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UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE. The mission of the Army War College, the Army's senior educational institution, is to prepare selected Army officers for duty as commanders and general staff officers at the highest Army levels, through courses of instruction not included in Army schools of a lower category.
The College was founded on 27 November 1901, at the instigation of Secretary of War Elihu Root, and was initially located at 20 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D. C. (afterward at 22 Jackson Place). In June 1907 it was moved to Washington Barracks, D. C. (now Fort Lesley J. McNair). In 1917 it was closed. In 1919 it was renamed "General Staff College" and classes were resumed in 1920. In 1921 the original name restored. Classes were again suspended in 1940 and resumed at Fort Leavenworth (Kans.) in 1950. In July 1951 the college was moved to Carlisle Barracks (Pa.) where it is now located. It received its present designation in January 1957.
The course of instruction lasts 10 months, beginning in August and ending in June. It is divided into two parts: Part I, “The United States and Its National Strategy," with three courses lasting a total of 17 weeks; Part II, “Military Doctrine, Strategy, and Readiness," with six courses which consume the rest of the academic year. Part I develops, in an integrated and progressive manner, fuller understanding of national and international affairs and problems associated with formulat
ing and implementing a realistic national strategy for the United States for the next decade. In the light of the facts and strategic concepts brought out in Part I, Part II deals with the development of a military program to meet our military security requirements for the next decade. Although combined and joint service aspects of the problem are stressed, Part II places greatest emphasis on the role of the Army in national defense.
Instruction is at the postgraduate level. It is based primarily upon a system of written committee solutions to broad problems, followed by oral presentations to other members of the student body. Student assignments to committees, and committee chairmanships, are rotated to secure the maximum exchange of ideas, and to develop the students' ability to participate in and contribute to a group effort. Emphasis is placed on group problem solving, individual study and research, and intellectual freedom in thought and discussion. The curriculum is supported by carefully selected guest lecturers, consultants, and panelists—recognized leaders in their fields.
The academic year culminates with the National Strategy Seminar, during which student-developed national strategies and implementing courses of action, with emphasis upon a supporting military program over the next decade, are examined and refined in collaboration with distinguished civilian and military guests. This joint effort is designed to promote a fuller under
standing of the nature, structure, and faculty, headed by the Commandant, concrete requirements of a comprehen- is composed of selected senior officers sive national strategy, including the who are qualified in various aspects of interrelationships of political, economic, military art and science by virtue of psychological, and military factors. broad study and practical experience.
The class of 200 senior officers, largely There are approximately 40 Army otfrom the Army, includes also personnel ficers on the faculty, plus representof the Navy, Air Force, Marine ps atives of the partment of State, the Department of State, and certain other Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Air civilian governmental agencies. The Force. The following have served as Presidents or Commandants
Presidents 10 Jul 1902—15 Aug 1903
..Maj. Gen. S. B. M. Young (Army War College Board) 15 Aug 1903—24 Jun 1905
Brig. Gen. Tasker H. Bliss 25 Jun 1905—3 Dec 1905
.Lieut. Col. W. W. Wotherspoon (actg) 4 Dec 190521 Feb 1907
..Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Barry 21 Feb 1907-8 Oct 1907
Lieut. Col. W. W. Wotherspoon (actg) 9 Oct 1907–19 Jun 1909
.Brig. Gen. W. W. Wotherspoon 21 Jun 1909–1 Dec 1909
..Brig. Gen. Tasker H. Bliss 1 Dec 1909–1 Feb 1912
.Brig. Gen. W. W. Wotherspoon 2 Feb 1912—31 Aug 1912
.Brig. Gen. Albert L. Mills 1 Sept 1912—1 Jul 1913
.Brig. Gen. William Crozier 1 Jul 1913—22 Apr 1914
..Brig. Gen. Hunter Liggett 22 Apr 1914-12 Oct 1916
.Brig. Gen. M. M. Macomb 1 Feb 1917-25 Aug 1917
.Brig. Gen, Joseph E. Kuhn (Classes suspended during World War I)
Commandants 15 Jun 1919–6 Jul 1921
.Maj. Gen. James W. McAndrew 14 Jul 1921-30 Jun 1923
.Maj. Gen. E. F. McGlachlin, Jr. 1 Jul 1923–30 Nov 1927
..Maj. Gen. Hanson E. Ely 20 Dec 1927—30 Apr 1932
.Maj. Gen. William D. Connor 1 May 1932–31 Jan 1935
Maj. Gen. George 8. Simonds 4 Feb 1935—1 Oct 1935.
.Maj. Gen. Malin Craig 3 Oct 1935—29 Jun 1937
.Brig. Gen. Walter S. Grant 30 Jun 1937–30 NOV 1939
.Maj. Gen. John L. DeWitt 1 Dec 1939—30 Jun 1940
Brig. Gen. Philip B. Peyto (Classes suspended until 1950) 1 Apr 1950—31 Jul 1951
.Lleut. Gen. Joseph M. Swing 16 Aug 1951–6 Dec 1952
Lieut. Gen. Edward M. Almond 7 Dec 1952-19 Apr 1953
.Brig. Gen. Verdi B. Barnes (actg) 20 Apr 1953—6 Feb 1955
.Maj. Gen. James E. Moore 7 Feb 1955–26 May 1955
.Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Dunn (actg) 27 May 1955–9 Oct 1955
.Maj. Gen. Clyde D. Eddleman 10 Oct 1955—
.Maj. Gen. Max S. Johnson UNITED STATES MILITARY ACAD- College, and Cornell University. In 1945 EMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL. Its training was consolidated at Amherst. mission is to assist cadet candidates for The present school was founded in the U. S. Military Academy and the June 1946 at Stewart Air Force Base U. S. Air Force Academy, by preparing (Newburgh, N. Y.). Effective 1 July them for the entrance examinations and 1957 it was moved to Fort Belvoir (Va.). the demands of Academy life, and in- The School is organized into three stilling into them the ideals of Duty, general areas: Administrative, consistHonor, and Service to Country.
ing of Offices of the Commandant and The School is the outcome of an evo- the Assistant Commandant; Military lution that began in World War I, when Training Department, consisting of the West Point aspirants were given assist- Office of the Military Training Officer ance at Post-level schools supervised which supervises the Military Instructor by recent graduates. Following the war Group, the Physical Training Group, the schools were organized on a Corps and the Cadet Candidate Company; Area basis, and qualified officers were Academic Department, consisting of the assigned to primary duty as instructors. Office of the Academic Director which With the outbreak of World War II supervises the Mathematics Department the system was consolidated under the and the English Department. Training Army Service Forces, and training was is provided in both academic and miliconducted at three civilian educational tary fields. The academic area is deinstitutions-Amherst College, Lafayette signed to prepare the cadet candidate
for the annual West Point entrance examination and for successful accomplishment of the academic courses which he will receive there. The milltary training consists of instruction in basic military subjects, designed to teach the candidate how to adapt himself to military life. Besides indoctrinating him in fundamental military skills, this phase prepares him mentally, morally, and physically to receive the more intensive training given by the U. S. Military Academy.
The Academic Course consists of the following
Basic Course. Beginning on the first
Tuesday of the academic year and lasting for three weeks. Courses are given in basic mathematics and English grammar.
Preparatory Course. September through mid-March. Courses are given in English grammar, literature, intermediate algebra, and plane geometry.
Advance Course. Beginning after the annual West Point entrance examination and extending through the end of the academic year. Courses are given in literature, theme writing, solid geometry, plane trigonometry, and the use of the slide rule.
The following have served as CommandantsJul 1947-May 1948 May 1948-Aug 1949 Aug 1949—Jul 1952 Jul 1952-Apr 1953 Apr 1953—Jul 1954 Jul 1954Jul 1955 Jul 1955—Jul 1956 Jul 1956-Oct 1956 Oct 1956
Col. Frank G. Davis .Lt. Col. Wiley B. Wisdom, Jr.
Col. John O. Taylor
.. Col. Frank G. Davis .Lt. Col. Wesley J. Curtis
.Maj. John W. Moses .Maj. Mark M. Boatner III
Capt. Richard B. Hale .. Capt. Thomas A. Callagy
UNITED STATES WOMEN'S ARMY CORPS SCHOOL. Its mission is to instruct and train officers of the Corps and officer candidates in the approved doctrine, administrative methods, and operative procedures of the Army, so that they are qualified to command and administer WAC personnel and to assume staff and administrative duties appropriate to their grade and branch; to provide orientation and indoctrination training for college juniors who have enlisted in the Army Reserve as potential applicants for appointment as officers upon graduation from college; to train WAC enlisted personnel as clerk-typists and stenographers, for office duties to which enlisted women are normally assigned at all levels of command; to provide refresher and special training as directed; to develop and revise doctrine pertaining to the utilization, training, and administration of Women's Army Corps personnel; and to prepare and revise publications on subjects as directed by competent authority.
The school is located at the WAC Training Center at Fort Lee (Va.). It was authorized on 25 September 1952.
The following courses are given:
The officer basic course (20 weeks). It trains directly commissioned Women's
Army Corps officers, and former warrant officers and enlisted women who have been appointed as Reserve commissioned officers, to perform capably, at company and battalion level, the duties and responsibilities of their grade and branch.
The officer advanced course (22 weeks). It provides training to officers
that they will be thoroughly grounded in the duties and responsibilities appropriate to field grade Women's Army Corps officers.
The officer candidate course (20 weeks). It trains enlisted women or warrant officers to be second lieutenants, Women's Army Corps, USAR, and to perform capably at company and battalion level the duties of their grade and branch.
The college junior course (4 weeks). It gives college juniors who have enlisted in the Army Reserve an introduction to military life and preliminary training as potential officers in the Women's Army Corps, and prepares them for further training in the WAC Officer Basic Course.
The clerical procedures and typing course (4-8 weeks). It trains WAC enlisted personnel for office duties to which enlisted women are normally assigned at all levels of command.
The stenography course (4-12 weeks). tion and typewrite, and to perform reIt trains enlisted women to take dicta- lated tasks, in a military office.
The following have served as Commandants25 Sep 1952—25 Dec 1952
.Lt. Col. Elizabeth C. Smith 26 Dec 1952—17 Jun 1955
Lt. Col. Eleanore C. Sullivan 18 Jun 1955–10 Oct 1956
......Lt. Col. F. Marie Clark 11 Oct 1956
.Lt. Col. Frances M. Lathrope WALTER REED ARMY INSTITUTE an 8 weeks' course in tropical and preOF RESEARCH, Its mission is to carry ventive medicine was given to a group out research projects of value to the of recently commissioned doctors who Army as authorized by proper au- had been trained under the Army Spethority; to give advanced instruction cialized Training Program. Three 5-day to officers in professional and technical courses in the medical aspects of atomic subjects related to the medical, dental, explosions were given in 1947 to mixed and veterinary services; to perform groups of Army, Navy, and civilian diagnostic laboratory procedures re- personnel. The present 5-day course in quiring skills or equipment not avail- the management of mass casualties is able in hospital or army area labora- a continuation and further development tories and to furnish expert consultants of this beginning. in laboratory diagnosis; to distribute
In 1948 a new type of advanced instandardized diagnostic biological re
struction in the relationship between agents to the Armed Forces; to serve medicine and the basic sciences was as central reference laboratory for the
initiated, in a 4-month course aimed Armed Forces on matters pertaining to
at aiding medical officers of the Regular vaccines; and to produce such biological
Army to qualify as specialists with the supplies and immunizing agents as the
various American Specialty Boards. Secretary of Defense directs.
Courses for enlisted technicians (pharUnder the name of "Army Medical
macy, laboratory, medical, surgical, XSchool,” the institution was founded in
ray, dental, and veterinary) were given, 1893 by Surg. Gen. George M. Stern- until they
transferred to the berg for indoctrinating newly appointed Army Medical Service School at Brooke medical officers in military medical
Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houspractice. At first it was housed in the
ton (Tex.). buildings of the Army Medical Museum
Since the end of World War II both in Washington, D. C. In 1923, after two
the training and the research programs intermediate moves, it was transferred
have been expanded. In addition to to its present building at the Walter
formal long courses in military mediReed Army Medical Center in Wash
cine and allied sciences and in dentistry, ington, D. C. Here it merged with the
almost 40 short courses are conducted Army Dental School and the Army
for active duty medical and line officers Veterinary School to form the Medical
in the three Armed Services and the Department Professional Service
Veterans Administration. Post-resident Schools. It received its present title on
trainees, fellows, candidates completing 1 November 1955. The staff has in
Ph.D. requirements, and officers from cluded such outstanding investigators as Walter Reed, Henry James Nichols,
friendly foreign nations receive train
ing. Service functions for Army, Navy, Charles Francis Craig, Joseph F. Siler,
Air Force, and Veterans Administration Carl R. Darnell, and George R. Cal
facilities are conducted by various delender, to name but a few. In 1941 the need for medical officers
partments. Research activities are cartrained in the elements of tropical
ried on in the following professional medicine prompted a 4-week course for
divisions: Communicable Diseases, officers of the Organized Reserve, Na
Dentistry, Immunology, Medicine, Neutional Guard, Army of the United ropsychiatry, Physiology and PharmaStates, and Regular Army. This was cology, Preventive Medicine, Surgery, given three times and then expanded and Veterinary Medicine. During the into an 8 weeks' course which ran con- Korean War field teams investigated tinuously until September 1945. In 1946 medical problems in the combat zone
Col. Calvin DeWitt . . Col. C. L. Heizmann
... Col. Valery Havard ..Col. L. A. La Garde
.Col. Charles Richard .Brig. Gen. W. H. Arthur
.Brig. Gen. F. A. Winter
..Col. H. C. Fisher
Col. C. F. Craig .. Col. J. R. Shook
Col. E. B. Vedder Col. P. W. Huntington
Col. J. F. Sller .Lt. Col. George C. Dunham .Brig. Gen. George R. Callender
..Col. Rufus L. Holt Col. Elbert DcCoursey
.Col. William S. Stone .Brig. Gen. John R. Wood
Col. Richard P. Mason
GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR ARMY PERSONNEL
The wars of the atomic era will be fought by armies consisting of mobile and widely dispersed units, operating extremely complex mechanisms. In such a
war the individual soldier in even the lowest grades needs to have far quicker and more responsive mental processes, and greater mental stature and flexibility, than ever before. At each successive level of command, this need for a high “performance potential" increases. It is not enough to be able to practice one specific skill and to know how to protect one's self. The successful military leader needs the sort of mental training that is given by accredited civilian schools and colleges.
Many persons have not had such training before joining the Army. In an attempt to give it to them, the Army supplements its technical training and education with a General Education Program. It is monitored by The Adjutant General, and its courses are, in general, conducted in after-duty hours. The importance which is attached to this program is attested by the fact that it is listed as one of the Army's nine official military personnel objectives.
GOALS OF THE PROGRAM. There are four goalsFor commissioned officers, completion
of college-level studies in subjects of importance to the military pro
fession. For warrant officers, the equivalent
of at least two years of college. For noncommissioned officers and
specialists, any needed preparatory instruction; completion of high school studies; and further studies as desired. In addition, courses are offered of value in preparing the student for the later specialized Army schooling in his MOS (mili
tary occupational specialty). For other Army personnel, appropri
ate academic studies to the extent
that their duties permit. AGENCIES INVOLVED. The program is carried out by three principal means: (1) classroom instruction in Army Education Centers; (2) correspondence and self-teaching courses provided by or through the United States Armed Forces Institute (“USAFI"); (3) classroom instruction given by civilian high schools, colleges, and universities on or near Army installations.
ARMY EDUCATION CENTER S. These are the key agencies in the General Education Program. They are established as needed. An Army installation with a troop strength of 750 or over must maintain at least one; in addition, each battalion or unit of equivalent size is entitled to at least two classrooms in its immediate area. The centers have the personnel and equipment needed for study, instruction, counselling, and testing. Qualified fulltime civilian educators assist commanding officers in carrying out the program. Their primary duties are advising and counselling the individual students; they are also responsible for good