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In the progress thus made the demand for brains to replace brawn has been an ever-increasing factor in the production of our goods as to quantity and quality in order to maintain our sense of well being, high standards of living, and to meet the competition of the world at large.
A course of instruction in citizenship must emphasize the necessity of the education of our masses as an economic measure in supplying the great need of modern industry.
8. Philosophy of American Government.—The philosophy of government, as set up under our Constitution, finds its keynote in individualism as opposed to collectivism—that misguided philosophy of government which makes the State Paramount in its demands over the inalienable rights of its individual citizens. Incomprehensible as it may seem, the political problems of America and of the world at large are embodied in this question of individualism as opposed to collectivism as the philosophy of government for the future development and welfare of nations.
Emphasis must be laid upon the benefits and advantages accruing to all citizens of our country under the form of government set up as the supreme law of the land in the Constitution of the United States of America.
MISSION OF COURSE
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9. General purpose. This course in citizenship, for use in the summer training camps, is designed to bring to the attention of the students the fundamental principles upon which our Government is founded, including an insight into the social and economic elements upon which our civilization stands. Special emphasis is laid upon the meaning of "liberty," as interpreted by the founders of this Republic, and the larger relationship of the individual citizen to others and to his Government, defining loyalty and national responsibility in terms of citizenship, recognizing that an intelligent and informed people is a greater asset than are the unintelligent, uninformed, or misinformed, and that no government can exist upon a plane higher than the moral character of its people.
10. Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic.-(a) Because of the rapid increase in our population, largely made up of immigrants from all parts of the world, the tendency within the family and the school is
to neglect the training of our youth in the knowledge of his Government and his individual responsibility. It can not be expected that foreign-born parents, lacking knowledge or inspiration of American ideals, will be either fitted or inspired to give such instruction to their own children.
(6) The remarkable development of industry in America has caused a congestion of population in our large cities, creating social, economic, and political problems that materially affect the structure of our Government.
(c) The solution lies largely in the education of the youth of America in the principles of representative government and of personal responsibility in perpetuating and improving the free institutions therein contained.
11. Character building. The ever-increasing wants as compared to the needs of humanity, the added individual burdens and problems of modern civilization, emphasizing material rather than ethical and spiritual attainment, are tending to break down the character of our youth.
It is the mission of this course to build up home discipline, reverence for religion, and respect for constituted authority.
12. National defense. - Education and training in citizenship form a vital part
of national defense. It will be the mission of this course to interpret national defense through a broad and comprehensive instruction in citizenship, stressing the responsibility of the individual citizen to become fully prepared for the defense of his country in any emergency that may arise, whether of domestic or foreign import.
METHODS OF INSTRUCTION
Paragraphs Outlined topics.
15 Plan of instruction.
16 Supplemental instruction.
17 Selection of instructors ..
13. Outlined topics. This course will be given under a series of outlined topics briefly presented by the instructor, preceded by a few succinct historical statements bearing upon the development of our country.
14. Questionnaire.--A brief questionnaire setting forth pertinent facts relative to the lesson will be incorporated for discussion by the students under the leadership of the instructor.
15. Credits.—The students will be provided with several prepared questions on each lesson to which written answers will be submitted, to be graded as on other major subjects, the idea being to develop individual initiative and self-instruction in referenec to problems of human association and government.
16. Plan of instruction.-(a) The didactic method concerning facts of history, social changes, economic development, and basic principles of our Government will be given without discussion and without argument, special emphasis being made on the fact that the United States is a Republic, not a democracy.
(6) Group discussions will be led by the instructor covering the cardinal points of each lesson as outlined in the text and questionnaire, care being exercised to confine the discussion to the limits of the lesson.
(c) The first few minutes of the lesson period will be given to the presentation of the topic, to be followed by a general discussion limited to the subject-matter involved.
17. Supplemental instruction.-(a) The instruction may be supplemented with addresses to the combined student body on subjects relating to citizenship given by selected speakers, at the discretion of the camp commander.
(6) As a part of this course historic facts and brief statements taken from the speeches and writings of distinguished Americans may be projected on the screen immediately preceding the feature picture at all motion-picture shows.
18. Selection of instructors.-There shall be designated a director of citizenship training for each citizens' military training camp. Under his supervision company officers will act as instructors in this course.
Prior to their appearance before their classes in citizenship, the director of citizenship training will rehearse the instructors in method, in subject matter, and in platform manners, with the view of having the classes in citizenship faced by instructors as alert, as competent, and as confident as are the platoons in the military drill.
19. In this course of citizenship adequate time will be allotted for instruction, arranged in a number of short periods of not more than 40 minutes' duration each, which may be supplemented by addresses and travelogues illustrated by stereopticon slides, covering outstanding phases of American history, given to combined groups at such time and frequency as directed by the camp commander, with special reference to rainy-day schedules.
20. Objective. The object of this course is citizenship training. Such training includes the development of initiative, loyalty, and character in the students together with such instruction as will give knowledge and understanding of the history of our country, its government and institutions, policy of national defense, and the obligations and privileges of citizenship.
21. Qualified instructors. The function of this course is not to teach the details of American history, rather to give special emphasis to pertinent facts associated with the foundation, development, and preservation of our Government as to its social, economic, and political phases. The subject-matter and illustrations are suggestive only and are given as guides in teaching the fundamental principles of government and citizenship. The instructor will make application of these principles in such a manner as to stimulate individual thinking, leaving it to the student to reach his own conclusions based upon the facts and situations discussed.
22. Method.-In the presentation of this course, it is necessary for the instructor to give certain definite and concise information concerning the outstanding characteristics of our country; the fundamental principles of our Government; the spirit and will to do by which it attained its present position; emphasizing the encouragement, assistance, and protection granted every individual citizen as guaranteed in our Constitution as the supreme law of the Nation; developing the idea of individual responsibility and intelligent participation in government as an economic necessity as well as an evidence of patriotism and loyalty to our country.
23. Caution to instructors.--Instructors are particularly cautioned to confine instruction and discussion in each study period not only to the lesson text but also to keep it within the scope of the general division (social, economic, political) to which that particular lesson is related. The tendency is to wander away into a discussion of all three phases of citizenship, because of the close interrelationship existing in all the lessons. Clarity of instruction can be had only through close observance of this suggestion.
24. Efficiency.—To secure the most efficient results, the officers detailed as instructors should be thoroughly trained in the method of using the various studies in citizenship and the questionnaires.
The text of these lessons is so arranged as to permit additional time
Introduction: Definition and sources.
Definition.-Citizenship is that membership in a nation which
Origin.--Citizenship as we understand it to-day, is the result of
Ancient Greece was composed of a number of city States, each one