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if the extent of disability is 30% or over, he may be retired for physical disability. Retirement is either in the grade held at the time or in the highest temporary grade ever held satisfactorily for at least 6 months. A part of the retired pay, computed on the basis of percentage of disability, is exempt from Federal income tax. If disability is less than 30% and the member does not qualify for retirement by length of service, he receives severance pay in the amount of two months' pay for each active year of active service; however, the total severance pay received may not exceed the equivalent of 24 months' pay.

If there is uncertainty as to whether the disability is permanent, the individual is placed on the Temporary Disability Retired List and is periodically reexamined. Based on such examinations, he or she is either returned to active duty or permanently retired.

RETIRED PAY FOR INACTIVE SERVICE. Members or former members of the Army Reserve and the National Guard are eligible for retired pay upon attaining age 60, provided they submit an application for it, and if they have completed 20 years of satisfactory Federal service, the last 8 years of which were service in a reserve component, and have served on active duty during some portion of either of the periods 6 April 1917–11 November 1918 or 9 September 1940—31 December 1946. Retired pay is based on the highest grade satisfactorily held during the entire period of service. Its amount is determined by applying the “242% per year of active service" formula to years of active service, computed as follows: 1 day for each day of active duty; 50 days for each year of other than active duty prior to 1 July 1949; after that date, 1 day for each inactive duty training point up to the maximum of 60 days per year; the total days, divided by 360, give the years of active service to be used in the formula.

MILITARY PRIVILEGES OF RETIRED PERSONNEL. Retired personnel are entitled to travel allowances for themselves from their last duty station to a home of selection, provided they had 8 or more years of continuous active duty immediately preceding retire

ment. If they are retired in pay grade E-4 (with over 4 years service) higher, they are also entitled to travel allowances for dependents and to transportation of household goods. Those who do not meet the 8-year requirement are entitled to the same allowances and transportation to their home of record.

Retired personnel may use the facilities of an Army post or installation if the commanding officer determines that this can properly be permitted. Normally the facilities thus made available include commissaries, post exchanges, theaters, and officer or NCO open messes.

All Army members retired with pay are eligible for medical treatment and hospitalization, except those retired for 20 years of Reserve service who had less than 8 years of active duty. The dependents of eligible retired personnel are also eligible for such benefits.

SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS. Retired Army personnel may be entitled to receive Social Security benefits in addition to retired pay. In general, Army personnel received free wage credits for service during the periods 16 September 1940 to 24 July 1947 and 25 July 1951 to 31 December 1956. Effective 1 January 1957, members of the Army began contributing 244% of their basic pay (up to $4,200 per year) to Social Security. The determination of the amount of benefits due, on the basis of free wage credit, is very complex; information thereon, and on retirement and survivor benefits generally may be obtained at any Social Security or Veterans Administration office. Those wage credits contributed by members after 1 January 1957 serve to qualify them for Social Security benefits in addition to Army retired pay.

VETERAN'S BENEFITS. For information on this subject see chapter 23.

LIMITATIONS ON DUAL COMPENSATION. The Act of 31 July 1894, as amended (5 USC 62), provides that no person who holds an office under the Government with an annual compensation of $2,500 or over shall be appointed to hold another Government office to which compensation is attached. In effect this prevents a retired officer or warrant officer of the Regular Army from accepting employment with the Federal Government, if his retired pay or the pay of the office exceeds $2,500 annually. This act applies only to retired officers and warrant officers of the Regular Army, and is not applicable to those retired for physical disability, those employed on temporary or parttime basis, those employed by a nonappropriated fund activity, those appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, or those elected to public office.

The Act of 30 June 1932, as amended (5 USC 59a), provides that a person's combined retired pay for service as a commissioned officer and pay of a Federal office may not exceed $10,000. This

act applies only to commissioned officers (regular and in part to reserve); and it does not apply to officers who are retired for disability incurred in combat with an enemy of the United States, or caused by an instrumentality of war, in line of duty, during a period of war or the Korean conflict; or to officers who continue to hold a reserve commission. Retired personnel who receive pay for or on account of commissioned service (except those retired for disability incurred in combat, or resulting from an instrumentality of war in line of duty) must report all employment in a civilian capacity with the U. S. Government to the Retired Pay Division, Finance Center, U. S. Army, Indianapolis 49, Indiana.

Chapter 8

TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN THE ARMY

a.

The immensely elaborate training and educational system of our Army may be considered under the following heads

Individual and unit training.
Precommission schooling.
Army service schools.
General education program of Army personnel.
Special training in civilian schools.

INDIVIDUAL AND UNIT TRAINING The objective of training in the Army tactical and technical training. It lasts is to prepare forces to engage in and about eight weeks, and is conducted win any type of war, limited or gen- both in U. S. Army Training Centers eral, atomic or nonatomic, in any area and in units. It includes the followingof the world, and to operate under all Battle Indoctrination Training. Reaconditions of weather and terrain. listic and practical exercises designed While the Army's training emphasizes a to prepare the soldier for combat from fully effective capability for atomic war- the psychological and professional fare, it must also be organized, equipped, angles. Tactical training exercises inand trained to win wars in which cludeatomic weapons are not used.

The Infiltration Course, run once Army training begins with the in- in daylight and once in darkness. It dividual soldier, who must be taught requires the soldier to crawl about 75 many things. It then proceeds to the yards over ground covered by barbed training of military units, and to field wire entanglements, while machinegun exercises and maneuvers in which a bullets whistle overhead. At frequent number of units are involved. A vital intervals explosive charges are set off element in these last is the “Aggressor" near the men to simulate the impact concept developed in recent years. Fin- of enemy artillery shells. Crawling into ally, training is conducted under special the trench at the finish line, the trainee, conditions of climate and terrain, and with his bayonet fixed, assaults an obfor special forms of military activity. jective.

The individual training of the soldier b. The Close Combat Course, run by has two major parts; basic combat the soldier as a member of a team. He training and advanced individual train- advances toward an objective, 100 to ing.

200 yards distant, while firing live amBASIC COMBAT TRAINING. This is munition at targets of opportunity the initial phase of training, and is re- (man-sized silhouettes). During his quired for every newly enlisted or in- advance he crosses barbed wire barducted male soldier without prior mili- riers and surmounts other natural and tary service. It is the same for all men manmade obstacles, while keeping regardless of their future branch as- alert for the targets. signment. Its objective is to teach the c. Other practical training, includtrainee the fundamentals of soldiering, ing the following subjects: field fortiincluding basic infantry techniques and fications, individual day and night tactics, and to prepare him physically training, anti-infiltration and antiguerand emotionally for further rigorous rilla warfare training, marches and

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tion, night movements, and night operations.

Orientation and Indoctrination. During the trainee's first few months of service, the Army makes every effort to assist him in his transition from civilian to military life. Commonly a command conference is held once week, as part of the Troop Information Program, to assist each trainee in understanding why he is in the Army and what he will be fighting for if he is called into combat.

Other Subjects. Time is allotted, in basic combat training, for instruction in such subjects as

a. Use of mines and boobytraps.

b. Supply economy and cost consciousness.

c. First aid and field sanitation.
d. Concealment and camouflage.

e. Individual protective measures against CBR attack; atomic warlare indoctrination.

1. Code of Conduct, Geneva Conventions, and rules of land warfare.

g. Achievements and traditions of the Army.

h. Military courtesy and customs.
1. Character guidance.
J. Military Justice.

bivouacs, land mine warfare, rifle squad tactical training, squad patrolling and technique of fire, combat firing, and protection against atomic and CBR (chemical-biological-radiological) weapons.

The soldier who has been through this training knows how a battlefield sounds, smells, looks, and feels. In addition he has acquired the rudiments of a number of essential skills. When he finds himself in combat, he should be able to react with a maximum of efficiency and a minimum of shock.

Physical Conditioning. Considerable time is devoted to toughening the soldier to withstand the shock and exhaustion of battle. Combat is the most demanding effort on earth, and the man in good physical shape has the best chance for survival. The Army feels that field training periods provide a practical means of developing hardened soldiers capable of meeting the rigors of actual combat.

The purpose of physical training is to develop and maintain good posture, physical fitness, self-confidence, personal courage, aggressiveness, resourcefulness, coordination, the spirit of teamwork, and the will to win. To determine the degree of physical fitness, a test is conducted twice during the basic combat training program.

Rifle Marksmanship Training. In 1957 the Army put into effect a new basic rifle marksmanship course, popularly known as TRAINFIRE I. It teaches rifle marksmanship by requiring trainees to fire at killable targets situated in natural terrain. Targets used are fourfoot high, pasteboard, electrically-operated silhouettes which fall if struck by a bullet. TRAINFIRE I differs from the old known-distance marksmanship training program in that it stresses realism under conditions which simulate the battlefield, instead of firing at fixed targets at fixed distances.

Night Training. Experience has shown that a large percentage of combat operations are conducted at night. Army training stresses individual night discipline during all phases of tactical training. Subjects emphasized include night firing, night vision, infrared radiation and its uses, battlefield illumina

ADVANCED INDIVIDUAL TRAINING. This is the second phase of training. Its purpose is to potentially qualify each man in a particular military specialty and skill. This specialty, referred to as the "military occupation specialty" (MOS), becomes the index used for future assignments. Advanced individual training varies in length from eight weeks to over forty weeks, depending upon the skill being taught. It is conducted in United States Army Training Centers, Army Service Schools, and units. Normally it is during this phase of training that the soldier becomes a member of a particular branch. Upon completion of advanced individual training he is prepared to join operational Army unit, and, by practical application of the skill in which he has undergone training, to become fully qualified in it.

UNIT TRAINING. This has two phases, basic and advanced. Basic unit training has the objective of welding trained individual soldiers into functional teams, such as squads, sections, platoons, companies, and batteries, capable of effective performance as parts of a large operational unit. It is accomplished by

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the units concerned, and normally lasts five to seven weeks. It is followed by advanced unit training, which has the objective of welding trained teams into fully operational units. For most units it lasts six weeks.

FIELD EXERCISES AND MANEUVERS. The culmination of all Army training, short of actual combat, is the field exercise or maneuver which follows unit training. A maneuver gives the individual soldier experience in living and "fighting" in the open for an extended period of time; gives units experience in operation as closely-knit organizations in the field; and gives staff officers and commanders at all levels an opportunity to improve their techniques of administration, intelligence, tactics, and supply. In short, it is a practical means of enhancing the training of large and small units and individuals. It also provides a testing ground for equipment, organizational concepts, and tactical doctrine. The Army is continually making improvements as a result of training exercise and maneuver experience.

A maneuver may provide training and testing under conventional conditions of weather and terrain. Alternatively, it may be located and designed to train and test men and material in arctic, desert, jungle, amphibious, airborne, or helicopter-borne operations. Thus, through a carefully planned series of field exercises and maneuvers, the Army gains practical experience under a wide range of climatic and terrestrial conditions.

Since World War II the Army's field exercises and maneuvers have been made much more realistic by the employment of the Aggressor Concept, to be described later.

SPECIAL TRAINING. To assure its capability to conduct operations under all conditions of terrain and weather, and to qualify individuals and units to perform special combat missions, the Army conducts the following types of special training

Cold Weather and Mountain Warfare Training. This is conducted at the United States Army Cold Weather ana Mountain School, Fort Greely, Alaska, located on a windswept subarctic plain approximately 175 miles south of the

Arctic Circle and 100 miles southeast of Fairbanks. It is near the confluence of the Tanana and Delta Rivers, at the junction of the Alaska and Richardson Highways. The adjacent mountains, rivers, and plains are the training areas where the school conducts summer and winter courses annually, for selected Army officers and noncommissioned officers stationed in the continental United States or in Alaska. Naval, Air Force, and Marine Corps officers also attend. The mission of the School is to develop doctrine and provide instruction in the technical, tactical, and logistical aspects of military operations in cold weather, summer subarctic terrain, and in mountains.

Jungle Warfare Training. This is conducted at the United States Army Jungle Warfare Training Center, Fort Sherman, Canal Zone. The fort is located on the Caribbean side of the Isthmus of Panama, and embraces 60 square miles of jungle terrain. The area is hilly and cut by many streams, and contains few roads. A major barrier is the Chagres River, which bisects the reservation. During the rainy season, which lasts roughly from April to November, the movement of men and machines in this terrain is extremely difficult.

The mission of the school is to train selected Army officers and noncommissioned officers in the techniques of jungle warfare. Also, jungle equipment is tested, and changes in and additions to current concepts of jungle warfare are formulated and recommended.

Ranger-Type Training. During World War II and for a time during the Korean conflict, specially trained company-size units were organized to perform ranger-type missions. At the present time, training of this nature is conducted for selected officers and noncommissioned officers in an eight-week Ranger Course at the U. S. Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia. Students undergo intensive training that stresses leadership, courage and initiative. Field phases of training include swamp and jungle exercises in the Florida Everglades, where the trainees make simulated raids after crossing up to 30 miles of treacherous

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