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cadet ratio (currently about one to ten) but permits a maximum of individual attention. Since the tightness of the schedule precludes either making up work or repeating a subject, failure in any course results in a cadet's discharge or, in some cases, in his being "turned back" to a succeeding class. About 25% of a typical entering class fail to graduate, for this or other reasons.
The present 4-year academic curriculum reflects and includes the recommendations of a post-World War II Board of Consultants under the chairmanship of Dr. Karl Compton, president of M.I.T., and including other distinguished civilian educators and selected general officers. It totals 2,977 hours of instruction. It breaks down, by subjects and hours per subject, as follows:
Canadians (not more than three from any one country at any one time) to receive instruction at the Military Academy. Cadets from other foreign countries may be admitted by a special act of Congress in each instance. Foreign cadets are subject to the Academy's rules and regulations, but are not entitled to appointment to any office or position in the United States Armed Forces by reason of their graduation. Some foreign cadets have in after life attained to high military or diplomatic eminence in their own countries.
Candidates qualify for admission by passing medical, physical, aptitude, and mental examinations. The mental examination consists of certain College Entrance Examination Board tests.
Academic Methods and Curriculum. These have been in evolution throughout the Academy's history, to keep abreast of changing national and world conditions, advances in the military art, and the progressive democratization of the Army. There was extensive revision of the curriculum and of extracurricular activities in the periods following the Civil War and each of the two World Wars. However, while modifying its academic or military training whenever the need arises, the Academy builds always on the cornerstone of the Thayer system: leadership integrated by excellence of character and by knowledge.
In general, all cadets follow the same curriculum. An exception is foreign languages. Of the five which are taught (French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish) each cadet must take one; and subject to quotas for the entire class, which are set by the Department of the Army, he may elect which one to take. In certain other fields, cadets with high academic standing cover more ground than those with lower standing.
For instructional purposes the cadets are arranged each month, and in each subject, in sections in accordance with proficiency. Although all must attain the minimum standard, this sectioning according to ability permits equating the rate and scope of the instruction to the students' capacity. The sections are small, seldom exceeding 10 to 16 cadets. This requires a high instructor
rank within the cadet organization, academic standing also has some influence, but here the cadet's standing in aptitude for the service is the determining factor.
Military Training Program. This supplements the academic curriculum. It is designed to familiarize the cadet with the basic principles of tactics and with the materiel, roles, and techniques of the various arms and services of the Armed Forces. A generalized course is given to provide a foundation for further development after graduation. Military training is given largely during two months of each summer. Essentially it covers basic individual training in the first year; small unit tactics in the second; company level tactics in the third; and command, and instruction in higher tactics, in the last year. Included also is a course in physical education, which progresses from physical conditioning and basic athletic and recreational skills to the administration of service athletic programs. The course calls for 380 hours of instruction, including a 19-sport intramural program in which all cadets not engaged in intercollegiate athletics take part.
Cadet Life. The cadet's life is bound within a firm disciplinary framework and a tight daily schedule, but it is neither cloistered nor severe. There are ample time and facilities for spiritual and physical development and for essential recreation. Cadets are housed, several to a room, in modest but adequate permanent barracks. They are paid $1333.80 per annum (plus ration money, which varies with the cost of food) from which they must pay for uniforms, books, equipment, rations, and incidentals. They are organized into a brigade of two regiments, each regiment containing three battalions of four companies. Each company is under the immediate supervision of an officer of the Tactical Department. The cadet officers are charged with many day-today administrative and disciplinary responsibilities. They receive directions from the Commandant of Cadets, through the company tactical officers.
Religious Services. Protestant services are nondenominational and follow a form approved by the larger churches.
Services, including communions, held in the Cadet Chapel during the academic year, and out-of-doors during the summer training period. Members of all Christian churches are wel. come to the Communion Table, Catholic cadets attend Mass at Holy Trinity Chapel, which is served by two resident priests. Jewish services are conducted each Sunday in the Old Cadet Chapel.
Physical Well-Being. In addition to formal physical training and a wellrounded intramural program, the Acad. emy has a comprehensive intercollegiate sports program. West Point teams meet outside teams, at no cost to the Government, in the following sports: baseball, basketball, cross country, fencing, football, golf, gymnastics, handball, hockey, lacrosse, pistol, rifle, sailing, soccer, skeet, skiing, squash, swimming, tennis, track, water polo, and wrestling. It is estimated that each year more than 1,200 cadets compete in at least one sport in this program.
Extracurricular Activities. The cadet's extracurricular activities span the entire field of social, musical, journalistic, athletic, dramatic, linguistic, debating, choral, and associated activities that are normal to all major American universities. The Academy fosters 60 clubs or secret societies at West Point.
Honor System. Inherent in the mission of the Military Academy is the need to produce graduates whose personal standards of character and integrity are above reproach. The Honor System at West Point-and in nothing else do cadets and graduates take greater pride is the individual and collective trust and responsibility of the cadets, and is a continuing part of their daily life. Willful violation of the code is the basis for trial by courtmartial and dishonorable discharge from the Academy.
Leadership Training. This is primarily based on the "Aptitude for the Service System.” The system analyzes and evaluates the leadership ability present in each cadet; provides for him a program of leadership development aimed at those areas in which any weakness is detected; and initiates action for the discharge of any cadet who cannot attain the minimum prescribed standard. Company tactical officers render guid
ance and advice when needed, based on information which is furnished by the system, and on their own observa
tion of individual cadets in all aspects of Academy life.
Superintendents of the United States Military Academy. The following have served15 Apr 1802—20 Jun 1803
.Jonathan Williams 19 Apr 1805—31 Jul 1812
.Jonathan Williams 31 Jul 1812-24 Mar 1814
.Joseph G. Swift 3 Jan 1815-28 Jul 1817
. Alden Partridge 28 Jul 1817-1 Jul 1833
Sylvanus Thayer 1 Jul 1833-1 Sep 1838
.Rene E. DeRussy 1 Sep 1838–15 Aug 1845
.Richard Delafield 15 Aug 1845—1 Sep 1852
.Henry Brewerton 1 Sep 1852-31 Mar 1855
Robert E. Lee 31 Mar 1855—8 Sep 1856
John G. Barnard 8 Sep 1856–23 Jan 1861
.Richard Delafield 23 Jan 1861-28 Jan 1861
Peter G. T. Beauregard 28 Jan 1861-1 Mar 1861
Richard Delafield 1 Mar 1861–8 Jul 1864
Alexander H. Bowman 8 Jul 1864—8 Sep 1864
Zealous B. Tower 8 Sep 1864—28 Aug 1866
George W. Cullum 28 Aug 1866–1 Sep 1871
Thomas G. Pitcher 1 Sep 1871–1 Sep 1876
Thomas H. Ruger 1 Sep 1876—21 Jan 1881
.John M. Schofield 21 Jan 1881–1 Sep 1882
Oliver O. Howard 1 Sep 1882-1 Jul 1887
Wesley Merritt 28 Aug 1887–24 Jun 1889
John G. Parke 26 Aug 1889—31 Mar 1893
John M. Wilson 31 Mar 1893—21 Aug 1898
.Oswald H. Ernst 22 Aug 1898—31 Aug 1906
. Albert L. Mills 31 Aug 1906 -31 Aug 1910
Hugh L. Scott 31 Aug 1910-31 Aug 1912
Thomas H. Barry 31 Aug 1912—30 Jun 1916
Clarence P. Townsley 1 Jul 1916-31 May 1917
.John Biddle 13 Jun 1917–11 Jun 1919
Samuel E. Tillman 12 Jun 1919—30 Jun 1922
.Douglas MacArthur 1 Jul 1922–23 Mar 1926
Fred W. Sladen 24 Mar 1926-5 Oct 1927
Merch B. Stewart 23 Oct 1927—25 Feb 1928
. Edwin B. Winans 26 Feb 1928—30 Apr 1932
William R. Smith 1 May 1932-17 Jan 1938
William D. Connor 5 Feb 1938–17 Nov 1940
.Jay L. Benedict 18 Nov 1940—12 Jan 1942
Robert L. Eichelberger 13 Jan 1942–4 Sep 1945
Francis B. Wilby 4 Sep 1945-27 Jan 1949
Maxwell D. Taylor 28 Jan 1949-17 Jan 1951
... Bryant E. Moore 1 Feb 1951-31 Aug 1954
Frederick A. Irving 1 Sep 1954—15 Jul 1956
Blackshear M. Bryan 15 Jul 1956
Garrison H. Davidson
ARMY SERVICE SCHOOLS
Below are given brief summaries of the missions, curricula, etc. of the various Army service schools. Included also is information on the Armed Forces Staff College, the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and the Army Extension Course Program.
THE ADJU TANT GENERAL'S SCHOOL, UNITED STATES ARMY. Its mission is to train officers and enlisted personnel of the Adjutant General's Corps, and selected officers of other branches of the U. S. Army and of allied countries, in the duties, functions, and techniques of adjutants and adjutants general; to conduct resident and nonresident courses in these subjects, and in manpower control and other special
subjects as directed; and to prepare the training literature for which The Adjutant General is proponent.
The School is located at Fort Benjamin Harrison (Ind.). Its origin was as an unclassified activity at the Army War College in September 1940. On 13 June 1941 it was officially established as an Army service school at Arlington Cantonment (Va.). After a number of changes of location it was moved to
Benjamin Harrison in March 1951. The School is organized into the following principal activities: Headquarters, Training, Support, and School Battalion. The Headquarters activity consists of the Commandant, Assistant Commandant, Office of the Comptroller,
Educational Advisor, Legal Advisor, Director of Training and his staff, and Director of Services. In addition to occupying staff positions, the Director of Training and the Director of Services have direct supervision over their subordinate elements. Under the Director of Training are the Administration Department, Educational Development Department, Machine Accounting Department, Manpower Control Department, Personnel Management Department, Staff and Tactics Department and Nonresident Training Department. Their functions include the conduct of resident and nonresident courses; the preparation of programs, lesson plans, and other training literature; and support of USAR schools and AG Reserve Units. Support activities under the Director of Services consist of the Office of the Adjutant and the Office of School Supply. All functions not related directly to the training mission have been placed in this segment of the organization. The School Battalion, which is under the command of the Commandant and under the staff supervision of the Director of Services, performs all services for the student except those
involving instruction, personnel processing. and messing.
Resident courses of instruction are the AG Officer Advanced, Associate AG Officer Advanced, Associate AG Company Officer, Recruiting Management Officer, Personnel Management Officer, Ma wer Control Officer, G Officer Refresher, AG Officer Basic, RecruitingIndoctrination WAC Officers, Advanced Personnel Management Enlisted, Machine Accounting Enlisted, Advanced Army Administration Enlisted, Recruiting Enlisted, Stenography, Postal Enlisted, and Army Career Counselor. The School also provides extension course material and administers extension course instruction to some 8,000 enrolled students in company grade, advanced series, and the WAC pre-commissioned courses; administers the Adjutant General's portion of the Armywide extension course program; and prepares and distributes training materials to Army Reserve Schools and certain AG Reserve units.
The School's motto is “Ut Adjuvemus Discimus" (We learn so that we may aid others).
The following have served as Commandants
Activation-31 Jul 1943 1 Aug 1943--31 Aug 1947 1 Sep 1947-28 Aug 1950 29 Aug 1950--30 Sep 1954 1 Oct 1954-30 Jun 1955 1 Jul 1955-
Brig. Gen. Herbert C. Holdridge
Col. Lathrop B. Clapham
Col. Harris F. Scherer . Col. Leland S. Smith
Col. Leslie W. Stanley Col. Ernest W. Bosgeiter
ARMED FORCES STAFF COLLEGE.% Its mission is to educate selected officers of the Armed Forces in joint and combined operations, including the organization and planning thereof. It was established on 13 August 1946 at Norfolk (Va.), where it is now located. The organization of the College includes the following
(3) A Naval Administrative Command and Air Operations Section.
An Executive Officer. (5) Seven divisions, as follows: Personnel, Civil Affairs and Military Government; Intelligence; Plans and Operations; Logistics; Communications-Electronics; Research and Development; and Academic Planning.
(6) A Secretariat, under which are a Personnel and Administrative Branch, an Editorial Branch, a Training Aids Branch, an Academic Branch, and a Library.
Only one course is offered, which is designed in accordance with the abovestated mission.
The motto of the School is “That All May Labor as One."
(1) A Commandant, who in the past has been selected from the Air Force, Army, or Navy in rotation.
(2) Three Deputy Commandants, one for each of the three Services.
The following have served as Commandants-
Lt. Gen. Delos C. Emmons, USAF
Lt. Gen. Andrew D. Bruce, USA .Lt. Gen. David M. Schlatter, USAF Vice Adm. Charles Wellborn, Jr., USN
13 Aug 1946–29 Jun 1948
3 This is not an Army service school.
ARMY EXTENSION COURSE PRO- area, and contain from 3 to 9 lessons GRAM. This program provides Army and an examination. A lesson is deschool instruction through correspond- signed for completion by the student ence study. It is available to all com- in one sitting of from two to three ponents of the Army, members of the hours. Over 1,000 subcourses are inother Armed Services, eligible civilian cluded in the program. For further employees of the Department of De- details see Department of the Army fense, and others specifically authorized Pamphlet 350-60, "Announcement of to enroll.
Army Extension Courses." The program
established in Enrollment is voluntary, no fee is 1922. Until 1942 the administration of charged for extension instruction the courses was a function of Corps material, and there is no mailing cost Area Commanders, the Army schools to the student. Application for enrollbeing responsible only for preparing ment requires approval of the indivithe material and texts. The program be
duals' immediate commander or supercame inactive in 1942. In 1946 it was visor; however, once enrolled, contact reactivitated and reorganized, respon
between the school and the student is sibility for both the preparation of direct, with individual attention proinstructional material and the adminis- vided each student by the school. It is tration of the courses being assigned permissible to enroll for as little as to the schools. Today, twenty-one Army one subcourse, provided there is a schools, the Command and General demonstrated need for the training. On Staff College, and the Logistics Man- successful completion of a course the agement Center are responsible for pre- student is awarded a Certificate of Comparing extension course material.
pletion of Course. Enrollment has The program includes the following grown from about 40,000 students in types of courses
1948 to about 150,000 in January of 1958. Precommission Extension Courses. Supervision of the program is a reThey cover basic military subjects sponsibility of the Commanding Genwhich are common to all branches of eral, US CONARC. However, portions the Army and are required for appoint- of the program dealing with the extenment in the grade of 2d lieutenant of sion courses of training activities under
reserve component. They are ad- the jurisdiction of the D. C. of S. for ministered by The Adjutant General's Logistics, the A. C. of S. for Intelligence, School for potential WAC officers, and or the Chief, USASA, of the Departby the Infantry School for all other ment of the Army, may be supervised personnel.
by those agencies at their option. In Command and General Staff Exten- practice they confine themselves to the sion Courses. They are administered by review and approval of appropriate the Command and General Staff Col- subcourses. lege, and parallel its resident Associate FINANCE SCHOOL, UNITED Course.
STATES ARMY. Its mission is to proCompany Officer Extension Courses; vide training for military and selected Advanced Extension Courses. These civilian personnel in the knowledge, two categories of courses parallel, re- attitudes, and skills necessary to the spectively, the corresponding resident execution of the mission of the Finance Associate Courses of the administer- Corps and to the performance of duties ing schools.
pertaining to the financial management Special Courses. This category covers of the Army. all extension courses other than the ones The School is located at Fort Benjust named. They may deal with any jamin Harrison (Ind.). It was activated subject or group of related subjects for on 1 September 1920 at Fort Washingwhich there is a military requirement, ton (Md.), and moved six times before and which can be taught successfully being established in its present location by correspondence.
on 10 March 1951. Each course is composed of a number Training is accomplished through a of subcourses. These study units cover curriculum covering three major areas. all or a portion of a specific subject The first area relates to the preparation