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The bulk of the foregoing are used or photogrammetrists, and supply and consumed by engineer units and agen- camouflage specialists. The training of cies; but the Corps supplies a number operating crews for nuclear power of items to other branches of the Army, plants is in part carried on here. Also, and, under the "single manager plan," men learn how to maintain and operate to the Air Force.
the complicated equipment needed in TRAINING OF ENLISTED MEN. support of guided missiles. The engineer From time immemorial, the need has leaves Fort Belvoir prepared to assume existed in war for trained specialists his job in engineer units throughout who accompany, and sometimes pre- the world, which are insatiable concede, the fighting man, and facilitate sumers of a wide variety of skills. his movements. They have had many PROCUREMENT AND TRAINING names-sappers, pioneers, artificers, OF OFFICERS. Engineer officers are pontoneers, and so on. But essentially obtained from West Point, from various they were and are engineers-profes- colleges, by direct commission, and sional military engineers.
from the ranks through officer candiToday's engineer soldier spends his date schools (OCS). first eight weeks in basic combat train- All officers attend the basic course ing, learning to fight and function as at Fort Belvoir. Later the regulars rean infantryman. Then he moves to ad- turn to take the advanced course, and vanced training at Fort Leonard Wood, the career reservists to take the assoor specialist training at the Engineer ciate advanced course. Some are given School, Fort Belvoir. Most of the basic special courses in airfield construction, engineer crafts are taught at Fort Leon- maintenance, supply camouflage, and ard Wood. Here the engineer soldier ac- post engineering. Certain officers (and quires the rudiments of bridge con- also enlisted men) train with industry struction and explosives, and the skills to learn firsthand the operation and needed for building and pipeline con- maintenance of equipment and struction-carpentry, plumbing, elec- chinery. Throughout the colleges of the trical work, welding, steelwork, rig- nation, engineer officers are engaged ging, and so on. Crane, tractor, and in advanced study to qualify them proother equipment operators learn to fessionally in engineering, and in handle the massive and modern earth- variety of fields ranging from advanced moving equipment of the Corps. Courses geodesy and nuclear physics to finance in leadership and management for non- and management. commissioned officers (NCO's) are con- Finally, some selected engineer ofducted. Eight weeks of these various ficers attend the senior service schools, courses lay the foundation for further U. S. Army Command and General training and development in engineer Staff College, U. S. Army War College, units.
Industrial College of the Armed Forces, At Fort Belvoir the more complicated and National War College. There they techniques are taught. It is here that prepare themselves to take their places the Corps starts training its surveyors, beside officers from the other branches, draftsmen, engineer equipment and in command of major Army organizadiesel mechanics, cartographers and tions.
CHIEFS OF ENGINEERS. The following have served17 Jun 1775—5 Aug 1776
..Col. Richard Gridley 5 Aug 1776-1 Nov 1776
Col. Rufus Putnam 22 Jul 1777--10 Oct 1783
Maj. Gen. L. L. Duportall 26 Feb 1795-7 May 1798
.Lt. Col. Stephen Rochefontaine 7 May 1798-1 Apr 1802
.Lt. Col. Henry Burbeck 3 Jul 1802-20 Jun 1803
Lt. Col. Jonathan Williams 19 Apr 1805-31 Jul 1812
Col. Jonathan Williams 31 Jul 1812-12 Nov 1818
Col. J. G. Swift 12 Nov 1818-1 Jun 1821
Col. W. K. Armistead 1 Jun 1821–24 May 1828
Col. Alexander Macomb 24 May 1828–6 Dec 1838
Col. Charles Gratiot 7 Dec 1838–3 Mar 1863
Col. J. G. Totten 3 Mar 1863—22 Apr 1864
.Brig. Gen. J. G. Totten 22 Apr 1864—8 Aug 1866
.Brig. Gen. Richard Delafield 8 Aug 1866-30 Jun 1879
Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys 30 Jun 18796 Mar 1884
Brig. Gen. H. G. Wright 6 Mar 1884—27 Aug 1886
..Brig. Gen. John Newton
11 Oct 1886-30 Jun 1888
Brig. Gen. J. C. Duane
..Brig. Gen. T. L. Casey .Brig. Gen. W. P. Craighill .Brig. Gen. J. M. Wilson
.Brig. Gen. L. Gillespie .Brig. Gen. Alexander Mackenzie Brig. Gen. William L. Marshall .Brig. Gen. William H. Bixby Brig. Gen. William T. Rossell .Brig. Gen. Dan C. Kingman .Maj. Gen. William M. Black .Maj. Gen. Lansing H. Beach
.Maj. Gen. Harry Taylor
.Maj. Gen. Edgar Jadwin Brig. Gen. Herbert Deakyne
.Maj. Gen. Lytle Brown .Maj. Gen. Edward M. Markham .Maj. Gen. Julian L. Schley
.Lt. Gen. Eugene Reybold .Lt. Gen. Raymond A. Wheeler
.Lt. Gen. Lewis A. Pick .Maj. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr.
.Maj. Gen. E. C. Itschner
THE MILITARY POLICE CORPS "Military police” is the name given prehending deserters, arresting disloyal to soldiers who exercise police and persons, inquiring into and reporting allied functions, and who comprise a treasonable practices, seizing stolen branch of the United States Army government property, and detecting known as the Military Police Corps. spies, and were "authorized to call on While on duty, they are distinguished any available military force within from other soldiers by a blue and white their respective districts, or else to emarmband with the letters "MP," worn ploy the assistance of civilian conon the left arm.
stables, sheriffs, or police officers.” In HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Al- addition, an Invalid Corps, later called though the Corps, as a permanent the Veteran Reserve Corps, was estabbranch of the Army, is one of the lished in 1862 to perform military police youngest of the services, it has been duties and maintain internal security. repeatedly created
temporary This organization was disbanded in agency, and its traditions of duty, serv- 1866. ice, and security date back to our In 1917 a Provost Marshal General Revolution. In January of 1776, Wash- was again appointed in the War Deington appointed a “Provost Martial" partment for the duration of the war, to the "Army of the United Colonies." to administer the Selective Service Law Two years later, by Congressional reso- on the principle of "supervised delution, a Provost Corps was established centralization." A Provost Marshal "to be mounted on horse-back, and General, AEF, was also appointed in armed and accoutred as Light Dra- July 1917 to the American Expedigoons.” At about the same time the tionary Forces as advisor on military Marechausie Corps was directed to police and provost marshal matters. On apprehend “Deserters, Marauders, 15 October 1918, a Military Police Corps Drunkards, Rioters and Stragglers” and was activated in the AEF. Shortly after perform various other military police the cessation of hostilities, however, the duties.
Corps and the PMG's Department were In September of 1862, a Provost Mar- again dissolved. Between 1919 and 1941, shal General was appointed in the War MP duties were performed by indiDepartment for the duration of the viduals and units detailed for that purCivil War. His primary function was pose at military installations, the operation of the draft laws when In August, 1941, a Provost Marshal these had been enacted but his sub- General's Office and a Military Police ordinates, stationed throughout the Corps were once more established. The country, were also charged with ap- nucleus of the Corps was three bat
• Spelt in that manner, according to the records. The word was presumably from the French "marechaussee."
talions and four separate companies, activated in September of the same year. In December there were transferred to the Corps all individual officers and enlisted men who had been performing military police duties as a principal function, and also such units
were performing these duties. A school, a replacement training center, and a unit training center were established. During the
the school graduated nearly 10,000 officer students, 3,340 officer candidates, and over 5,000 enlisted specialists in criminal investigation and police of occupied territory. In the same period 42,000 men trained in the Military Police Replacement Center; and 25 military police battalions and 272 separate companies were trained in the Unit Training Center.
A total of 150 military police battalions and more than 900 other military police units were activated during the war. These included MP organizations for tactical units of the Army Ground Forces and the Army Air Forces, communications zones, and the Zone of Interior; escort guard companies for handling prisoners of war; prisoner of war processing companies; post, camp or station military police companies; and criminal investigation detachments. Many detachments were also formed from bulk allotments for duty at military installations, patrolling towns and cities and maintaining order among military personnel public carriers. The Corps grew to a peak strength, in June of 1945, of some 200,000 enlisted men and 9,250 officers.
On 19 June 1946, the Chief of Staff approved the continuation of the Military Police Corps and the Office of The Provost Marshal General as a part of the military establishment; and on 28 June 1950, Public Law 581 authorized the establishment of the Corps as basic branch of the army.
Although a majority of MP units were disbanded following World War II, the Corps built up to about 42,000 during the Korean conflict. It was in the war-torn hills of Korea that the Corps applied the lessons learned in World War II. New experience was gained in the handling of mutinous Communist prisoners of war. Sudden
attacks on supply lines by guerrillas created a new mission, that of rear area security. During the early days of the Korean conflict, it was common to find military policemen fighting in the front lines with the infantry, thereafter returning to their primary duties of traffic control and the handling of prisoners of war.
THE CORPS TODAY. The Military Police Corps emerged from World War II, and the Korean fighting with a distinguished record of accomplishment and service, at home and in combat. That record-written the bloody beachheads of every major invasion,
shell-blasted roads jammed with traffic moving to every front, and equally in soldier-packed cities-has earned for the Corps a permanent place in the military establishment. Wherever the United States Army has been, the Military Police Corps has been there also.
The mission of the Corps is the maintenance of law and order, the prevention and investigation of crime within the Army, the enforcement of orders and regulations, and the operation of confinement facilities. This mission includes the apprehension, and return to military control, of unauthorized absentees and escaped military prisoners; the retraining and rehabilitation of military prisoners; the control of traffic on military reservations; the physical security of posts, camps, stations and facilities; and the protection of the welfare of fellow soldiers.
Additional functions in time of war include the documentation, interment. care, treatment, work supervision, education, and repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees; maintenance of the official Information Bureaus of United States military and civilian personnel detained by enemy powers; and maintenance of the Prisoner of War Information Bureaus concerning enemy personnel interned by the United States, as required by the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Also, military police have a major role in the control of military traffic to insure the timely arrival of supplies, equipment, and
personnel, and in the evacuation of refugees. The secondary mission of Corps personnel is to engage in combat when required.
The chief of the Corps, who is called or field army) has military police and a The Provost Marshal General, is the provost marshal, who acts as a staff principal law enforcement authority in officer to the commander and supervises the Department of the Army. He formu- the law enforcement activities of the lates military police policies for the command. Army under the direction of the Deputy Training of Corps personnel is proChief of Staff for Personnel, and super- vided at The Provost Marshal Genvises the technical training and func- eral's School, Fort Gordon, Georgia. In tioning of the Corps.
addition to the basic courses, the School The present strength of the Corps is gives instruction in scientific criminal about 30,000. Its responsibilities are investigation, lie detector operation, inglobal. Each army in the United States, dustrial defense, and physical security each oversea command, each post, camp, systems, and in correction and confineor station, and each major subordinate ment procedures. It also conducts exunit of the field forces (division, corps, tension courses.
PROVOST MARSHALS GENERAL. The following have served31 Jul 1941—21 Jun 1944
..Maj. Gen. Allen W. Gullion 21 Jun 19443 Dec 1945
..Maj. Gen. Archer L. Lerch 3 Dec 19 5-10 Apr 1948
Brig. Gen. Blackshear M. Bryan 10 Apr 1948—31 Jan 1953
.Maj. Gen. Edwin P. Parker, Jr. 3 Feb 1953–30 Sept 1957
Maj. Gen. William H. Maglin 19 NOV 1957
.Maj. Gen. Haydon L. Boatner
THE ORDNANCE CORPS
The Ordnance Corps designs, develops, procures, stores, maintains, and issues a wide variety of equipment and supplies, including small
and artillery, ammunition of all types, tanks, gun motor carriages, armored personnel carriers, trucks for transporting men and materiel, aircraft bombs, land mines, free-flight rockets and launchers, guided missiles, and miscellaneous equipment. The principal supply is to the Army, but under the “single manager plan" the Corps procures small arms and ammunition, and certain motor vehicles, for the Navy and Marine Corps; aircraft guns and ammunition, bombs, small arms, and automotive equipment for the Air Force; and many items for foreign aid. To perform its mission it maintains and operates manufacturing arsenals; research laboratories; proving grounds; depots for storage and maintenance; district offices for procurement; and government-owned, contractor-operated plants for loading ammunition and manufacturing explosives and propellants.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The antecedents of the Ordnance Corps go back to the early days of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress created a Board of War and Ordnance and assigned to it many of the duties now associated with
the Corps. From time to time the Congress also appointed committees to deal with specific problems such as the procurement of cannon, the manufacture of gunpowder, and the opening of lead mines. A Commissary General of Military Stores was appointed to keep records of supplies and be responsible for armories, foundries, and "laboratories" (workshops).
In the 80 years following the Revolution, various plans were adopted and modified for handling ordnance duties. The Ordnance Department as such was created in 1812. Armories or arsenals were established as follows: Springfield (Mass.) and Harper's Ferry (Va.) in 1794; Watervliet (N. Y.) in 1813; Frankford (Pa.) in 1815; Watertown (Mass.) in 1816; and Rock Island (Ill.) during the Civil War. Between the Civil War and World War I, breech-loading field and coast artillery were developed, and improved projectiles, propellants, and explosives were standardized. Picatinny Arsenal (N. J.) was created as a powder depot in 1879, and later became manufacturing arsenal. The famous Springfield rifle was adopted in 1903.
Following World War I, there was established the decentralized Ordnance District system of procurement now in effect. A program was adopted which resulted in the standardization of new
and improved items of artillery, small
(including the Garand or M1 rifle), ammunition, and combat hicles. Surveys of industry and production studies were made, and plans prepared for the prompt placing of large contracts if an emergency arose.
World War II brought to the Ordnance the greatest challenge in its history. Thanks to prewar planning, the Department got off to a fast start in its enormous procurement program. Vast
productive capacity was created; over $3,000,000,000 went into constructing and equipping some 60 plants for making smokeless powder, TNT, ammonium nitrate, and RDX, and for loading cartridge cases, powder bags, shells, bombs, and mines. During the
these government-owned, tractor-operated plants, together with commercial plants making cartridge cases and other ammunition components, produced nearly a billion rounds of artillery ammunition, ranging in size from 20mm aircraft gun cartridges to 240mm howitzer shells. Ordnance wartime procurement amounted to $34.000,000,000, roughly half the total of all Army procurement. Scores of new items were developed, including the lightweight carbine, the bazooka rocket launcher, light recoilless rifles with the fire power of artillery, improved tanks, and many new types of ammunition. Detroit Arsenal, built during the war, continued in the postwar years as the center of tank development and production. The Ordnance Training Center was established at Aberdeen Proving Ground in 1941. Ordnance-trained officers and men went to every oversea theater to provide support for the troops in the field.
In the postwar years research and development continued, including highly important studies of German V-2 weapons and of new American designs of guided missiles, and many test firings were made at White Sands Proying Ground.
With the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, Ordnance was suddenly called upon to swing back into production, issue supplies from storage, and accelerate its research. The budget jumped from $600,000,000 in fiscal year 1950 to more than $11,000,000,000 in 1952. In 1953,
Ordnance announced three remarkable new developments—the 75mm radarcontrolled Skysweeper antiaircraft gun, the Nike antiaircraft guided missile, and the 280mm atomic cannon. Meanwhile, at Redstone Arsenal, a group of former German scientists worked with ordnance engineers on a spectacular array of rockets and guided missiles that gave promise of opening a new era in the history of warfare.
THE ORDNANCE CORPS TODAY. The Office of the Chief of Ordnance has nine staff offices, dealing with a wide variety of administrative, legislative, legal, financial, planning, coordination, liaison, publicity, and security problems and the like. It also has three main divisions, each with general supervision over a major operation of the Corps: the Research and Development Division, the Industrial Division, and the Field Service Division. They direct a sequence of operations which start with the design of a weapon or other item, and end with its final distribution and maintenance.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION. This division is charged with developing new and improved Ordnance materiel, including guided missiles and rockets as well as timehonored weapons such as tanks, artillery, small arms, and transport vehicles. Actual research and development work is under the direction of arsenals and other Ordnance Corps installations, from which items are sent to a proving ground for testing. Guided missiles and rockets are tested at White Sands Proving Ground; most vehicles, artillery, small arms, and ammunition, at Aberdeen Proving Ground (Md.). The division maintains close technical liaison with the Navy, the Air Force, and other Federal agencies; with the using arms and services; and with numerous technological and scientific institutions and activities.
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION. This division supervises procurement, production, inspection, and acceptance of ordnance materiel, and the industrial engineering connected therewith; it is responsible for industrial mobilization planning. Its chief has a deputy and two special assistants-one for artillery, vehicles, and infantry weapons, and one