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serve as chiefs of the following branches of the Army: Adjutant General's Corps, Chaplains, Finance Corps, Judge Advocate General's Corps and Military Police Corps. These officers command assigned troops, activities, and installations, and, in this connection, they perform the normal functions of command. In addition, they exercise career management and assignment authority over all members of their branches.

The Chief, Army Reserve and ROTC Affairs. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Reserve Components, he implements approved plans, policies, and programs pertaining to the Army Reserve and the Reserve Officers Training Corps.

The Inspector General. He inquires into and reports upon matters which affect the discipline and economy of the Army and makes such inspections, investigations, surveys, studies, and reports as may be prescribed by law or regulations, or as may be directed by the Secretary of the Army, the Under Secretary of the Army, the Assistant Secretaries of the Army, or the Chief of Staff.

The Judge Advocate General. He supervises the system of military justice throughout the Army, performs appellate review of records of trials by courts-martial as provided by the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and furnishes legal service for the Army; and serves as the chief legal adviser to the Secretary of the Army, the Chief of Staff, and all Army Staff agencies. He reports directly to the Secretary of the Army with respect to courts-martial and certain legal matters.

The Chief, National Guard Bureau. He participates with other agencies of the Army Staff and the Department of the Air Force in the formulation and administration of the program for the development and maintenance of National Guard and the Air National Guard in the several States, Territories, and District of Columbia, trained and equipped, capable of immediate expansion to war strength, and available for service in time of war or national emergency.

The Adjutant General. Under the di

rection, supervision, and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, he provides administrative and operational services for the Department of the Army in connection with the procurement, classification, assignment, promotion, transfer, and separation of military personnel; records; correspondence; decorations and awards; postal activities; publications; career management; personnel research; correctional custodial procedures; Special Services activities; and such other services as may be assigned.

The Chief of Chaplains. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, he formulates plans, policies, and procedures for the extension of religion and morality in the Army Establishment.

The Chief of Finance. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Comptroller of the Army, he is responsible for formulating, coordinat. ing, and supervising plans and policies on the provision of finance service for the Army, and for providing this service, including the accounting for all disbursements and collections of funds applied in Army accounts. In addition, he is responsible for providing the liaison and for assisting other Department of the Army agencies in presenting cases before the Comptroller General and for reviewing all Department of the Army communications addressed to the Comptroller General and the General Accounting Office, except on matters pertaining to records administration.

The Chief of Information. He is directly responsible to the Chief of Staff on all matters pertaining to public and troop information. He prepares plans and policies for, and coordinates and supervises, Army public and troop information activities in accordance with policies established by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army; develops and coordinates Department of the Army information plans and programs in support of Army basic plans and programs; and advises the Secretary of the Army, the Chief of Staff, and agencies of the Department of the Army on policy matters pertaining to public and troop information,

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The Chief of Military History. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, he is charged with historical matters, and prepares plans and policies for, and directs and supervises, Army historical activities other than current reports.

The Provost Marshal General. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, he provides supervises, and controls security clearances of facilities, projects, and individuals in industry requiring access to classified information or contracts; supervises military police, prisoner-of-war activities, matters of good order and discipline, movement of ref gees and traffic, prevention and investigation of crime within the Army, and the apprehension of deserters and those absent without leave. He also supervises and controls the Military Police Board, Criminal Investigation Laboratory, the First Criminal Investigation Detachment, and the Enemy Prisoner of War Information Bureau.

The Chief of Special Warfare. Under the direction, supervision, and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, he formulates and develops psychological warfare plans and special operations plans for the Army in consonance with established policy, and recommends policies for and supervises the execution of Department of the Army programs in these fields.

Technical Staffs and Services. The heads of technical staff agencies, under the direct supervision and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, provide advice and assistance to the Secretary of the Army; the Chief of Staff, other members of the Army Staff, and all other elements of the Army Establishment on technical matters for which they have been assigned responsibility. As staff officers of the Department of the Army, they are responsible for the preparation of plans, estimates, and orders and for the coordination of their technical, administrative, and operational plans and activities with other agencies of the Army Staff. The heads of the technical staff are also heads of the technical services,

in which capacity they command such troops, Class II activities, and Class II and III installations as from time to time may be assigned. As chiefs of services, they perform the usual functions of command. (The two functions of staff and command, although vested in a single head, are separate and distinct in that each involves different responsibilities and duties; the exercise of one is not to be confused with the exercise of the other.) In addition, they develop personnel requirements and exercise career management and assignment authority, within overall Department of the Army policy, over all members of the following corps: Army Medical Service (Medical, Dental, Veterinary, Medical Service, Army Nurse, and Army Medical Specialist Corps); Ordnance Corps; Corps of Engineers; Quartermaster Corps; Transportation Corps; Signal Corps; and Chemical Corps.

The Chief Chemical Officer. He studies and investigates toxicological warfare, including chemical, biological,

and radiological warfare, and provides material and services pertaining to these types of warfare, except as specifically assigned to other agencies.

The Chief of Engineers. He plans, directs, and supervises an engineering, construction, and real estate service for the Army and the Air Force (including military engineering support), and for other Government agencies as directed; plans, directs, and exercises technical supervision over the maintenance and repair of real property and operation of utilities plants and systems of Army installations as prescribed in Army Regulations 420-10; provides and services the engineer material required by the Army and, as directed, for the Navy and the Air Force; provides and directs Army mapping services; administers all matters relating to construction, maintenance, and real estate necessary for the improvement of rivers, harbors, and waterways for navigation, flood control, other water uses and related purposes, and shore protection; and administers the laws for the protection and preservation of the navigable waters of the United States.

The Chief of Ordnance. He provides

ordnance material required for the Army and services connected therewith. He also provides such material and services for the Navy and the Air Force, as directed.

The Quartermaster General. He provides food, clothing, equipment, supplies, and services connected therewith for the Army, as directed. He also provides such articles and services for the Navy and the Air Force, as directed. He provides for the disposition of the remains of deceased military personnel and supervises the operation of national cemeteries.

The Chief Signal Officer. He provides signal services for the Army Establishment and for the other components of the Department of Defense, as directed.

The Surgeon General. He formulates medical and sanitary plans, policies, and procedures; provides and conducts programs to insure the health of the

Army; and provides medical material and services for the Army, as directed. He also provides such material

and services for the Navy and the Air Force, as directed.

The Chief of Transportation. He provides and secures transportation services for the Army, including technical and administrative advice and recommendations on matters relating to transportation; and provides the Navy and the Air Force with land and inland waterway transportation services for which the Army has responsibility.

For further details on certain members of the Army Staff and the agencies under their control and supervision, see elsewhere in this volume.

For the United States Continental Army Command and the Zone of the Interior Armies, and the United States Army Air Defense Command, see elsewhere in this chapter.

SECRETARIES OF WAR AND OF THE ARMY. The following have served

Secretaries of War12 Sep 1789—31 Dec 1794

Henry Knox 2 Jan 1795—10 Dec 1795

Timothy Pickering 27 Jan 1796-13 May 1800

.James McHenry 13 May 1800—31 Jan 1801

Samuel Dexter 5 Mar 1801-7 Mar 1809

.Henry Dearborn 7 Mar 1809-13 Jan 1813

William Eustis 13 Jan 1813–27 Sep 1814

.John Armstrong 27 Sept 1814-2 Mar 1815

.James Monroe 1 Aug 1815–22 Oct 1816

William H. Crawford 8 Oct 1817—7 Mar 1825

.John C. Calhoun 7 Mar 1825—23 May 1828

.James Barbour 26 May 1828–9 Mar 1829

.Peter B. Porter 9 Mar 182918 Jun 1831

.John H. Eaton 1 Aug 1831–5 Oct 1836

Lewis Cass 7 Mar 1837-5 Mar 1841

Joel R. Poinsett 5 Mar 1841–13 Sep 1841

John Bell 12 Oct 1841-3 Mar 1843

John C. Spencer 8 Mar 1843-30 Jan 1844

James M. Porter 15 Feb 1844-4 Mar 1845

William Wilkins 6 Mar 1845-4 Mar 1849

William L. Marcy 8 Mar 1849—23 Jul 1850

George W. Crawford 15 Aug 1850—7 Mar 1853

Charles M. Conrad 7 Mar 1853–6 Mar 1857

.Jefferson Davis 6 Mar 1857-29 Dec 1860

John B. Floyd 18 Jan 1861–5 Mar 1861

..Joseph Holt 5 Mar 1861-14 Jan 1862

Simon Cameron 20 Jan 1862-28 May 1868

. Edwin M. Stanton 1 Jun 1868-13 Mar 1869

.John M. Schofield 13 Mar 1869–6 Sept 1869

John A. Rawlins 25 Oct 1869-2 Mar 1876

William W. Belknap 8 Mar 1876—22 May 1876

Alphonso Taft 22 May 1876—3 Mar 1877

James D. Cameron 12 Mar 1877-10 Dec 1879

George W. McCrary 10 Dec 1879—5 Mar 1881

Alexander Ramsey 5 Mar 1881-5 Mar 1885

Robert T. Lincoln 5 Mar 1885 -5 Mar 1889

William C. Endicott 5 Mar 1889—5 Nov 1891

Redfield Proctor 17 Dec 1891--5 Mar 1893

Stephen B. Elkins 5 Mar 1893–5 Mar 1897

Daniel S. Lamont 5 Mar 1897—1 Aug 1899

Russell A. Alger 1 Aug 1899—31 Jan 1904

Elihu Root 1 Feb 1904-30 Jun 1908

William H. Taft 1 Jul 1908-11 Mar 1909

Luke E. Wright 12 Mar 1909-21 May 1911

Jacob M. Dickinson 22 May 1911-4 Mar 1913

.Henry L. Stimson 5 Mar 1913-10 Feb 1916

.Lindley M. Garrison

11 Feb 1916-8 Mar 1916
9 Mar 1916-4 Mar 1921
5 Mar 1921--13 Oct 1925
14 Oct 1925--5 Mar 1929
6 Mar 1929—18 Nov 1929
9 Dec 1929_-3 Mar 1933
4 Mar 1933—27 Aug 1936
25 Sept 1936—20 Jun 1940
10 Jul 1940—21 Sept 1945
27 Sept 1945-18 Jul 1947
19 Jul 1947–17 Sept 1947

.Hugh L. Scott (ad interim)

Newton D. Baker

John W. Weeks .Dwight F. Davis ..James W. Good Patrick J. Hurley

George H. Dern .Harry H. Woodring

.Henry L. Stimson . Robert P. Patterson .Kenneth C. Royall

Secretaries of the Army17 Sept 1947-27 Apr 1949 20 Jun 1949—12 Apr 1950 12 Apr 1950—20 Jan 1953 4 Feb 1953—21 Jul 1955 21 Jul 1955

Kenneth C. Royall

Gordon Gray .Frank Pace, Jr. Robert T. Stevens Wilber M. Brucker

STRENGTH OF THE ACTIVE ARMY 12 The following table shows the total active-duty strength of our Army, in thousands of men to the nearest thousand, year by year from 1789 to 1957.

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107
99
93
92

7 7 7 6 6

84

1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916

Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun

998 1,026 1,109 1,405 1,534 1,596 1,532

1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891 1890 1889 1888 1887 1886 1885 1884 1883 1882 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876

Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Oct
Oct

1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865 1864 1863 1862 1861 1860 1859 1858 1857 1856 1855 1854 1853 1852 1851 1850 1849 1848 1847 1846 1845 1844 1843 1842 1841 1840 1839 1838 1837 1836

Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Oct
Sep
Sep
Jun
May
May
Jan
Mar
Jul
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Nov
Nov
NOV
Nov
NOV
Nov
Νον
Jul
Nov
Dec
Νον
Nov
Nov
Noy
NOV
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov
Nov

26 29 29 28 29 37 37 51 57

1835
1834
1833
1832
1831
1830
1829
1828
1827
1826
1825
1824
1823
1822
1821
1820
1819
1818
1817
1816
1815
1814
1813
1812
1811
1810
1809
1808
1807
1806
1805
1804
1803
1802
1801
1795
1794
1789

Nov
Νον
Nov
Nov
NOV
Nov
NOV
Nov
Nov
Nov
Νον
Nov
Nov
Nov
Dec
Dec
Νον
Dec
Dec
Dec
Feb
Sep
Feb
Jul
Νον
Nov
May
Dec
Sep
Dec
Oct
Nov
Dec
Dec
Dec
Dec
Jun
Aug

593 660 554 991 1,891 8,268 7,995 6,994 3,076 1,462 269 190 185 180 168 139 138 137 135 141 139 139 136 135 135 137 143 133 149 231 204 852 2,395 421 108

81 85 77 64 69 68 70 70 81 86 102

81 210 28 27 27 28 28 27 26 27 28 27 27 27 27 27 26 26 26 27 27 26 24 29

57 1,001

971 918 637 187 16 17 18 16 16 16 11 11 11 11 11 11 47 45 28 9 9 9 11 11 12 11

9 12 10

6 6 6 5 6 11 9 8 8 10 33 38 19 7 6 6 7 6 3 3 3 3 2

12 The Department of the Army permits publication of Agures on the total strength of the Army as the latest date of record; but for obvious security reasons, it does not permit publication of figures on the detailed distribution of our troops which are less than two years old. The data given herein conform to these rules.

on

a Beginning with 1861, the data include all military personnel extended active duty (Regular Ammy, volunteers, inductees, and National Guard and Reserve personnel called into active Federal service). Data prior to 1801 are for Regular Ary only, except for 1836 through 1840 (Seminole Indian War) and 1846 through 1848 (War with Mexico); source documents for other years do not contain adequate strength statistics on nonRegular Army personnel called out during the War of 1812 or for short periods of service during the numerous Indian disturbances. Figures include United States Military Academy cadets beginning 1802 and strength of the Army Air Forces and predecessor agencies from 1908 through 1947, when the Departinent of the Air Force was established.

b Strength data other than United States Miltary Academy cadets are as of 30 June each year beginning 1878. For most years prior to 1878, the data were compiled from the latest returns received; some of the reports used, especially those from frontier garrisons, were weeks or months in transit. United States Military Academy cadet data are as of 30 June each year beginning 1822, and for 1802 through 1821 are from retums for the month indicated.

The figures include the Army Nurse Corps beginning 1898; Army feld clerks and field clerks, Quartermaster Corps, from 1917 through 1925: warrant officers beginning 1919; flight officers from 1943 through 1947; and the Women's Army Corps (formerly the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps) and the Women's Medical Specialist Corps beginning 1943. All data for these categories are as of 30 June each year, except that the 1898 figure for the Army Nurse Corps is as of 15 September (June is not available).

The Army Nurse Corps became a part of the permanent Army military establishment in 1901. It traces its origin, however, to 1898 when authority was received to employ by contract as many nurses as needed during the War with Spain. For this reason, nurse data have been included for 1898, 1899, and 1900.

The positions of Army field clerks and held clerks, Quartermaster Corps were created by Act of Congress, approved 29 August 1916. Field clerks of both classes were subject to the rules and articles of war, and had the status of officers although not commissioned officers. By Act of Congress, approved 27 April 1926. the Secretary of War was authorized and directed to appoint as warrant officers all field clerks then in active service. This was done on 29 April 1926.

The figures for 1908 through 1947 include strength of the Army Air Forces and predecessor agencies. Those beginning with 1948 consist of military personnel under the command of the Army only, resulting from the establishment of the Department of the Air Force as an executive department by the National Security Act of 1947, upproved 20 July 1947. Data for 1948 and 1949 include a small number of Department of the Air Force military personnel assigned for duty with Army commands, and for 1948 through 1955 exclude a larger number of Department of the Army military personnel assigned for duty with Air Force commands, as follows:

Air Force Personnel

Army Personnel
30 June
Assigned to Army

Assigned to Air Force
1948
5,419

27.903
1949

119

22,495 1950

0

13,735 1951

18,978 1952

0

39,850 1953

29,863 1954

0

24,259 1955

0

27,952 1956

0

0 Prepared by: Statistics Division Office, Director of Progress and Statistical Reporting

Office, Comptroller of the Army, 25 June 1957

The following table shows the detailed distribution of Active Army personnel which were located outside the continental United States as of 30 June 1956.

Some of these were assigned to oversea commands, others to CONUS commands.

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