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The Logistics Officer (A.C. of S. G4): supply, evacuation and hospitalization, transportation, service, and miscellaneous related subjects.

The Civil Affairs/Military Government Officer (A.C. of S. G5): this position is filled when need arises. It deals with matters pertaining to the civil population, government, and the control of civilian activities, facilities, and material, within those territorial areas in which armed forces are employed, to the end that there may be minimum interference with, and maximum assistance to, our military operations and our conduct of civil affairs/military government activities.

Special Staff, Division. The heads of the special staff or functional sections are, in general, representatives of the arms and services which have contingents in the division. They are the experts in

the capabilities of their branches, and advise the commander and the general staff accordingly. After the commander's decision is made, and definite tasks are assigned to each branch, they select the methods, techniques, and procedures by which such tasks will be accomplished, and the means required. In more detail, their functions include

Furnishing the commander and staff with information, estimates, plans, and recommendations within their specialized fields.

Exercising administrative or technical supervision, within their specialized fields, of activities of subordinate units, and exercising command or supervision of administrative or technical elements of the command.

Maintaining liaison with corresponding staff sections of higher and adjacent units.

Figure 2 shows the staff organization of an infantry division, including the special staff sections.

STAFFS OF LARGER UNITS. The staff of a unit larger than a division is generally organized on the same pattern and principles. The organization of a field army headquarters is shown by figure 3. As will be seen, it includes certain additional special staff officers.

Also, at field army level the scope and magnitude of staff activities require larger sections than those of a division staff.

Figure 4 shows the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) organization. It follows the same general pattern described above. It includes Navy and Air Force representatives, national military representatives, and special assistants. Personnel are drawn from all countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

For the Department of the Army, see next section.

HISTORICAL. Our staff system began in 1775 with the field staff of the Continental Army. In general it paralleled the British system. It dealt, and for over a century continued to deal, primarily with administrative, technical, and supply matters.

The War Department General Staff was created in 1903 under Secretary of War Elihu Root. (It is interesting to note that our general staff system was constructed from the top down, beginning at Department level.) This initial general staff was organized into three divisions. The first division concerned itself with the organization, administration, and equipment of the mobile army. The second had charge of the collection and dissemination of military information (intelligence). The third had charge of war plans, military education, and seacoast defense.

In 1908, when Major General J. Franklin Bell was Chief of Staff, the second and third divisions were combined. In 1910, Major General Leonard Wood (then Chief of Staff) reorganized the general staff into three divisions: the first or mobile army division; the second or War College division, handling military information (intelligence); and third, a Coast Artillery division. Later a fourth division of Militia Affairs was added.

During World War I, General Pershing directed that a study be made of the British and French staff systems. The best features of these systems were selected and adapted to the AEF organ

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. There is no representative of infantry, as such, on the special starr. The headquarters commandant does not represent any arm or service.

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Figure 3. Staff Organization, Field Army. ization. This resulted in a five-section Following World War I many modi. general staff at GHQ, AEF, with each fications were made in the organization section under an assistant chief of staff. of the General Staff. The most signifiTechnical and administrative staff sec- cant was the adoption of the four-sections were also established. In accord- tion (G1, G2, G3, G4) staff and a War ance with Pershing's desires, the organ- Plans Division (WPD), as recommended ization of staffs of divisions, corps, and by a board headed by Major General armies of the AEF followed closely that Harbord in 1921. This action resulted in of GHQ.

a modified general staff, partially func

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tivities in foreign countries, the post is not Alled at corps or division level except when required.

The Army was reorganized by the National Security Act of 1947. The staff aspects of this act affected, primarily, the War Department level; lower head. quarters continued to employ the basic four-section system adopted in 1921. The War Department was redesignated “Department of the Army." There were specific provisions regarding the organization and responsibilities of the Army General Staff and other agencies of the Department of the Army. The main purpose of the Act, however, was to codify in one document the high level staff organization and policies under which our Army had been operating since World War I.

All staffs, from the battalion to the Army group, were organized and operated in the same general manner. This uniformity in organization and procedures, however, did not bind a commander by inflexible rules. He had considerable latitude in organizing and employing his staff. The system facilitated the training of line officers for staff duty and furnished the commander with a proper tool of command. It placed control of large units on a systematic basis and eliminated the need for excessive improvization.

In 1950 Congress passed the Army

Reorganization Act. A feature of this was the delegation to the Secretary of the Army of wide authority in various organizational matters, such as the composition and total size of the Army General Staff and the number and relative strengths of arms and services. With the adoption by Congress of the practice of appropriating money directly to the Secretary of the Army, rather than to each of the technical services or bureau chiefs (as had been the practice before 1950), the office of Comptroller of the Army was created to manage the money for the Secretary. This agency provided for program review and analysis, unification of all fiscal activities under a single head, and overall organization and methods improvement.

Since 1950 our staff organization, while adhering to a basic structural pattern, has varied among headquarters to meet particular needs as they arise, although not so much so as to destroy organizational uniformity throughout the Army. Changes in the General Staff during this period have included the addition of a comptroller at headquarters of army areas, theater army, communications zone, and others, and a Civil Affairs/Military Government officer (G5) at division level and higher as prescribed

THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 10

The term “Department of the Army" is generally used, and is here used, to mean the central executive part of the Army established at the seat of Government; including, however, not only agencies in Washington, D. C., but those located elsewhere, provided they are performing “Departmental” or “national headquarters" functions. In common parlance, it is the administrative and executive overhead of the Army as a whole. Most of its agencies are in fact located in or just outside Washington, although a few have been established elsewhere in the interests of economy and efficiency.

CREATION AND AUTHORITY. The Department of War was established as an executive department at the seat of government by an act approved 7 August, 1789. The Secretary of War was established as its head and his powers were those entrusted to him by the President.

The National Security Act of 1947 created the National Military Establishment. The Department of War was designated the Department of the Army and the title of its Secretary became Secretary of the Army. The Department of the Air Force and the United States Air Force were established as a separate department and armed service, respectively, and certain functions, property, personnel, and records were transferred by the Secretary of Defense from the Department of the Army to the newly created Department of the Air Force.

10 Material for this chapter is largely taken from the "United States Government Organization Manual," 1957-58. with later changes.

ed.

11 In the National Security Act of 1947 the term has a different meaning.

The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 established the Department of Defense as an executive department of the Government, and provided that the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force be military departments within the Department of Defense. The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 created in the Department of the Army the offices of Comptroller and Deputy Comptroller.

The Army Organization Act of 1950 provided the statutory basis for the internal organization of the Army and the Department of the Army. The act consolidated and revised the numerous earlier laws, incorporated various adjustments made necessary by the National Security Act of 1947 and other postwar enactments, and provided for the organization of the Army Establishments in a single comprehensive statute, with certain minor exceptions. In general, the act followed the policy of vesting broad organizational powers in the Secretary of the Army, subject to delegation by him, rather than specifying the duties of subordinate officers.

The Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, approved 6 August 1958, provided that the Department of the Army (and the other departments) be separately organized under its own Secretary and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for the operation of the Department of the Army as well as for its efficiency.

MISSION. The Department of the Army is charged with the responsibility of providing support for national and international policy and the security of the United States by planning, directing, and reviewing the military and civil operations of the Army Establishment, to include the organization, training, and equipping of land forces of the United States for the conduct of

prompt and sustained combat operations on land in accordance with plans for national security.

COMMAND OF THE ARMY. Command of the Army is exercised by the President through the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army, who directly represent him; and, under the law and decisions of the Supreme Court, their acts are the President's acts, and their directions and orders are the President's directions and orders. See chapter 22 for command of “unified" commands.

ORGANIZATION. Below are listed the titles of the principal civilian and military functionaries of the Department of the Army, and the names of the individuals occupying those positions as of 1 December 1958. The Department consists of these functionaries, together with their necessary assistants, supporting boards and committees, office staffs, etc.

Figure 5 shows the overall organization of the Department of the Army.

THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY. He is head of the Department of the Army. Subject to the direction, authority, and control of the President as Commander in Chief and of the Secretary of Defense, he is responsible for and has the authority to conduct all affairs of the Army Establishment, including but not limited to those necessary or appropriate for the training, operations, administration, logistical support and maintenance, welfare, preparedness, and effectiveness of the Army, including research and development, and such other activities as may be prescribed by the President or the Secretary of Defense as authorized by law.

He is held responsible for the performance of the Army's mission in occupied areas, and for the protection of all installations and facilities within the United States, its Territories, and the District of Columbia, which are vital to the national security.

He is responsible for certain civil functions, such as the defense, maintenance, care, and operation of the Panama Canal; the civil works program of the Corps of Engineers, includ. ing such activities as waterways improvement, flood control, regulation of

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