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sioning of qualified warrant officers and enlisted men of the first three grades; or by direct commissioning of enlisted men who were college graduates but not of the first three grades; and of graduates of Officer Candidate Schools.

The value of the new Reserve concept became evident with the outbreak of the Korean War. During that period the U. S. Army Reserve, as it was coming to be known, contributed some 78,500 officers and 165,800 enlisted men to the rapidly expanding Army, besides the 43,000 Reserve officers who were already on active duty at the outbreak of the conflict. They were called in either with Reserve units or

as individuals.

THE UNITED STATES ARMY RESERVE TODAY. The United States Army Reserve (USAR) today is far different from that which existed before World War II.

Organization. The Universal Military Training and Service Act, passed in 1951, established a Reserve military obligation for all male citizens between the ages of 1842 and 26 years who joined or were inducted into the Armed Forces. In 1952 the Armed Forces Reserve Act was passed, establishing the U. S. Army Reserve structure as it exists today. It provides that all obligated individuals, and all members of the U. S. Army Reserve in an active status, will be assigned to one of three categories in the Army Reserve structure: the Ready Reserve, the Standby Reserve, or the Retired Reserve. These categories were designed to supply qualified and experienced units and individuals promptly in an emergency or a general mobilization.

The Ready Reserve contains the combat and combat support units, and the qualified individual reinforcements, required to augment and fill out the units of the Active Army, National Guard, and Reserve units called to active duty in the early stages of an emergency or general mobilization. Members of the Ready Reserve are subject to involuntary call to active duty by the President without a declaration of war by Congress.

The Standby Reserve contains a reservoir of trained and experienced indi

viduals who may or may not have a military obligation, and who have an active status in the U.S. Army Reserve. Members may be involuntarily called to active duty only after a declaration of war by Congress.

The Retired Reserve contains an additional reservoir of trained dividual reservists who have been placed in a retired status under any provision of law. Members who are qualified may be involuntarily called to active duty, but only after a declaration of war by Congress.

Direction and Supervision. The first Special Staff agency at Department of the Army level dealing solely with Reserve affairs was created in 1923. An Executive for Reserve and ROTC affairs was designated in 1941. In 1954 the position was redesignated “Chief, United States Army Reserve and ROTC Affairs." Under the direct supervision of the A. C. of S. for Reserve Components, he is responsible for implementing approved plans, policies, and programs pertaining to the Army Reserve and ROTC. He provides the Secretary of the Army, through channels. with current information on the status of the U. S. Army Reserve and ROTC. He maintains contact with all Department of the Army staff agencies, members of Congress, Reserve Associations, USAR units, and officials of schools, colleges, and universities, in regard to USAR and ROTC affairs.

The six U. S. Army area commanders are responsible for the command of all U. S. Army Reserve personnel and units in their respective areas. Responsibility for the command, and supervision of training, of all Army Reserve personnel and units in the continental United States is vested in the Commanding General, U. S. Continental Army Command. Responsibility for supervision of the Army Reserve in each State is vested in the U.S. Military District Chief assigned to that particular State, or to a Reserve Corps commander when designated within an Army area.

Training. The training of Reserve units and personnel is accomplished by participation in training center instruction, demonstrations, practical work and exercises, attendance at field train

no

means:

ing exercises, service schools, extension courses, Army area schools, and on-the-job training at Active Army installations. Reserve personnel may be ordered to active duty for training, annually, for periods not over 17 days. They may be ordered to active duty for longer periods to participate in training or instruction designed to improve their professional military qualifications. During such periods of active duty or active duty for training, they receive the same pay as Active Army personnel of the same grades.

School Instruction. This is provided chiefly by three

by USAR schools, by attendance at Army Area and other service schools, and by extension courses.

USAR Schools. To permit Reserve officers, not on active duty, to avail themselves of current professional military instruction, the Army in 1950 organized the United States Army Reserve School system. It has two missions. The primary mission is to provide a progressive system of military education, on the local level, for Reserve officers not on active duty, paralleling as closely as possible the resident associate branch courses of the Active Army service schools and the resident associate course of the Command and General Staff College. Successful completion of the program of instruction entitles the student to an award of academic credit equivalent to that awarded by Active Army service schools for resident attendance. The secondary mission of the USAR school system is to instruct enlisted unit personnel of the Army Reserve in selected military occupational specialties.

Army Area commanders establish USAR schools, and decide on student participation and on instruction to be given, under policies established by higher authority. Each school is run by a commandant.

Service and Army Area Schools. These schools are open to USAR personnel having the required professional background or constructive credit equivalents, who ask to be ordered to active duty to take courses that will improve them professionally. Reservists may also, on occasion, be placed on the faculties of such schools. Reservists thus on

school duty as students or instructors receive active service pay.

Extension Courses. The Army Extension Course Program provides service school instruction to members of all components of the Army, including Reservists, through correspondence study. Enrollment is voluntary, fee is charged for instruction or material, and there is no mailing cost to the student. Study material is prepared by twenty Army service schools and by the Command and General Staff College. All officers, warrant officers, and enlisted personnel may apply for enrollment. Several types of courses are available, including the Army Pre-Commission Extension Course, the Company Officer Extension Course, the Advanced Extension Course, the Staff Extension Course, the Special Extension Course, and individual and optional subcourses.

THE ROTC TODAY. Mission. The Reserve Officers Training Corps of the U. S. Army exists to develop enough officers to provide a corps of welleducated, all-round leaders for an Army that would have to expand rapidly in a national emergency. It produces second lieutenants for the Active Army and Army Reserve, and limited number of distinguished military graduates who are offered commissions in the Regular Army.

Classification of Army ROTC units. They are classified according to the type of institution at which established as shown below.

Senior Division. (1) Class MC. Units established at essentially military colleges or universities which confer baccalaureate graduate degrees; at which the average age of the students at graduation is not less than 21 years; which require all students to pursue military training throughout the undergraduate course, and require all members of the ROTC to be habitually in uniform; which constantly maintain military discipline; which have as objectives the development of the student by means of military training, and the regulation of his conduct in accordance with disciplinary principles. During school year 1956-57 there were 9 military colleges offering military training to 5,543 students.

(2) Class CC. Units established at

a

or

an

civilian colleges or universities which are not operated on essentially military basis; which confer baccalaureate or graduate degrees; and at which the average age of the students at graduation is not less than 21 years. During school year 1956-57, 244 such colleges conducted military training for 119,679 students.

Military Schools Division. (1) Class MJC. Units established at essentially military schools which have been specially designated by the Secretary of the Army as class MJC; which operate junior college departments but do not confer baccalaureate degrees; which otherwise meet the requirements of class MC, and accept and maintain the entire program of instruction prescribed by the Department of the Army for the units of the senior division, ROTC. The junior division, ROTC program (see below) may be conducted, in whole or in part, at class MJC institutions with Department of the Army approval. During school year 1956-57, 9 MJC's conducted military training for 3,077 students.

(2) Class MI. Units established at essentially military schools which have been specially designated by the Secretary of the Army as class MI; which are of secondary or comparable academic level; which do not confer baccalaureate degrees; which otherwise meet the requirements of class MC or MJC, and accept and maintain the specially designated program of instruction for this classification of ROTC units. During school year 1956-57, 32 such institutions conducted military training for 8,741 students.

Junior Division (Class HS). Units established at high schools and other educational institutions of comparable academic level, which are not essentially military or which do not meet the requirements prescribed by any of the senior division classes. In school year 1956-57, 55,429 high school students in 261 schools received military training.

Training, ROTC. In the basic course (MS-I, MS-II), all study is of an oncampus nature, and involves 3 hours of work per week, or a total of 180 hours for the two years. The advanced course (MS-III, MS-IV) consists of 5

hours per week (300 hours total), oncampus, plus a summer camp of six weeks following the completion of the junior year at college.

In the senior division there is a growing trend away from branch material training (in which an ROTC man, upon entry into college, at once begins “branch training,” i.e., artillery, armor, infantry, engineers, etc.,) in favor of a "General Military Science" program. The General Military Science program gives the student a wider range of military training in his precommission schooling. Eventually, however, every man who is commissioned is assigned to a branch, based upon his qualifications and the current needs of the Army. The General Military Science program is in effect at 189 colleges and universities. Branch material training is still carried on at 45 institutions.

ROTC Flight Training. The expanding aviation needs and increased mobility of the modern Army have resulted in a need for trained pilots. To meet this need, selected fourth year senior division ROTC students receive flight instruction on an extracurricular basis. The program is currently authorized to be conducted at 48 colleges. Under this plan the Army will pay for flight training carried on by approved civilian flying schools and under instructors certified by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Flight training will be given in the senior year only. It will amount to 70 hours of training (half ground training, half flight training). Completion of training brings the award of a CAA ilot's license.

ROTC men who take the training must agree to serve three years on active duty with the Army following graduation. Three months of this are at a branch school; eight months are spent on training in Army aviation at Camp Gary (Tex.) and Fort Rucker (Ala.); the rest of the time is spent on flying status.

Overall Administration. At Department of the Army level, the Army ROTC program is supervised by the Chief, U. S. Army Reserve and ROTC Affairs as Program Director; and under him, by the ROTC Division of his office. However, close coordination is needed with other Department agen

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OFFICERS SUPERVISING RESERVE ACTIVITIES. The following officers in the War Department or Department of the Army, under one or another title, have supervised Reserve activities since 1927— 5 Mar 1927—30 Jun 1930

Col. David L. Stone 1 Jul 1930—30 Jun 1935

Brig. Gen. Charles D. Herron 1 Jul 1935—-15 Sep 1938

. Brig. Gen. Edwin S. Hartshorn 16 Sep 1938—9 Jun 1940

.Brig. Gen. Charles F. Thompson 21 Jun 1940-23 Mar 1941

.Brig. Gen, John H. Hester 5 Jun 1941—10 Aug 1942

.Brig. Gen. Frank E. Lowe 16 Sep 1942–15 Oct 1945

Brig. Gen. Edward W. Smith 15 Oct 1945—31 May 1948

.Brig. Gen. Edward S. Bres 1 Jun 1948—15 Nov 1949

.Brig. Gen. Wendell Westover 16 Nov 1949-1 Jan 1950

Col. George E. Butler a 1 Jan 1950—31 Jan 1951

.Maj. Gen. James B. Cress 20 Aug 1950—25 Feb 1951

Col. George E. Butler a 25 Feb 1951–17 Nov 1953

Brig. Gen. Hugh M. Milton II 18 Nov 1953–31 Jul 1957

Maj. Gen. Philip F. Lindeman 1 Aug 1957–

.Maj. Gen. Ralph A. Palladino

* Acting.

Chapter 5

THE COMBAT ARMS REGIMENTAL SYSTEM

on

The Combat Arms Regimental Sys- Ultimately every battalion or equivatem, which was approved by the Secre- lent color-bearing TOE unit of the comtary of the Army on 24 January 1957, bat arms, whether divisional or nonis based on recognition of the fact that divisional, will be part of one of these the efficiency and morale of fighting historic regiments, and will trace its men are greatly heightened by pride own history back to it. Battle honors in the unit to which they belong; and which the individual units win will be that this pride, in large part, springs carried their respective battle from the past achievements of that standards, and will also accrue to their unit, as embodied in its traditions, bat- "parent" regiment. The regiment, in tle records, and battle honors.

turn, will be authorized to carry one, In this sense, the most significant and only one, battle streamer on its combat unit in the American Army has colors for each engagement in which been the regiment. It is his regiment one or more of its active units particiwhich the career soldier has always pate. Eventually the regimental colors, considered as his "home outfit" and the trophies, and other memorabilia will focus of his professional pride and en- be displayed at the regimental headdeavor. But the regiment, though it quarters. Until these are established still carries this precious weight of and permanently located, the colors, tradition, has become obsolescent as a etc., will be with the lowest numbered tactical entity in modern combat. Dur- active battle group or battalion of the ing World War II the Army, with a regiment. Studies are being made refew exceptions, abandoned the regi- garding appropriate missions, sizes, and mental organization except for the in- locations of regimental headquarters. fantry; and under the pentomic con- The number of units thus assigned cept adopted in 1957 the regiments to any particular regiment will vary, relinquish their tactical roles to the and may be increased or decreased as battle groups and battalions, and find the size of the Army dictates. The plan themselves without place in the force envisages that there will always be one structure.

active unit per regiment when the Hence the Combat Arms Regimental Army is at its smallest size, and as System. It maintains the continued many as fifteen when the Army fully existence of our most famous regiments, mobilizes. The list of regiments selected by perpetuating them as “parent” or- for perpetuation, numbering 157, was ganizations. They will bequeath their based upon the number of active units names, histories, and traditions to the needed as the size of the Army varies battle groups,

battalions, and other from smallest to largest, and upon the basic tactical units of today which in number of historically significant regivarying numbers will be assigned to ments available. them. Thus far the system applies only The table below shows the regiments to infantry, artillery, and armor units, selected, and for each one the year of but there is a possibility of later ap- its origin and the number of battle plication to other branches of the Army. honors which it has acquired in the

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