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fensive operations, armor units can conduct an effective defense. They may be used initially in delaying action forward of the battle position. They may then be employed as a reserve, to add depth to the battlefield and to counterattack as required. They may at times be used to occupy any sector of the battle position covering major avenues of approach for enemy armor. But whether operating as a striking force in the defense or occupying a sector of the line, armor in defense employs offensive techniques. Its units are limited, in the organization

a position-type defense, by the amount of armored infantry available. It is better suited by its characteristics for the mobile defense, which employs a combination of offensive, defensive, and delaying tactics, and whose success depends on eventual offensive action.

Armor is also very effective in retrograde operations. Its mobility, firepower, and extensive and flexible communications make it well suited to conduct an aggressive delaying action, in which heavy damage can be inflicted on the enemy with minimum risk to the delaying force. It can cover a much wider front in a delaying action than can a comparable infantry force.

Armor demands that its personnel, both officers and enlisted, possess daring, audacity, and great physical dexterity and mental mobility. It must always be borne in mind that any product of man's technological ingenuity is completely and entirely dependent upon human direction. The efficient, precise, and decisive weapons employed by armor are made so only by the intelligent, daring armor soldier, the ever-important man who directs and operates them.

CAVALRY, THE PARENT OF ARMOR. Horsed cavalry, although it no longer exists in our Army, was for most of our history one of the major combat arms, with a record in war and a professional esprit second to none. It was from the concept of cavalry that armor was borne, as has been explained above.

This country's mounted force traditionally consisted only of light cavalrydragoons and mounted rangers. Heavy cavalry, designed exclusively for shock action, was virtually unknown. The Continental Army of 1777 contained four regiments of light dragoons. After the

Revolution the first company of dragoons was established in 1792. By 1861 six mounted regiments were in existence. At that time they were consolidated into one corps and redesignated as followsThe First Regiment of Dragoons as the

First Cavalry.
The Second Regiment of Dragoons as

the Second Cavalry.
The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen as

the Third Cavalry.
The First Regiment of Cavalry as the

Fourth Cavalry.
The Second Regiment of Cavalry as the

Fifth Cavalry.
The Third Regiment of Cavalry as the

Sixth Cavalry. Four additional regiments of cavalry, the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th, were added in 1866. In 1901 the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th Cavalry were added. In 1916 the number of regiments was increased to 25. By 1920 the cavalry arm consisted of 950 officers and 20,000 enlisted men, under a Chief of Cavalry.

Up to World War II, cavalry participated in every major military campaign of our history. It saw action in the Mexican War, the Indian Wars in Florida and in the West, the Civil War, and the campaigns in Cuba and in the Philippines. For almost a century and a half the cavalry played a vital role in extending the frontiers of our country, securing its borders, and maintaining peace and order in newly-opened areas. Frontier posts manned by elements of its gallant regiments were often the only islands of refuge for our pioneers in hostile Indian country. But with the advent of the machinegun in World War I, the importance of the horse as a means of battlefield mobility rapidly declined. In that war, only the 2d Cavalry Regiment saw mounted action in Europe.

During the 1930's the cavalry, substituting the tank, armored car, and jeep for the horse, looked to this mechanization as a means of continuing its traditional role, and even expanding it. Meantime, prior to World War II the 1st and 2d Cavalry Divisions had been organized. The 2d was deployed in North Africa early in 1944. By then, however, the tank had become the dominant weapon in the open North African terrain; the division was therefore inactivated and its personnel assigned elsewhere. The 1st Cavalry Division fought in the Southwest Pacific as infantry.

Today the name and traditions of the

1st Cavalry Division are perpetuated in a conventional infantry division. The colors and traditions of the other old line cavalry regiments are carried by the tank battalions and armored cavalry units of the Active Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard.

Cavalry units in Armor today bear little resemblance to the cavalry units of a few years ago. Due to the greater frontages and depths that will be assigned to armored and infantry divisions on the atomic battlefield, armored cavalry units must execute reconnaissance and security missions over greatly extended distances. The range and power of modern weapons place an

the armored cavalry units additional requirements for target acquisition and damage assessment. These

have been met by increasing the strength of cavalry elements in both the armored and infantry divisions, and by incorporating new type elements known as “Sky Cavalry” in armored cavalry squadrons. Highly technical electronic devices, such as aerial infrared detectors, aerial TV systems, aerial and ground radar sets, and aerial and ground photo equipment are being developed, together with improved communications, to provide a better means of gathering information over extended areas. This highly complex equipment will increase the cavalry Squadron's ability to conduct reconnaissance and security operations over great distances, and enable it to meet requirements of the battlefield of tomorrow.

CHIEFS OF CAVALRY. The following served in the period during which the office existed1 July 1920-23 Jul 1924

.Maj. Gen. Willard A. Holbrook 24 July 1924—20 Mar 1926

.Maj. Gen. Malin Craig 21 Mar 1926—20 Mar 1930

.Maj. Gen. Herbert B. Crosby 22 Mar 1930—21 Mar 1934

.Maj. Gen, Guy V. Henry 26 Mar 1934—25 Mar 1938

.Maj. Gen. Leon B. Kromer 26 Mar 1938—9 Mar 1942

Maj. Gen. John K. Herr CHIEF OF TANK CORPS. Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Rockenbach held this post from 20 December 1917 to 30 June 1920.

ARMORED FORCES COMMANDERS (later Armored Command, then Armored Center). The following served in these capacities in the periods during which the successive commands existed10 July 1940_31 July 1941

.Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee 1 Aug 1941–8 May 1943

..Maj. Gen. Jacob L. Devers 9 May 1943—30 Nov 1943

.Maj. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, Jr. 1 Dec 1943—30 Oct 1945

.Maj. Gen. Charles L. Scott


Army Aviation as it exists today had its beginning early in World War II. When the Army Ground Forces, Army Air Forces, and Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces) were created in March of 1942, aviation in general came under the Army Air Forces. However, on 6 June 1942 the War Department made light observation aircraft organic to field artillery units of infantry and armored divisions and to the headquarters of each field artillery brigade and group. Initially 10 airplanes were authorized for each infantry division and 6 for each armored division. The aircraft so assigned were the low performance, Piper Cub type, capable of operating from hastily prepared airstrips, and were intended to function primarily as observation posts for the

adjustment of artillery fire.

As the war progressed, Army Ground Forces greatly enlarged its program of organic aviation. Experience in battle showed that every major type of ground combat unit except antiaircraft units found a use for light planes, and borrowed them from field artillery units whenever it could. They proved their value not only for artillery observation but for courier, liaison, photographic, visual reconnaissance, column control, and emergency supply missions as well. A requirement for liaison planes to be made organic to all the combat arms was recognized. To this end, in August of 1945 the War Department authorized more aircraft for each type of combat division, and a few organic aircraft for each cavalry group, cavalry squadron,

separate tank battalion, separate engineer battalion, tank destroyer battalion, and tank destroyer group. The war ended before the program could be implemented.

At the close of the war the Army had some 2,000 light aircraft. During the precipitate postwar demobilization the number was reduced to around 200. However, the war had clearly shown the importance of organic aviation with ground troops; and when, in 1947, the Air Force was separated from Army control and became an independent Armed Service, this type of aviation remained with the Army. Since then it has continued to expand, especially during and since the Korean conflict. By the end of 1957, in three combat arms and four technical services there were a total of around 5,000 aircraft, either fixed or rotary wing. To operate and maintain them required about 4,000 commissioned officers, 900 warrant officers, and 9,000 enlisted men.

MISSION AND FUNCTIONS. The mission of Army aviation is to augment the capability of the Army to conduct effective combat operations. By definition, Army aviation is organic aviation. It is not a separate combat arm or corps. Instead, it is an integral part of the Army, designed to live with the Army in the field. This means that it must be under the full and immediate control of, and subject to the direct orders of, the commander responsible for ground operations. Its planes must be able to land and take off in small unimproved areas; and it must be possible to maintain and operate them without elaborate ground facilities. Army aviators must have a basic understanding of ground warfare and of logistical support operations.

The following are the functions of Army aviation and the types of planes used to perform them-

Observation. This is done by the fixed wing Bird Dog (L-19) and by two types of helicopter, the Sioux (H-13) and the Raven (H-23). They amplify and supplement other means available to the Army for locating, verifying, and evaluating targets for mortars, artillery, and missiles; adjusting the fire of those weapons; and obtaining information on enemy forces not obtainable by air reconnaissance agencies of the other services.

Rapid Troop Movement. This involves the air movement of combat units, up to battle group size, within the combat zone. It is accomplished by the Shawnee (H21C), the Choctaw, (H-34), the Mojave (H-37A) helicopters and the fixed wing Otter (U-1A). Their use enables a commander to cross natural obstacles such as swamps, rivers and woods; to cross or bypass enemy minefields, contaminated areas, etc.; and to capitalize on superior mobility and exploit the shock effect of atomic fire power.

Rapid Movement of Critical Supplies and Equipment. The same aircraft used for the tactical transport of troops are used for supply transport on the basis of urgent need, when supply by ground vehicles is impracticable or time is a determining factor. In addition, Army aviation is today being employed on an increasingly wide scale to transport (displace) weapons systems within the combat zone.

Use to Supplement Ground Reconnaissance. The aircraft mentioned above can be used to increase the mobility and flexibility of ground reconnaissance forces. They also facilitate counterreconnaissance, screening, flank security, and the seizure of critical terrain features in advance of heavier forces engaged in pursuit and exploitation operations. In this role Army aviation does not become involved in Air Force-type tactical reconnaissance, nor is it employed to execute deep, large-scale, airborne penetrations.

Command, Liaison, and Communications. Although these are old functions of Army aviation, they are assuming greater importance today than ever before. This is so because survival on an atomic battlefield demands quick reaction and increased mobility on the part of widely dispersed ground units. In this role, in addition to observation aircraft, the Army normally uses the Beaver (L-20), a utility plane, and the Seminole (L-23), a command ship. Army aircraft are used regularly for wirelaying, for reconnaissance of the axes of signal communications, for passenger and courier service, and as radio relay stations between march elements or between combat formations and higher headquarters.

Battlefield Casualty Evacuation. This

is one of the best known and most appreciated functions of Army aviation. During the Korean War thousands of wounded were evacuated from the battlefield by Sioux (H-13) helicopters. Utility aircraft were also used effectively to expedite the flow of casualties to points of treatment and hospitalization. Helicopter ambulance units are at present equipped with the Chickasaw (H-19). Army Medical Service Corps officers, qualified as aviators and medical assistants, pilot these aircraft. In addition, suitable helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, assigned to combat organizations and tactical transport units, are used for casualty evacuation as required.

ARMY AVIATION STAFF ORGANIZATION. At Department the Army level the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics is responsible for the logistical support of all Army aircraft. The Director of Army Aviation in the Office, Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, has overall staff supervision and coordination of functions of the Army relating to Army aviation and formulation of policy thereon. At Headquarters United States Continental Army Command (USCONARC) an Army Aviation Special Staff Section has been established to advise the CG, USCONARC, on matters pertaining to Army aviation activities. Similarly, in each army, corps, and division headquarters there is an Army aviation staff section.

ARMY AVIATION UNITS. The following are the major units

Combat Aviation Company (Division). The aircraft allocated to a division are centralized in a combat aviation company, which performs for the division the functions described above. The combat aviation companies of the three types of division are quite similar in organization and aircraft strength. Each has about 50 aircraft (fixed and rotary wing) organized into a number of combat support flights, a surveillance or target acquisition section or flight, an artillery support flight, and a general support platoon.

Transport Aviation Battalion. Four of these are provided for each field army. A battalion consists of three light transport companies (20 Shawnee (H-21) or Choctaw (H-34) helicopters each), one medium transport company (16 Mojave

(H-37) helicopters), and one tactical transport fixed wing company (16 Otter (U-1A) airplanes). The mission of the battalion is to provide air transport to expedite tactical operations and logistical support in the combat zone. The battalions supplement the limited amount of transport aviation which is organic to divisions, and permit economy and flexibility in the use of Army aviation resources. A field army commander delegates control of one or more of his transport battalions to his corps commanders as the situation dictates.

Sky Cavalry Battalion, Missile Command. This unit is organic to the missile command. Its mission is to perform reconnaissance through the use of a combination of ground and air reconnaissance elements over wide fronts and extended distances, and to provide security for its parent organization by surveillance and by air transport of the organic airborne reconnaissance platoon. The battalion makes use of photographic equipment, television, intrusion detection devices, air/ground radar, and CBR detection devices. A battalion has four sky cavalry companies; each contains observation, utility, and command type airplanes, observation and utility type helicopters, and drones.

Helicopter Ambulance Unit. This Med. ical Service unit is equipped with five utility type helicopters. It is used to evacuate, within the combat zone, casualties needing immediate definitive medical treatment. It may also be used to supplement or replace, for short periods, ground evacuation within the combat zone. Helicopter ambulance units will normally be assigned on the basis of six units per field army. Consolidation of these small units into company-sized units is planned.

Other Planned Army and Corps Units. In addition to the units described above, it is planned that one Army Aviation Company will be assigned to each field army. Its primary mission will be to provide aircraft to meet the command, liaison, and communications requirements of the army headquarters. Also it is planned that each corps will be assigned a Corps Aviation Company and a Corps Artillery Aviation Battery. The mission of the latter unit will include target acquisition and artillery observation,

Army Aviation Operating Detach- air traffic control, and operations serment. This unit has no aircraft. Its task vice for Army aviation units. It is conis to facilitate Army flight operations in

templated that such detachments will the combat and communications zones by providing flight information and

be assigned to corps, to army, and to planning data, coordination of instru- major Army airfield installations in the ment flights, enroute navigation aids, communications zone.

ARMY AVIATION AIRCRAFT. The following is a list of current types and their major characteristics

Bird Dog (L-19A). a. Description:

High-wing, two place observation airplane powered by

single 213 hp engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 78 knots. c. Combat radius:

128 nautical miles.

Beaver (L-20A). 8. Description:

High-wing, utility airplane powered by single 450 hp

engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 118 knots. c. Combat radius:

300 nautical miles. d. Passenger and cargo provisions: Pilot plus 5 passengers or 1,000 lbs cargo.

Seminole (L-23D). 2. Description:

Low-wing monoplane designed for command and staff personnel transport purposes, powered by two 340 hp

engines. b. Speed:

Cruise, 169 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 520 nautical miles. d. Passenger provisions:

Pilot plus 5 passengers.

Otter (U-1A). a. Description:

High-wing monoplane designed as light transport, pow

ered by a single 600 hp engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 107 knots. c. Combat radius:

430 nautical miles/2310 lbs payload. d. Capacity:

14 troops or 6 Utters or 2560 lbs.

Sioux (H-13H). a. Description:

Two-place (with dual controls) observation helicopter,

powered by 250 hp reciprocating engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 60 knots. Combat radius:

87 nautical miles. d. Litter capacity:


Raven (H-23D). a. Description:

Three-place observation helicopter powered by 250 hp

reciprocating engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 70 knots. c. Combat radius:

100 nautical miles. d. Litter capacity:


Chickasaw (H-19). a. Description:

Single main-rotor utility helicopter, powered by one

800 hp reciprocating engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 81 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 165 nautical miles. d. Capacity:

10 troops or 6 litters or approximately 1,500 pounds.

Shawnee (H-21C). a. Description:

Tandem rotor light transport helicopter powered by

one 1425 hp reciprocating engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 83 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 150 nautical miles. d. Capacity:

18 troops or 12 litters or 142 tons.

Choctaw (H-34). Description:

Single main-rotor light transport helicopter, powered

by one 1525 hp reciprocating engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 90 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 115 nautical miles. d. Capacity:

18 troops or 8 litters or 142 tons.

Mojave (H-37). a. Description:

Single main-rotor medium transport helicopter, pow

ered by two 2100 hp reciprocating engines. b. Speed:

Cruise, 95 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 60 nautical miles. d. Capacity:

23 troops or 24 litters or 3 tons.

Iroquois (HU-1). a. Description:

Single main-rotor utility helicopter, powered by one

1825 hp gas turbine engine. b. Speed:

Cruise, 100 knots. c. Approximate combat radius: 100 nautical miles. d. Capacity:

Pulot and 4 passengers or 2 Utters.



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