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Col. Ernest R. Redmond (Acting) 1929-1931
.Maj. Gen. William G. Everson 1931-1935
.Maj. Gen, George E. Leach 1935—1936
Col. Herold J. Weiler (Acting) 1936–1936
Col. John F. Williams (Acting) 1936 1940
.Maj. Gen. Albert H. Blanding 1940-1944
..Maj. Gen. John F. Williams 1944 1946
.Maj. Gen. John F. Williams (Acting) 1946-1947
.Maj. Gen. Butler B. Miltonberger 1947-1950
.Maj. Gen. Kenneth F. Cramer 1950-1951
.Maj. Gen. Raymond H. Fleming (Acting) 1951-1953
.Maj. Gen. Raymond H. Fleming 1953-1953
..Maj. Gen. Earl T. Ricks 1953
.Maj. Gen. Edgar C. Erickson Maj. Gen. Donald W. McGowan is Chief of the Army Division of the Bureau. Maj. Gen. Winston P. Wilson is Chief of the Air Force Division,
STATE SUPERVISORY ORGANIZA- pointment and tenure of office are under TIONS. The agencies which supervise the control of the State. In most States the National Guard within the States, he is appointed by the Governor; in the and in Alaska, etc., are the National Territories, Puerto Rico, and the DisGuard State Headquarters and Head- trict of Columbia, by the President. quarters Detachments. Their task is to South Carolina is the only State in assist the State authorities in the ad- which the Adjutant General is ministration, logistics, training, and elected official, operation of the State's military forces, An officer appointed as the Adjutant and to train, for use during a national General of a State may be Federally emergency, a nucleus of National Guard recognized by the Department of the officers for duties in connection with Army or the Department of the Air selective service, internal security, and Force, and, if authorized by the State's civil defense. State Headquarters and code, may be extended Federal recogHeadquarters Detachments are organ- nition in a grade not exceeding major ized in accordance with a specific table general for his tenure of office. In such of organization, and like other National a case, although he is paid from State Guard units are Federally recognized. appropriations, he may draw certain
Normally the ranking officer of the extra pay from the Federal GovernNational Guard in a State is the State ment. Such Federal recognition, howAdjutant General, who is also the mili- ever, is not a requirement for State tary advisor to the Governor. The ap- Adjutants General.
A list of the State Adjutants General incumbent on 1 April 1958 follows-
P.O. Box 1311, Montgomery 2
Maj. Gen. State Capitol, Lincoln
Maj. Gen. 406 E. 2d st., Carson City
Brock, Ronald C. (Cors) Maj. Gen. 112 State St., Albany 7
Maj. Gen.** P. O. Box 791, Raleigh
Maj. Gen. Fraine Barracks, Bismarck
Maj. Gen. Bldg. 101, Fort Hayes, Columbus 16 Oklahoma Kenny, Roy W.
Maj. Gen. 2205 No. Central St., Oklahoma City 5 Oregon Rilea, Thomas E.
Maj. Gen.** 412 State Office Bldg., Salem Pennsylvania Biddle, Anthony J. D. Maj. Gen. Annville, R. D. No. 2 Puerto Rico Andino, Eduardo (Actg) Colonel** Box 3786, San Juan 18 Rhode Island McGreevy, John M. Maj. Gen. 1051 N. Main St., Providence 4 South Carolina Dozier, James C.
Maj. Gen.** 105 Wade Hampton State Off. Bldg.,
Maj. Gen.** P. O. Box 5218, West Austin Station,
Maj. Gen. 1543 Sunnyside Ave., Salt Lake City
Maj. Gen. Bldg. No. 1, Camp Johnson, Winooski Virginia Crump, Sheppard
Maj. Gen.** 103 State Office_Bldg., Richmond 19 Washington Haskett, George M. Maj. Gen. Camp Murray, Fort Lewis West Virginia Blake, William E.
Brig. Gen. Room 310, State Capitol, Charleston 5 Wisconsin Olson, Ralph J.
Maj. Gen. 3020 Wright St., Truax Field Wyoming Esmay, Rhodolph L. Maj. Gen. 600 East 25th St., Cheyenne
a One asterisk (*): Federally recognized in lower grade; two asterisks (**): not Federally recognized; no asterisk: Federally recognized in same grade.
Strength. The following table gives the strength of the National Guard or Army National Guard, from 1903 to 1957— Fiscal Year Officers Enlisted Total Fiscal Year Officers Enlisted Total 1903 a
13,249 174,137 187,386 1904
13,550 173,863 187,413 1905
13,569 172,356 185,925 1906
13,507 171,284 184,791 1907
13,571 172,344 185,915 1908 8,583 102,358 110,941
13,721 175,452 189,173 1909 8,975 109.951 118,926
14,110 178,051 192,161 1910 9,155 110,505 119,660
14,443 182,745 197,188 1911 9,172 108,816 117,988
14,666 184,825 199,491 1912 9,142 112,710 121,852
14,775 226,837 241,612 1913 9,130 111,672 120,802
1,032 1914 8,792 119,251 128,043
1942 1915 8,705 120,693 129,398
1943 1916b 8,589 123,605 132,194
1944 1917 c
1945 1918 d
44 1919 1,198 36,012 37,210
8,787 69,454 78,241 1920 2,073 54,017 56,090
20,138 269,393 289,531 1921 5,843 107,797 113,640
25.639 288,166 313,805 1922 8.744 150,914 159,658
30,716 295,679 326,395 1923 9.675 150,923 160.598
202,643 226,785 166,432 177,428 1925 11,595
22.888 165,930 177,525
191,758 214,646 1926 11,435 163,534
28,406 227,481 255,887 1927 12,192 168,950 181,142
33,033 285,743 318.776 1928 12,428 168,793 181,221
34,665 323,576 358,241 1929 12,535 164,453 176,988
34,899 369,504 404,403 1930 12,930 169,785 182,715
36,795 385,383 422,178
* Strength flgures for years 1903 through 1916 reflect strength of Organized Militia and National Guard (Organized Militia converted to National Guard by act of 3 June 1916), as determined by annual inspections inder Section 14 of Militia Act of 21 January 1903; the strength for 1915 and 1916 being less the strength of organizations not recognized by the War Department.
Although these figures are derived from Annual Reports (Military Secretary of the Army, Adjutant General of the Army, Chief of Division of Militia Airains, and Chief of the Militia Bureau) for the years cited, the figures for years_1903-1908 inclusive do not agree with other strength figures in the same reports compiled from different sources. For years 1909-1916 inclusive there is no discrepancy. For uniformity and consistency, strength figures resulting from annual inspections for years 1903 through 1916 were used. These figures, however, do not represent fiscal year end strengths; the vear 1919 marks the first practical use of such strengths.
bon 9 May 1916 and 18 June 1916, the greater portion of the Organized Militia and National Guard (conversion of Organized Militia into National Guard had not been completely accomplished on 18 June 1916) were called into the service of the United States. The strength of these troops, however, is apparently retained in the overall strength report for fiscal year 1916.
c Complete strength figures for nscal year 1917 are not given in Annual Report for that year.
d No Annual Report was published for fiscal year 1918. On 5 August 1917, 382,000 National Guardsmen were drafted into Federal service.
e Figures for fiscal years 1919 through 1941 are derived from Annual Reports for those years 1 Figures represent strength of National Guard units not yet inducted into Federal service on 30 June 1941. ☆ First post war National Guard units were Federally recognized on 30 June 1946.
h Figures for 30 June 1949 through 30 June 1957 represent total strength of Federally recognized units. including some ofrers whose Federal recognition was still pending. Figures for 30 June 1947 and 30 June 1948 are for the Federally recognized strength of individuals in Federally recognized units.
THE ARMY RESERVE ORIGIN OF THE RESERVE CON- weakest form the militia system inCEPT. The value of a citizenry trained herited from Colonial days. For 111 in the use of arms, and effectively years thereafter (until 1903) we were organized, was recognized as a need dependent for reserves upon the largely in early Colonial America. The frontier unorganized and untrained forces situation in which the settlers lived brought into nominal being under its called for constant vigilance against provisions. The National Guard, State hostile Indians. Our first citizen sol- controlled, but organized and trained diers were the settlers themselves, ready under Federal supervision, and subject at a moment's notice to take up arms to the President's call to active servand band together against any enemy ice, was established by the Act of 1903; who threatened their homes or
and this, together with the Act of munities. The tradition remained along 1905, formed the first step toward corthe eastern seaboard after the frontier recting the weaknesses of the Militia had moved to the west and north.
Act and giving the nation efficient Washington was a foremost advocate forces to supplement the Regular of a strong Reserve, as an essential Army. Yet even some years after that supplement to a Regular Army. In a it was possible for an American poliletter to a Congressional Committee in tician of national prominence, once 1783, he wrote:
Secretary of State and thrice a Presi
dential candidate, to decry elaborate "It may be laid down as a primary posi- military training on the ground that, tion and the basis of our system, that every citizen who enjoys the protection of a free
if the country were attacked, "a million Government owes not only a proportion of men would spring to arms." What arms his property but even his personal services to the defense of it, and consequently that
they would spring to, and what they the citizens of America (with a few legal would do with them after springing, and official execptions) from 15 to 60 years of age should be borné on the militla rolls,
Mr. Bryan did not explain. provided with uniform arms, and
By the Act of 23 April 1908, which accustomed to the use of them that the total strength of the country might be was enacted to put the Medical Corps called forth at short notice."
a firm footing and to increase its Unfortunately the country was slow
personnel, Congress established a Med.
ical Reserve Corps in which young to understand the real meaning behind Washington's words. The day when
graduates of medical schools were to be a fairly effective “militia" could be
appointed first lieutenants. They were created merely by assembling a group
liable to active service at the call of of neighbors with their muskets,
the President. powder-horns, and elected leader ended The Army Reserve-later designated with the disappearance of the frontier the Regular Army Reserve-was estaband its traditions, and with the increas
lished by the Act of 24 August 1912. ing complexities of military service. consisted of two classes of reservists: The time soon arrived when, to pro
of the Regular duce an effective Reserve or second
Army furloughed to the reserve after line of defense, there was needed a four years of active duty (or three carefully thought-out system of organ- years at the discretion of the Secreization, mobilization, equipment, supply tary of War), and those men honorably and training, comparable to—though discharged who voluntarily enlisted in less elaborate and expensive than-that
the reserve. needed for the Regular Army. But it BACKGROUND TO THE RESERVE took generations to attain this. The OFFICER TRAINING CORPS (ROTC) Militia Act of 1792 perpetuated in its CONCEPT. The ROTC idea was born
? An Act of Congress of 1866 defined the Army as consisting of 45 regiments of infantry, 10 regiments of cavalry and 6 regiments of artillery. Four of the infantry regiments, composed of men wounded in service, were designated "The Veterans' Reserve Corpy" and were to be used only for garrison duty. This was the first Federal component of the Army which carried the name "Roserve." Obviously, however, it was not a "Beserve as the term is used today.
in 1819 when Alden Partridge, a former superintendent of the United States Military Academy, founded the American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy (now Norwich University) at Northfield, Vt. This was the first educational institution in the United States, aside from West Point, where military studies were prescribed in the curriculum.
Between 1819 and the Civil War a number of essentially military schools and colleges were founded. Among them were Lafayette College, the Virginia Military Institute, the Citadel, Kemper, Oak Ridge, and Marion Institute (all of which are now represented in the ROTC system). Up to the Civil War, however, military studies were virtually unknown in colleges and schools not of this essentially military type.
In 1862, when the military fortunes of the North were at low ebb, Congress passed the “Morrill" Act, providing grants of land for educational institutions at which "the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." Shortly after the Civil War the several States and Territories began to take advantage of the Morrill Act by establishing State universities and agricultural colleges. At each, military science and tactics was a prescribed part of the curriculum. Although at first the Federal Government provided no particular assistance, several acts were passed in the 1870's and 1880's which authorized the detail of officers and men and the loan of equipment. The final act of 1888 authorized similar assistance to institutions outside the “land-grant family," including public high schools. These ancestors of the ROTC were of value in the Spanish-American War. At the University of Nebraska, for example, where General of the Armies John J. Pershing had been Professor of Military Science and Tactics as a first lieutenant in 1892, the Corps of Cadets was organized into the 1st Nebraska Volunteer Infantry, which served with distinction in the Philippines.
ACT OF 1916. The National Defense
Act of 3 June 1916 provided that the Army of the United States was to consist of the Regular Army, the Officers Reserve Corps (ORC), the Enlisted Reserve Corps (ERC), and the National Guard while in the service of the United States.
The ORC was to be composed of men from civilian life trained either in the ROTC, in land-grant colleges having suitable military departments, or in camps such as those operated on the so-called “Plattsburg Plan," together with qualified professional men. They were to be commissioned in the various branches in grades up to and including major. The ERC was to be composed of men enlisted for four years in five branches-Engineer, Signal (including Aviation), Quartermaster, Ordnance, and Medical. It was intended to make immediately available in wartime larger number of specialists than were required in the peacetime Army. The ROTC was designed to provide a steady influx of new officers into the Regular Army and the ORC. In the fall of 1916, ROTC units were organized at 37 colleges (most of them land-grant) and at 9 military and other schools. An initial enrollment of some 40,000 was reported.
WORLD WAR I. The ROTC continued to function through most of the war, and training was carried on at a number of additional institutions. Its activities were suspended in the fall of 1918 in favor of the Students' Army Training Corps, which trained enlisted men for special assignments but not for commissions. Meanwhile, however, thousands of men who had undergone ROTC training, or earlier military training in college, were commissioned through Officer Training Corps, the World War I version of Officers Candidate Schools. On 1 November 1918 there was an enrollment of 170,000 students in the Students' Army Training Corps. Following the armistice it was demobilized.
All members of the Officers Reserve Corps-89,476—were transferred to the active Army during the war. Of the total number of commissioned officers who served, 43% were reservists. Also some 80,000 members of the Enlisted Reserve Corps were assigned to units
of the Regular Army, the National Army, and the National Guard, leaving on its rolls only 17,000 medical, dental, and veterinary students, 2,500 engineering students, and 3,500 men with critical industrial skills. These were discharged at the end of the war. No further enlistments in the Enlisted Reserve Corps were accepted after World War I, and it ceased to exist until revived by the National Defense Act of 1920.
INTERWAR PERIOD AND WORLD WAR II. The National Defense Act of 1920 reaffirmed the foregoing components of the Army of the United States, and provided that Reserve officers could be commissioned by the President for a term of 5 years. If, during this period, Congress declared an emergency, they could be called to active duty, to remain until 6 months after the end of the emergency if not sooner relieved. To prevent the accumulation of dead wood in the Officers Reserve Corps, the law provided that Reserve commissions would be for a period of 5 years only. Renewal of commission or advancement in grade was made dependent upon interest and progress shown. The same Act reestablished the ROTC and provided Federal aid in the form of uniforms, equipmentand instructor personnel. The ROTC was reorganized in secondary and collegiate institutions, and a comprehensive program was undertaken for the training of candidates for commissions in the Officers Reserve Corps.
In the years following 1920, various steps were taken to improve the administration of the Act; to establish policies for the systematic assignment, reappointment, and promotion of Reserve officers; to deal with the cases of officers who failed to keep up with War Department requirements but desired to retain their commissions; and to develop Reserve units. The last end, however, was not effectively attained, and in 1940 the Army's Reserve units were mostly paper organizations. However, on 30 June of that year the Reserve contained some 104,000 officers and 8,000 enlisted men. In these same years the ROTC program was carried on with increasing success. By June 1941 about 118,000 graduates had re
ceived Reserve commissions, and about 7,000 others had gone to the Regular Army, National Guard, Marine Corps.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), established in 1933, although its basic mission was in another field, did much to improve the efficiency of our Reserve officers. Many thousands of them were assigned to CCC camps between 1933 and 1939, and received valuable training in leadership and field service, besides making an essential contribution to the success of the CCC program itself.
The "national emergency” period preceding our entrance into World War II brought great numbers of reservists to the colors. By Pearl Harbor Day (7 December 1941) more than 77,000 reserve officers had been assigned to extended active duty. Many more were assigned as the war progressed. A check of five combat divisions showed that 52 percent of the lt. colonels, 83 percent of the majors and 70 percent of the captains were Reserve officers. The ROTC program also continued, although the advanced course was suspended in June 1943. There
some 34,000 graduates in the classes of '42, '43, and '44. During the war about 100,000 graduates held commissions in the Army, in all grades from second lieutenant to brigadier general.
POSTWAR DEVELOPMENTS. The Eightieth Congress provided for pay to the Organized Reserves for their inactive duty training periods. It also provided means whereby individual reservists could qualify for receiving nondisability retirement benefits at the age of 60. For the first time in its history the Organized Reserve Corps was a force in being, rather than a paper organization. There were 18 infantry divisions, 4 airborne divisions, and 3 armored divisions assigned to the six armies of the Army Field Forces. For supervision, each State was organized as a Military District with a headquarters, and unit instructors were assigned to full time duty with ORC units. Officers for the Organized Re
Corps were to be procured through ROTC; from men who had held Regular or Reserve commissions in World War II; by direct commis