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course of its history. The table also shows the categories of modern tactical units (such as the battle groups of airborne divisions) for which the various regiments will act in the role of parent organization. The first seven regiments of artillery listed in the table were obtained by combining the first seven Field Artillery regiments (numbers 1-7) and seven Coast Artillery regiments (numbers 1-7)
into Artillery regiments. Seventy-four regiments of artillery have been designated for retention under this system. During 1957 all divisional artillery units
were redesignated. The battalion designation will indicate the type weapon with which each unit is equipped. Examples of designation are
Howitzer Battalion (105mm),
Artillery To determine whether an artillery unit is field or air defense, the battalion designation must be read, as all regiments are designated as "artillery.”
Honors Airborne Battle Groups, Airborne Divisions 187th Infantry
9 325th Infantry
10 327th Infantry
8 501st Infantry
6 502d Infantry
6 503d Infantry
. 1942. 504th Infantry
...1942 505th Infantry
1942. 506th Infantry
6 Armored Rifle Battalions, Armored Divisions 6th Infantry
41 36th Infantry
.1916. 41st Infantry
1917. 46th Infantry
1917. 48th Infantry
1917 50th Infantry
1917. 51st Infantry
1917 52d Infantry
1917. 54th Infantry
...1917. 58th Infantry
1917. Battle Groups, Infantry Divisions 1st Infantry
25 2d Infantry
48 3d Infantry
34 4th Infantry
46 5th Infantry
36 7th Infantry
64 8th Infantry
35 9th Infantry
46 10th Infantry
22 11th Infantry
21 12th Infantry
25 13th Infantry
15 14th Infantry
31 15th Infantry
35 16th Infantry
33 17th Infantry
39 18th Infantry
32 19th Infantry
32 20th Infantry
18 21st Infantry
40 22d Infantry
19 23d Infantry
41 26th Infantry
15 27th Infantry
18 28th Infantry
11 29th Infantry
6 30th Infantry
18 31st Infantry
15 32d Infantry
15 34th Infantry
9 35th Infantry
16 38th Infantry
22 39th Infantry
13 47th Infantry
14 60th Infantry
12 87th Infantry
Reconnaissance Squadrons, Armored
Divisions 12th Cavalry
..1901. 15th Cavalry
......... 1901. Reconnaissance Squadrons, Infantry 4th Cavalry
42 5th Cavalry
45 7th Cavalry
19 8th Cavalry
21 9th Cavalry
21 10th Cavalry ..1866.
6 Reconnaissance Troops, Airborne
Divisions 17th Cavalry ..........1916...
4 Sky Cavalry Squadrons, Nondivisional 16th Cavalry ..........1916........
2 Armored Cavalry Regiments, Nondivisional 2d Cavalry
54 3d Cavalry
35 6th Cavalry
36 11th Cavalry
7 14th Cavalry
Artillery 1st Artillery c
42 2d Artillery
37 3d Artillery c
43 4th Artillery e
52 5th Artillery o
33 6th Artillery •
34 7th Artillery c
23 8th Artillery
1916.. 9th Artillery
21 10th Artillery
24 11th Artillery
15 12th Artillery
21 13th Artillery ..1917.
9 24 10 7 7 7 6
7 20 17 7 6 12
Regiment 14th Artillery 15th Artillery 16th Artillery 17th Artillery 18th Artillery 19th Artillery 20th Artillery 21st Artillery 22d Artillery 25th Artillery 26th Artillery 27th Artillery 28th Artillery 29th Artillery 30th Artillery 31st Artillery 32d Artillery 33d Artillery 34th Artillery 35th Artillery 36th Artillery 37th Artillery 38th Artillery 39th Artillery 40th Artillery 41st Artillery 42d Artillery 43d Artillery a 44th Artillery a 51st Artillery a 52d Artillery a
1917. .1917 1917. 1917 1917 1917 1917. 1917. 1918. 1918. 1918. 1918. .1918.
1918. .1918. .1918. .1918. 1918. 1918. .1918. .1918. .1918. .1918.
.1917 (1808) ...1917 (1901).
7 4 6 5 14 9 8 8 7 9 17 16 19
5 11 7 6 11 6
Regiment 55th Artillery a 56th Artillery a 57th Artillery a 59th Artillery 60th Artillery b 61st Artillery . 62d Artillery b. 65th Artillery 67th Artillery b 68th Artillery 71st Artillery b 73d Artillery 75th Artillery 76th Artillery 77th Artillery 78th Artillery 79th Artillery 80th Artillery 81st Artillery 82d Artillery 83d Artillery 84th Artillery 92d Artillery 319th Artillery 320th Artillery 321st Artillery 333d Artillery 377th Artillery 517th Artillery b 562d Artilleryb
Year of Origina 1917 (1901). 1921. 1918. 1918 (1901) .1917 (1898) .1918 (1808) 1918 (1798) 1917 (1899). 1918. 1918. 1918. 1918. 1918. 1917 1917. 1917. 1917. 1917. 1917 1917 .1917 1918. 1942.
1917 .1917. 1917. 1917.
1921 ..1923. .1928.
6 9 10
9 17 4 4 11
6 12 17 11 10 8 7 6 10 11
A IP different elements of a regiment had their origin at different times, the date of origin of the oldest is shown in parentheses,
HOW THE ARMY IS MANNED
The Army will never be any better than the quality of the young Americans who compose it. It is an established principle of ground warfare that success in battle depends upon the proper combination of firepower, mobility, and able people. The final and decisive element in warfare is not the weapon, not the equipment, but the men who operate and use the weapons and equipment.
While a ship may symbolize the Navy and an airplane the Air Force, the only adequate symbol of the Army is the combat soldier. He is like the cutting tool moved by a great machine behind him. It is the quality of the cutting edge—the combat soldier—which determines the performance of the entire machine. He must be a little better than most people, a little tougher-not in an unruly sense, but in the sense of having more character, stamina, fortitude, and discipline—to assure that our Army will be victorious in the future, as it always has been in the past.
Therefore, two most vital questions about the Army are: how its personnel are obtained and how they are trained. The question of training and education is covered in chapter 8. This chapter deals with the procurement, and subsequent promotion, of officers and enlisted men.
Broadly speaking, there are two reasons for a man joining the Armed Forces: because he volunteers or because he is required to by law. In securing officers we have relied on the volunteer system. That system has also been used, throughout our national his
tory, for procuring enlisted personnel; but at variou times, and in varying degrees, it has had to be supplemental by legal coercion.
The most comprehensive possible scheme of the latter sort is true universal military training. It is based on the concept that every adult male citizen has a non-transferable obligation to serve his country directly, in peace as well as war. and that (with certain common-sense exceptions) he will be trained to that end. The concept has never been fully accepted and executed in the United States; instead, a number of compromises have been tried. The most recent is the selective service system, which was brought into being during World War I, was used in World War II and the Korean War, and is still in effect. It is based on the principle that all men are liable to be called. A drawing by lot determines which ones actually will be.
The law which governs selective service is Public Law 51, an amendment (adopted in June 1951) to the Selective Service Act; and by this amendment, the act was renamed “The Universal Military Training and Service Act." Thereby our nation gave official approval, for the first time in its history, to the concept of universal military training, even though, in fact, we do not today induct and train all our young men. Thus the ultimate obligation of citizenship—the bearing of arms in defense of the community-is now explicit. It has always been implicit.
Under current legislation and regulations, including the Reserve Forces
Act of 1955 and the most recent Army training, and after satisfactory participrograms based thereon, there are pation in Army National Guard or Reseveral ways in which a young man serve duty training for 3 years, he will can fulfill his military obligation in be eligible for transfer to the Standby the Army
Reserve for the remaining 442 years a. Enlistment in the United States of enlistment. Army for a period of 3, 4, or more e. Enlistment in the Army National years of active duty, incurring a 6-year Guard Army Reserve of indimilitary service obligation. Upon com- viduals in the age group 1842 through pletion of a total of 4 years' active duty 25. Such enlistees incur a 6-year obligaand Ready Reserve, the enlistee is tion, which they satisfy by performing eligible for transfer to the Standby Re- 6 months' active duty for training and serve for the last 2 years of his service. by participating satisfactorily in the Individuals who at the time of enlist- Ready Reserve for the remainder of ment are over age 26 do not incur a Re- the 6-year term. serve service obligation.”
f. Enlistment in the Army National b. A 6-year enlistment in the Army Guard or Army Reserve of individuals Reserve. After 2 years of active duty in the age group 26-35 for a period of and 2 years of service in the Ready Re- 3 years. Such enlistees perform 6 serve, such enlistees are eligible for months' active duty for training, and transfer to the Standby Reserve for the must participate satisfactorily in Ready final 2 years of service.
Reserve duty training for the remainder c. Induction into the Active Army. of their enlistment term. Inductees incur a 6-year obligation. Things to be remembered about the Upon completion of 2 years' active duty Reserve Forces Act of 1955, as amended, and 2 years' Ready Reserve service, areinductees are eligible for transfer to the a. It was designed to correct the inStandby Reserve for the final 2 years of equity of some men serving repeatedly their enlistment.
and involuntarily in the Armed Forces, d. Enlistment prior to age 1842 in the while many others did not serve at all. Army National Guard or in the Army b. It was designed to insure that the Reserve for a period of 8 years. After maximum number of young men were performing 6 months' active duty for trained prior to war.
SELECTIVE SERVICE In a broad sense, selective service was obligated to keep himself armed is one of America's oldest institutions, and ready to fight the common foe. The even though the term was not used "selecting" process consisted of assignuntil World War I and the modern ing virtually every male citizen-abletechniques have developed greatly bodied
definite duty, since Colonial times. Moreover, fully whether that duty consisted of going to trace the “ancestry” of the selective out to repulse the Indians or staying at service idea would require going far home to guard the women and children. behind early American history, back Between 1607, when America's first to Biblical days, for it is recorded in permanent settlement was established at the first chapter of Numbers that Moses Jamestown, and 1775, when the first and Aaron registered and classified guns of the American Revolution were 603,550 men as available for military fired, more than 600 laws and ordiservice.
were passed by the Colonies COLONIAL EXPERIENCE. The Amer- and their political subdivisions proican colonists brought with them the viding for conscription in one form English militia system, founded on the or another. Typical of these laws is principle that every able-bodied citizen the following, enacted by the Virginia
1 For full information on the Reserves, see chapter 4.
man is assigned to a Ready Reserve unit, he has a 2-rear Readr Reserve obligation, Il not RO assigned he will be assigned to a control group. He will serve 3 years in the Ready Reserve, during one of which he will participate in one 15-day active-duty-for-training period.
General Assembly during the 1623-24 session:
It is ordered that every commander of the several plantations appointed by commission from the governor shall have power and authority to levy a partie of men out of the inhabitants of that place soe many as well be spared without too much weakening of the plantations and to imploy those men against the Indians, when they shall assault us neere unto our habitations, or when they in their discretion shall deeme it convenient to cleare the woods and the parts neere adioyning when the Indians shall bee a hunting or when they have any certaine knowledge of the Indian's aboad in those places. And if there shall be cause that the commander in person can not attend these services, then in such cases, and in bis absence bee is to appoint his deputie.
So far as the new Plymouth Colony was concerned, the following is an excerpt from minutes of the 1633-44 session of the General Court held the second of January, “in the ninth Yeare of the Raigne of our Soveraigne Lord, Charles, by the Grace of God King of Engl., Scotl., Fr., & Ireland, Defendor of the Faith, &c.” That was during the 1633-44 session of the General Court. It was ordered:
That all & every person within the colony be subject to such military order for trayning & exercise of armes as shall be thought meet, agreed on, & prescribed by the Govr & Assistant.
The following minutes of "a court of assistants, holden at Boston, April 12th, 1631” are likewise characteristic of the times and show that it was not wise to skip training:
John Finch is fined * .. for wanting armes for his man, and for being absent himself for traineing.
Henry Lynn is fined ... for absenting himselfe for traineing.
There were similar enactments in all other Colonies. .
REVOLUTIONARY WAR: One of the first acts of the Continental Congress was passage of a measure which recommended
inhabitants of the United English Colonies that all ablebodied, effective men, between 16 and 50 years of age be formed into companies of Militia." That reaffirmation of the citizen's obligation to bear arms was made 18 July 1775—a time when few men foresaw a Declaration of Independence, let alone the formation of a United States of America.
George Washington's experience with the Militia during the Revolution was far from happy. The fault lay not in the theory on which it was based, but rather in its application. The militia
system assumed that every male citi. zen was liable for military duty in defense of his community or colony. The militia system adherents also recognized, even though vaguely at times, that a reservoir of trained men must be available to meet emergencies. However, so poorly was the system applied that the Revolution, which conceivably might have been concluded in a matter of months, instead dragged on for seven long, desperate, and discouraging years. The greatest military strength used against the Colonies by Great Britain in any one year was 42,000, while we employed a total of nearly half a million-10 times as many as the enemy! It is interesting to note that the Joint Army and Navy Selective Service Committee, in a report made in October of 1939, recalled that even with offers of large cash bounties, voluntary enlistment in the Regulars during the Revolution was unsatisfactory and that Washington therefore had to call constantly on the States for Militia. The Army was in constant danger of disaster; for example, on 14 March 1777 Washington reported from Morristown, N. J., that he had but 1,000 Regulars, and 2,000 Militia whose engagement expired that same month, to face over 20,000 British in and around New York.
Anxious that the nation benefit from the manpower procurement experience of the Revolution, George Washington urged the first session of Congress to enact legislation which in many respects was similar to selective-service legislation in effect during World Wars I and II.
To avoid calling forth indiscriminate levies, of all ages and without training or discipline, Washington proposed to classify the men by age and physical fitness; to segregate the fit men between 18 and 25 years of age into separate tactical units; and to give them special training by selected instructors. Presidents Jefferson and Madison likewise urged legislation patterned closely after Washington's recommendations. However, effective legislation was not enacted.
WAR OF 1812. During the War of 1812, Congress authorized an Army