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than about a score, but in World War II they increased several fold. The proliferating of military electronic applications at present-television, missile guidance, and combat surveillance, to name but three-steadily increases the Corps' specialist requirements and training problems. In addition to its major installations at Ft. Monmouth, N. J., the Corps in World War II opened large training activities at Camp Crowder (Mo.), Camp Kohler (Cal.), and Camp Murphy (Fla.). All were closed down at the war's end, except the schools at Ft. Monmouth. On 15 December 1951, under the pressure of the Korean conflict, the Corps opened a training installation at Camp San Luis Obispo (Cal.), but closed it in November, 1953. However, in November 1948 it had founded the Southeastern Signal School, at Camp Gordon (Ga.), which it continues to operate.

SUPPLY ACTIVITIES. The Corps procures, stocks, and distributes to the Army all required communications, electronic, photographic, and meteorological equipment. This includes radio, radar, and television sets of many kinds, from large radio transmitters of great power and range to small handcarried sets. It includes highly efficient radio relay sets, and such versatile radios as the AN/GRC-26 (Army-Navy Ground Radio Communications set, popularly called the “Angry 26,") which proved so valuable in Korea. It includes various types of radars to detect aircraft, to detect mortar shells in flight so as to locate the exact firing point, and to detect trucks and personnel. It includes television, from large vehicular stations to hand-carried pick-up cameras, with field transmitters to send the scenes back to headquarters. Signal Corps telephone, telegraph, and teletype equipment has become marvelous in its compactness (despite its complexity), and in its ability to handle numerous circuits simultaneously. Meteorological equipment includes complete truck-mounted weather stations, and radars such as the RAWIN set AN/GMD-1 which is used to track drifting weather balloons, thereby determining wind speed and direction at various altitudes Photographic equip

ment includes complete processing labs (truck-mounted) and many types of special cameras. The Signal Corps also provides mine detectors employing radio principles, and radiac sets used to determine the intensity of radiation resulting from the use of atomic weapons. Supplementing all the above there is a wide variety of tools, repair and maintenance equipment, power generating equipment, specialized vehicles, and the like.

As of mid-1957 the Corps handled over 150,000 individual items of equipment. The value of such equipment currently in depots in the continental United States exceeded a billion dollars.

PROCUREMENT OF PERSONNEL. The qualifications for assignment to, or for obtaining a commission in, the Signal Corps are many and varied. The prerequisites are those for enlistment or commission in any branch.

Enlisted Men. An enlisted man may, under AR 601-215, enlist for whatever branch of service he chooses (including the Signal Corps), in order to fill a vacancy in the monthly quota. If he has had prior service, he may, upon reenlisting for a second term, select the Signal Corps. If he has not had prior service, he may, under AR 601-230, choose to enlist for a minimum of three years and attend a Signal Corps school. If he successfully completes the training course he receives

Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) number. This MOS training qualifies him for Signal Corps technical assignments; for example, as

an operator or repairman in communications, or as a specialist in such fields as research and development, procurement and distribution, intelligence, photography, meteorology, television, etc. Also, under AR 601-229, a man with previous service may, if he reenlists within 90 days, enter a Signal Corps school. On obtaining an MOS he will normally be assigned to a Signal Corps unit.

Officers. For details of the qualifications for a regular army or reserve commission, see AR 601-100 and AR 140-100.

For further details on signal communications and equipment, see chapter 18.

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CHIEF SIGNAL OFFICERS. The following have served27 Jun 1860—13 Oct 1863

.Maj. Albert J. Myer 13 Oct 1863-26 Dec 1864

.Lt. Col. William J. L. Nicodemus 26 Dec 1864-15 Nov 1866

.Brig. Gen. Albert J. Myer 15 Dec 1880—16 Jan 1887

.Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen 3 March 1887-9 Feb 1906

.Brig. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely 10 Feb 1906-13 Feb 1913

.Brig. Gen. James Allen 5 Mar 1913-13 Feb 1917

.Brig. Gen. George P. Scriven 14 Feb 1917–31 Dec 1923

..Maj. Gen. George O. Squier 1 Jan 1924—8 Jan 1928

.Maj. Gen. Charles McK. Saltzman 9 Jan 1928–30 Jun 1931

.Maj. Gen. George S. Gibbs 1 Jul 1931—31 Dec 1934

.Maj. Gen. Irving J. Carr 1 Jan 1935—30 Sep 1937

..Maj. Gen. James B. Allison 1 Oct 1937–30 Sep 1941

.Maj. Gen. Joseph O. Mauborgne 1 Oct 1941-30 Jun 1943

.Maj. Gen. Dawson Olmstead 1 Jul 1943–31 Mar 1947

.Maj. Gen. Harry C. Ingles 1 Apr 1947--2 May 1951

.Maj. Gen. Spencer B. Akin 2 May 1951–30 Apr 1955

..Maj. Gen. George I. Back 1 May 1955

Lt. Gen. James D. O'Connell

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THE TRANSPORTATION CORPS The basic responsibility of this Corps War II broke out, the need for coris for moving persons and things and rective measures became urgent. As a providing transportation services for first step, a Transportation Division the Army, and, as assigned, for the (later “Service") was created on 9 Navy, the Air Force, and other agencies March 1942 in the Services of Supply, as well.

absorbing the Transportation Division HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The of the Quartermaster Corps and cerTransportation Corps is the youngest tain General Staff transportation acof the technical services. It was created tivities, and taking over responsibility in 1942 under the emergency wartime for ports of embarkation and for holdauthority of the President, and was ing and reconsignment points. On 31 given statutory recognition as a basic July 1942 the Service was expanded branch in 1950. Various other statutes into a Transportation Corps, to have and reorganizations have given it the its own officers, troop units, and trainform and duties which it possesses to- ing programs. The Corps took from day.

the Quartermaster Corps the operation Traditionally the function of trans- and maintenance of utility railroads, portation in the Army

under and from the Corps of Engineers its divided control. As of 1940, the Chief Military Railway Service, with supply of Engineers was responsible both for and training functions. Except for the building and for operating and main- control of air traffic, transferred to the taining military railroads, and for train- Air Force on 1 July 1942, and for the ing railroad troop units. The Quarter- organization and manning of motor master General was responsible for transport units, which remained with utility railroads, with some exceptions, the Quartermaster General, a high deand for the rail and water movement gree of integration of Army transportaof troops and supplies, including the tion responsibilities was thus achieved. operation of the Army's ocean trans- Notwithstanding the need for buildports. Ports of embarkation were under ing its organization and procedures in the direct supervision of the War De- the midst of crisis, the Corps contribpartment General Staff. The situation uted materially to the victory over was further complicated by separate the Axis Powers. Along with its imtraffic organizations in some of the pressive record of wartime accomplishsupply services and at War Department ments, the Corps built up an esprit and and other levels.

morale of its own, geared to the tempo Such a dispersion of transportation of modern transportation. responsibilities is not suited to modern The return of peace

further major wars, with their worldwide scope progress toward full integration of miliand their enormous demands for the tary transportation responsibilities. In movement of supplies and equipment. 1946 certain Quartermaster truck and It had produced undesirable results as car companies and other troop units far back as World War I. After World were transferred to the Corps. In 1952

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it was given control of administrative BILITIES. The Chief of Transportation motor pools, and of the logistic support exercises technical supervision over of Army aviation, including helicopter administrative motor pool and line haul transportation service. The “unification" military highway operations, as well policy of postwar years resulted in the as over the allocation, inspection, maintransfer of the Army's ocean transport tenance, and repair of general transport activities to the Military Sea Trans- administrative vehicles for which the portation Service (MSTS) of the Navy. Army has responsibility. Attention is This reduction of Transportation Corps directed toward efficient employment responsibilities, however, was offset by and management of vehicles at military enhanced responsibilities for land trans- installations, and toward the build-up port and traffic management for the and training of truck units for motor Department of Defense.

transport operations in the field. By WATER TRANSPORTATION RE- reason of his basic stake in the defense SPONSIBILITIES. Though entirely de- use of public highways, the Chief of pendent on MSTS for deep sea ship- Transportation further serves as Deping, the Chief of Transportation con- partment of Defense representative in tinues to be charged with vital port integrating military requirements into and water transport activities for the civil highway programs of the United Army. Through his Army transporta- States, its territories, and possessions. tion terminal commands he provides The latter responsibility entails the the major “pipeline points” in the provision of transportation engineering logistical support of Army and Air services; the injection of military reForce activities overseas. At the Army quirements into the design and conterminals, Corps personnel authorize struction of public highways; the removements for export shipments; super- view and certification as to essentiality vise or conduct unloading, handling, of access road requirements of the loading, Stevedoring, embarkation, de- three Departments; the formulation and barkation, and other related services; defense of budget estimates to meet and exercise control while personnel these needs; and concern with overand materiel are within the terminal weight, oversize, and other special complexes. Upon the Chief of Trans- problems of military movements portation further falls the responsibility the public highways. for the provision, assignment, reassign- ARMY AVIATION RESPONSIBILment, storage and issue, operation, ITIES. Since 1952 the logistical support maintenance, and utilization of all float- of Army aviation has bulked large in ing equipment in support of Army mis- the overall effort of the Transportation sions.

Corps. In all facets of the programRAIL TRANSPORTATION RESPON- research and procurement, supply and SIBILITIES. The Army relies mostly maintenance, specialist training, and on commercial facilities for rail move- the activation and employment of ment. However, it maintains a sizeable Transportation aviation units - the quantity of equipment for utility rail- Chief of Transportation has been strivroad operations, for use on commercial ing toward two objectives: to insure lines in the United States, and for full support of the Army's needs in meeting the requirements of oversea peacetime, and to meet the anticipated commanders. In this area the Chief of requirements of greater organic air Transportation directs his efforts to- capability and of swift dispersion, conward economy in the operation and centration, and supply in any future maintenance of the CONUS fleet; the conflict involving the use of mass deprovision of qualified officer personnel; struction weapons. the build-up of requisite stocks; and SINGLE MANAGER RESPONSIBILthe maintenance of an effective military ITIES. Under the "single manager reserve to direct or execute the bulk plan" the Secretary of the Army was haulage of men and materiel on over- designated in 1956 as single manager sea railways in support of combat oper- for the function of traffic management ations.

for all the Armed Services. This duty MOTOR TRANSPORT RESPONSI- is carried out by the Chief of Trans

on

portation, acting through an organiza- specialties and to the maintenance of tion called the Military Traffic Manage- a balanced Corps. To this end, ROTC ment Agency, which is under his juris- graduates are brought to active duty. diction. The agency has effected a com- Regular Army appointments are given plete integration of the traffic manage- to Distinguished Military Graduates ment elements of the Army, Navy, and from the ROTC. Transfers of officers Air Force. Each of these Services, from other branches are effected. Nonhowever, retains traffic management regular officers on active duty are functions at local shipping installations, integrated. The voluntary recall of to the extent that the single manager critical specialists and other specific prescribes.

procurement objectives are pursued to

bring in outstanding officers, to attain PROCUREMENT OF COMMIS

authorized strengths in warrant officers, SIONED OFFICERS. The Chief of

and to attract the number and caliber Transportation places great stress on

of personnel needed for the fulfillment aggressive and imaginative personnel

of the Corps' mission. Duty assignments management, to insure both the current

of the Corps' military personnel and effectiveness and the mobilization readi

the phasing of their schooling are in ness of the Corps. On the military side, conformity with the objectives and personnel procurement is keyed to the pattern of career development premeeting of requirements in particular scribed for the Army as a whole.

CHIEFS OF TRANSPORTATION. The following have served 31 Jul 1942—30 Nov 1945

.Maj. Gen. Charles P. Gross 1 Dec 1945—10 Jun 1948

.Maj. Gen. Edmond H. Leavey 11 Jun 1948-31 Mar 1953

Maj. Gen. Frank A. Heileman 1 Apr 1953—16 Mar 1958

.Maj. Gen. Paul F. Yount 17 Mar 1958

.Maj. Gen. Frank S. Besson

guid

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S CORPS The Adjutant General's Corps pro- Initially the Adjutant General was vides personnel and administrative located at field Army headquarters, was services for the Department of the in charge of military correspondence, Army in connection with the procure- and also carried out the duties now ment, classification, assignment, pro- performed by a commanding general's motion, transfer, and separation of chief of staff. In 1779 he was given his military personnel; records; correspond- first clerical force (two assistants and ence; decorations and awards; postal one clerk). At the instigation of Major activities; publications; career

General (Baron) von Steuben, after he ance; personnel research; and special became Inspector General of the Army, service activities.

there was instituted an arrangement HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The which continued from time to time for Corps has undergone an extensive evo- over 20 years, namely that of the conlution in the course of its history. stant interchange of duties by adjutants In the British army of the 18th general and inspectors general. On 22 century, from which so many of our

June 1779, the Adjutant General was military traditions were inherited, the ordered for the time being to be also term “adjutant general” was applied to assistant inspector. the principal staff officer of a high There was no “Office" of Adjutant field commander. (At lower levels the General from the almost complete discorresponding positions were filled by bandment of the Army in 1783 until deputy adjutants general and brigade 1789, when the Department of War was major assistants.) On 16 June 1775, the established. However, there was an actContinental Congress resolved that ing Adjutant General, and the administhere should be an Adjutant General trative functions of the office were of the Continental Army. Next day, carried on. The Act of 5 March 1792 after balloting, they selected Horatio provided for a "General Staff” to inGates for the position, with rank of clude an “Adjutant to do also duty of brigadier general.

Inspector.” The Act of 3 March 1813

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created the Adjutant General's Depart- trative staff officer of the War Department, to consist of not over 25 officers, ment. The Army Organization Act of including the Adjutant and Inspector 1950 redesignated the Adjutant GenGeneral. It also authorized the assign- eral's Department the Adjutant ment of officers of the AGD to various General's Corps. field commands. However, the dual THE CORPS TODAY. Members of nature of the Department's duties the AGC, besides commanding and ended in 1821, when the offices of serving in strictly AG units such as Adjutant General and Inspector General those of the Army Postal Service, The were separated. In 1847 the Adjutant Adjutant General's School, and other General was formally assigned AG installations and activities, serve in sponsibility for coordinating the re- various administrative positions, but cruiting service. In 1886 a Division of primarily in the office of the Adjutant Military Information was created in the or Adjutant General of a commandAdjutant General's Office.

either in The Adjutant General's Office In 1903, following the example of at the Department of the Army in leading foreign military powers, there Washington, or at the headquarters of was established in the Army a General other commands, installations or activiStaff Corps and a Chief of Staff. Neces- ties in the United States or overseas. sarily this agency absorbed some of the The senior officer of the Corps assigned duties of the AGD. The functions of to duty with a command is normally the latter, under the new dispensation, designated as Adjutant or Adjutant were defined by orders issued on 14 General thereof. He is a member of August 1903. It became the bureau of the special staff of the commander, and records and orders of the Army, and executes and coordinates administrative under the Secretary of War it was functions necessary to the issuance and charged with the management of the execution of orders and policies of his recruiting service; with the communi- commander. Members of the AGC servcation of instructions to officers detailed ing in the field are concerned with the to visit encampments of militia, and administration of their respective comwith digesting, arranging, and preserv- mands; those serving in Headquarters, ing their reports; and with the prepara- Department of the Army, are contion of the annual returns of the militia cerned with the Army in its entirety. required by law to be submitted to PROCUREMENT OF OFFICERS. the Congress. In 1904 the AGD was Officers desiring to serve in the Adjutredesignated the “Military Secretary's ant General's Corps must have a wellDepartment,” the Adjutant General be- rounded military background, adminiscoming the Military Secretary; but the trative experience, and better than old designations were restored in 1907. average ability and potential. There

The reorganization of the War De- fore, applicant for appointment partment, accomplished on 9 March should possess at least a bachelor's 1942, placed The Adjutant General in degree in business administration or the dual role of The Adjutant General personnel administration. To insure of the Services of Supply (afterwards that he has the necessary military Army Service Forces) and The Adjutant background and experience, he should General of the Army. This situation be serving in the grade of captain or ended with the abolishing of Head- above, if transferring from another quarters, Army Service Forces, and the branch. If he is a new appointee, in post-World War II reorganization of addition to possessing the necessary the Army effected on 11 June 1946. qualifications for appointment Concurrently the Adjutant General's commissioned officer, he must be deDepartment was designated as an ad- tailed to one of the combat arms for ministrative service of the Army, and a 2-year period to obtain this experiThe Adjutant General as an adminis- ence.

ADJUTANTS GENERAL OF THE ARMY. The following have served 17 Jun 1775—5 Jun 1776

..Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates 5 Jun 1776—22 Jan 1777

... Col. Joseph Reed 22 Jan 1777-20 Feb 1777

.Brig. Gen. Arthur St. Claira 20 Feb 1777–19 Apr 1777

...Brig. Gen. George Weedon.

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