax shall be imposed. Art. 7. Russian traders shall have the right to transport their merchandise through Bokhara to all neighbouring countries...
第 326 頁 - Art. 5. All the towns and villages of the Khanate of Bokhara shall be open to Russian trade. Russian traders and Russian caravans shall freely pass through all parts of the Khanate, and shall enjoy the special protection of the local authorities. The Bokharian Government shall be responsible for the security of Russian caravans within the confines of the Khanate of Bokhara. Art.
第 321 頁 - Khanate shall be free from the payment of customs duties (ziakef), and of all kinds of dues on trade, in the same manner as the merchants of Khiva have long enjoyed immunity from ziaket on the route through Kazalinsk, at Orenburg, and at the stations (landingplaces) on the Caspian Sea. 10. Russian merchants shall have the right of carrying their goods through the Khivan territory to all neighbouring countries free of customs duties (free transit trade).
第 322 頁 - Khiva to the extent of two million two hundred thousand roubles, in order to cover the expenses incurred by the Russian Exchequer in the prosecution of the late war, which was provoked by the Government of the Khan and by the Khivan people.
第 316 頁 - We find ourselves in presence of a more solid and compact, less unsettled, and better organized social state; fixing for us with geographical precision the limit up to which we are bound to advance, and at which we must halt, because, while, on the one hand, any further extension of our rule, meeting, as it would, no longer with unstable communities, such as the nomad tribes, but with more regularly constituted States, would entail considerable exertions, and would draw us on from annexation to annexation...
第 316 頁 - No agent has been found more apt for the progress of civilisation than commercial relations. Their development requires everywhere order and stability; but in Asia it demands a complete transformation of the habits of the people. The first thing to be taught to the populations of Asia is, that they will gain more in favouring and protecting the caravan trade than in robbing them. These elementary ideas can only be accepted by the public where one exists : that is to say, where there is some organised...