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for guided missiles and aircraft arma- cialists are either career ordnance ofment. It has a Plans and Programs ficers whose technical education and Branch, a District and Industrial Serv- experience fit them for command, staff, ices Branch, and four commodity and technical advisory assignments, or branches-Guided Missiles, Ammuni- specially trained enlisted men. tion, Weapons and Fire Control, and
In an oversea theater, the ordnance Tank-Automotive. It provides the over- officer who is directly under the theater all administration of government-owned commander is himself in command of plants, both active and stand-by; it the organization which supplies and cooperates closely with industry and
maintains ordnance items for the with the manufacturing arsenals in pro
theater. Within that organization, other duction and mobilization planning. The
ordnance officers command the various arsenals supply small amounts of ma- supply and maintenance bases. In the teriel in peacetime, and develop plans continental armies within the United and methods for mass production in
States, the Army ordnance officer is wartime. The division also supervises
primarily a technical advisor rather the 14 ordnance procurement districts, than a commander; but he exercises each of which procures all ordnance
technical administration over ordnance items manufactured in its area.
supply and maintenance activities withFIELD SERVICE DIVISION. This di
in his Army area. vision deals with the storage, issue, re
Trained enlisted specialists are propair, and maintenance of ordnance materiel and ammunition. It supervises
vided by the Corps for the various
elements of the Army as required. Their and directs packaging activities; is re
tasks are supply and maintenance opersponsible for determination of materiel
ations in connection with ammunition, requirements, including major items,
combat and transport vehicles, artilspare parts, and tools; overseas the
lery, fire control materiel, small arms, preparation of military and technical
free-Aight rockets, guided missiles, and publications; and supervises ammuni
other weapons and equipment. tion renovation and demilitarization. It
The Ordnance Corps agency responsupervises the cataloging of ordnance items, maintenance engineering sup
sible for providing trained manpower port, and management of the ordnance
is the U.S. Army Ordnance Training portion of the Army Stock Fund. It is
Command at Aberdeen Proving Ground, responsible for the administration and
Maryland. Major training programs are operation of some 25 depots, several
conducted at the U.S. Army Ordnance storage activities, and the Major Item
School (also at Aberdeen) and the U.S. Supply Management Agency.
Army Ordnance Guided Missile School TRAINING AND ASSIGNMENT OF
at Redstone Arsenal (Huntsville, Ala.). PERSONNEL. The increasing
Training with new equipment is car
complexity of modern weapons, including
ried on at the various commodity comrockets, guided missiles, and special
mands and arsenals. atomic weapons, places a heavy respon- For full information on the Army's sibility on the Ordnance Corps for train- weapons which the Ordnance Corps ing technical specialists for worldwide has designed and produced, see chapter support of the using arms. These spe- 9.
CHIEFS OF ORDNANCE. The following have served 2 Jul 1812-1 Jun 1821
Col. Decius Wadsworth 1 Jun 1821-25 Mar 1848
Col. George Bomford 20 Mar 1848–10 Jul 1851
Col. George Talcott 10 July 1851-23 Apr 1861
Col. Henry K. Craig 23 Apr 1861—15 Sep 1863
.Brig. Gen. James W. Ripley 15 Sep 1863—12 Sep 1864
Brig. Gen. George D. Ramsay 12 Sep 1864—20 May 1874
.Brig. Gen. Alexander B. Dyer 23 Jun 187423 Jun 1891
..Brig. Gen. Stephen V. Benet 23 Jun 1891-29 Mar 1899
..Brig. Gen. Daniel W. Flagler 5 Apr 1899—22 Nov 1901
Brig. Gen. Adelbert R. Buffington 22 NOV 1901—15 Jul 1918
..Maj. Gen. William Crozier 16 Jul 1918-1 Apr 1930
.Maj. Gen. Clarence C. Williams 2 Jun 1930—2 Jun 1934
..Maj. Gen, Samuel Hof 2 Jun 1934—3 Jun 1938
Maj. Gen. William H. Tschappat 3 Jun 1938-2 Jun 1942
.Maj. Gen. Charles M. Wesson 2 Jun 1942-31 May 1946
.Lt. Gen. Levin H. Campbell 1 Jun 1946—1 Nov 1949
.Maj. Gen. Everett S. Hughes 1 Nov 1949-1 Nov 1953
.Maj. Gen. Elbert L. Ford 1 Nov 1953—2 Apr 1958
Lt. Gen. Emerson L. Cummings 2 Apr 1958
.Maj. Gen. John H. Hinrichs THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS
The Quartermaster Corps furnishes the Army with the following categories of supplies and equipment: food; clothing; most petroleum products and accessory equipment; general supplies and equipment; maintenance engineering equipment and parts; aerial supply equipment; and Government headstones and markers. It mans, trains, and equips numerous specialized troop units, and operates an immense complex of depots, purchasing agencies, distribution centers, and the like.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The Corps traces its origin to 16 June 1775, when the second Continental Congress, following Washington's address accepting command of the Army, passed a resolution providing for “one quarter master general for the grand army, and a deputy, under him, for the separate army.” On the same day Congress provided for a Commissary General of Stores and Purchases, in whom it vested responsibility for feeding the troops. In January, 1777, Washington, on thorization of Congress, appointed a Clothier General to supervise the supply of clothing to the Continental Army.
The organization set up in 1775 was known during the Revolutionary War as the Quartermaster General's Department, and more briefly, throughout the nineteenth century, the Quartermaster's Department. Originally it was a field agency, and the Quartermaster General was the chief staff officer of the commanding general of the Army. He gathered intelligence data, assisted in planning marches, opened roads, laid out camps, assigned quarters, and transported men and supplies. In short, he took all measures to enable an Army to march with ease and to encamp with convenience and sa ty.
The position of Quartermaster General was abolished in 1785; but permanently revived in 1812. In 1818 the Quartermaster's Department was established as a supply bureau in Washington. Since Quartermaster General Thomas S. Jesup shaped and guided
the Department for forty-two years after his appointment in 1818, and Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs from 1861 to 1882, continuity of control permitted the development of policies and procedures that enabled the Department to carry out its duties with competency during the Mexican and Civil Wars.
Initially the Department depended upon the services of soldiers detailed from the line, and on civilians, to transport supplies to the front, to build and repair roads, and to erect barracks. During these years the Department repeatedly, but unsuccessfully, advocated a militarized corps. It took the deficiencies of supply, and the shortcomings of the War Department in general during the Spanish-American War, to generate a wave of reform that in 1912, among other changes, resulted in the organization of Quartermaster units on military lines. In that year Congress consolidated the former Subsistence, Pay, and Quartermaster's Departments to create the Quartermaster Corps that exists today, with its own officers and troops.
In World War I the Corps' functions were temporarily carried out by several agencies. Most of them reverted to QMC control in 1920; but in World War II, construction was transferred to the Corps of Engineers and transportation to the Transportation Corps. This left the QMC free to concentrate on its basic function of the procurement, storage, and issue of its characteristic supplies and equipment. The scale of its war effort may be judged by the fact that, at its peak in 1944, it had expanded to a strength of over 500,000 officers and men.
Immediately following the war there was of course a great reduction in activity. However, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, setting forth the national policy of containment of military aggression in the world, marked the start of a new phase of Quartermaster postwar history. In this period of intensified "cold war" between the United States
and the Soviet Union, lasting until 1950, our country began to solidify its farflung military outposts in order to resist Communist expansion. Quartermaster supply and service to American soldiers, stationed on distant military frontiers created a global mission for the Corps unprecedented in its peacetime history.
The chief characteristic of this mission was the “logistical flexibility” developed in Quartermaster organization, operations, and procedures for oversea supply. When the Korean conflict broke out, the QMC was in better shape to meet its unexpected demands than was much of the Army; partly because of this existing oversea supply organization, and partly because it had kept on hand large surpluses of World War II stocks. Serious shortages did develop in some items, in the early days of the Korean fighting; but in general, and especially in the supply of food and other perishables, the Corps did a remarkable job. By 1951 many frontline soldiers were actually eating two hot meals a day. This achievement was the result of techniques developed by the QMC food service program, including the daily delivery of fresh foods by air transport.
In addition to air-transported and landed supplies, the Quartermaster Corps parachuted and free-dropped thousands of tons of food, clothing, and medical, ordnance, and engineer supplies, through its airdrop program. “Supply by sky"
continuous throughout the conflict. Probably the most signficant drops were those made during the American retreat from the Changjin Reservoir to the Hungnam evacuation port in December 1950, and those near Wonju in the spring of 1951. On the route from the reservoir, the most spectacular single air drop took place when a 16-ton treadway bridge was floated down to rescue hundreds of Marines and infantrymen left isolated by a destroyed bridge.
These examples of Quartermaster supply and service were typical of the manner in which the entire resources and facilities of the Corps were directed to filling the needs of the individual fighting man in Korea. The extent of its success may best be gauged, per
haps, by the comment of General James A. Van Fleet, commander of the Eighth Army, that it was the “best equipped, best fed, best clothed, best housed and cared-for army
During and since the Korean conflict the QMC, like the rest of the Army, has been evolving rapidly to meet the new concepts of war of the nuclear age. The chief developments in this recent period have been along the following lines.
PENTOMIC SUPPLY. The organization and tactics of the “pentomic” Army now in being have their counterpart in new QMC procedures of supply and service. These procedures are being worked out by iou research and development projects, some of which, such as the use of irradiation to preserve food (see chapter 31) have revolutionary possibilities.
OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY. This has been improved by various management reforms. Among them are: reduction of operating stocks, in line with the “living-off-the-shelf” practice of private industry; use of the fiscal and accounting methods of commercial firms; integration of budgeting, programming, and the review and analysis of operational activities; new and expanded command-management concepts; central inventory control and automatic data processing. Along with this has gone a tendency to eliminate Government competition with private industry. Many important Quartermaster services have been affected, including commissary stores, meat-cutting plants, bakeries, laundries, dry-cleaning plants, coffee-roasting plants, typewriter repair shops, and officers' tailoring shops. Quartermaster manufacturing activities in the field also have been reduced drastically.
UNIFICATION. The QMC has been a chief protagonist in most of the major logistical developments of the movement for unification of the Armed Services, including "single-service procurement," "joint procurement," "coordinated procurement," "cross-servicing," and the “single manager plan.” The Corps has two single manager assignments which it executes for the Secretary of the Army. One is for the supply of sub
sistence to the Armed Forces, carried out by the Military Subsistence Supply Agency. The other is for clothing and textile supply. It is handled by the Military Clothing and Textile Supply Agency, located at the Philadelphia QM Depot.
DECENTRALIZATION. The new responsibilities of the QMC, resulting from the single-manager activities and other measures, call for maximum decentralization of operating functions to field agencies. In the fall of 1957 the Office of the Quartermaster General announced that it had developed a plan, approved by the Department of the Army, for decentralization of major supply management functions, of the administration of the Army food service program, and of related functions, to four field installations. The plan involved the transfer of seven OQMG divisions and 449 employes to the Columbus, Philadelphia, and Richmond QM Depots, and to the Chicago Administrative Center, with all moves planned for completion by the spring of 1958. The effect will be to shift the emphasis, in the cental office of the Quartermaster General, away from operation and toward the roles of policy development, administrative control, and following up on the performance of the field agencies.
PROCUREMENT OF COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. There are five procurement sources for QMC Regular Army officers: distinguished graduates of the ROTC, reserve officers on active duty, transfers from other branches, direct appointment of civilian specialists, and direct appointment of warrant officers or enlisted men. At the present time no Regular officers are commis
sioned in the Quartermaster Corps from the United States Military Academy. Until the new Air Force Academy begins producing officers-around 1960— the current needs of the Air Force leave only enough Military Academy graduates each year for the combat arms and quasi-combat services, such as the Corps of Engineers and the Signal Corps. Graduates can therefore become Quartermaster officers only by transfer from some other arm or service.
For ROTC distinguished military students, acceptance is based on general college record plus scores obtained on the evaluation report of the PMS&T, the summer camp evaluation report, and a personal inventory test. The primary consideration is not whether the student received QM training during his ROTC course, but whether his interests and college curriculum fit him for QM activities. Equal opportunity is provided if training was received in a general military science unit or some other Army branch unit. A distinguished military graduate who desires a commission in the QMC can almost always obtain it, if he meets the general criteria for acceptance established by the Department of the Army.
A man not receiving a Regular commission under the above program may apply for it 18 months after entrance on active duty as a reserve officer. The Armed Forces Regular Officer Augmentation Act of 1956 provides additional means for reserve officers to apply for Regular commissions.
For further details, see "A Career of Service in the Quartermaster Corps." QMC Pamphlet No. 1.
QUARTERMASTERS GENERAL, The following have served14 Aug 1775—16 May 1776
Col. Thomas Mimin 5 Jun 1776——27 Sep 1776
Col. Stephen Moylan 28 Sep 1776_-7 Nov 1777
.Maj. Gen. Thomas Mimin 2 Mar 1778-26 Jul 1780
.Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene 5 Aug 1780—25 Jul 1785
Col. Timothy Pickering 4 Mar 1791-19 Apr 1792
Samuel Hodgdon. 19 Apr 1792-30 May 1796
.James O'Harga 1 Jun 1796-16 Mar 1802
.John Wilkins, Jr. 4 Apr 1812--2 Mar 1813
..Brig. Gen. Morgan Lewis 21 Mar 1813–29 Apr 1816
Brig. Gen. Robert Swartwout 29 Apr 1816-14 Apr 1818
.Col. James Mullany (Northern Division) 29 Apr 1816--14 Apr 1818
. Col. George Gibson (Southern Division) 8 May 1818—10 Jun 1860
Brig. Gen. Thomas S. Jesup 28 Jun 1860—22 Apr 1861
.Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 15 May 1861–6 Feb 1882
Brig. Gen, Montgomery C. Meigs 13 Feb 1882--23 Feb 1882
Brig. Gen. Daniel H. Rucker 23 Feb 1882-1 Jul 1883
..Brig. Gen. Rufus Ingalls
a Designated Quartermaster, United States Army. No rank given.
1 Jul 1883-16 Jun 1890 26 Jun 1890-27 Jul 1896 19 Aug 1896—16 Feb 1897 16 Feb 1897-3 Feb 1898 3 Feb 1898–13 Apr 1903 12 Apr 1903—1 Jul 1907 1 Jul 1907-12 Sep 1916 13 Sep 1916–12 Jul 1918 22 Jul 1918-27 Aug 1922 28 Aug 1922—2 Jan 1926 3 Jan 1926–17 Jan 1930 3 Feb 19302 Feb 1934 3 Feb 1934—31 Mar 1936 1 Apr 1936—31 Mar 1940 1 Apr 1940–31 Jan 1946 1 Feb 1946—21 Mar 1949 21 Mar 1949—30 Sep 1951 9 Oct 1951-31 Jan 1954 5 Feb 1954-31 Mar 1957 12 Jun 1957
.Brig. Gen. Samuel B. Holabird Brig. Gen. Richard N. Batchelder .Brig. Gen. Charles G. Sawtelle
..Brig. Gen. George H. Weeks Brig. Gen. Marshall I. Ludington Brig. Gen. Charles F. Humphrey
.Maj. Gen. James B. Aleshire
..Maj. Gen. William H. Hart .Maj. Gen. B. Franklin Cheatham
.Maj. Gen. John L. DeWitt
Maj. Gen. Louis H. Bash
..Maj. Gen. Henry Gibbins .Lieut. Gen. Edmund B. Gregory
.Maj. Gen. Thomas B. Larkin
.Maj. Gen. Kester L. Hastings Maj. Gen. Andrew T. McNamara
THE SIGNAL CORPS
The basic task of the Signal Corps is to furnish the means and the men needed to provide the signal communications and electronic equipment which are essential to military command and control.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The official birthday of the Corps is 21 June 1860. On that date Major Albert J. Myer, Assistant Surgeon, was appointed Signal Officer. He previously had obtained War Department approval of his flag signaling system (wigwag). He at once began to train officers in this system, which in the Civil War was adopted by both sides. A Confederate Signal Corps was created shortly after the war began. The U. S. Army Signal Corps was established by an act of Congress of 3 March 1863, and by October of 1864 numbered 170 officers and 1,400 men. Our Army was the first in the world to establish the position of Signal Officer, and the first to create a separate and independent Signal Corps.
The record of the Corps in later wars is treated in chapter 13.
THE CORPS TODAY. The principal elements of the Signal Corps' mission are to develop and procure communication, electronic, meteorological, and photographic equipment, distribute it to the Army and maintain it; to install, operate, and maintain Army's communication networks; to train and furnish Signal Corps specialists and units;
and to perform photographic and meteorological duties. Officers and men are trained in all means of conveying information and intelligence-visual, from flags or lights to facsimile and television, and electrical, from simple wire or radio telegraph to the most intricate and rapid carrier and multiplex methods. Military signaling utilizes all the means offered by the radiation spectrum, including infrared and radar.
In addition to providing for the transmission, within our own forces, of all types of military orders, messages, and documents, Signal Corpsmen collect essential information about the enemy, using radar, photography, and other means ("combat surveillance"). They provide the equipment and signals essential to accurate gun-laying, to air navigation (for Army aircraft), to guided missile control, and to new applications of electronic computers and of the wire and radio nets serving the Army's clerical and logistical activities.
TRAINING FACILITIES. As the communications agent of the Army, with a considerable variety of other technical missions not all related to communications, the Signal Corps has always
carried large training responsibilities, instructing not only its own specialists but communicators of other Arms and Services as well. In World War I the number of Signal Corps specialists categories ran to no more
5 The term "communications" has two military meanings: (1) (as used here) means of transmitting verbal or written messages-usually called "signal communications"; (2) means of moving men and supplies, as roads, railroads, etc.-often spoken of as “lines of communication."