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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY DIRECT OBLIGATIONS, APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES

FY 1957, 1958 and 1959

(Thousands of Dollars) Direct Obligations Appropriations

Expenditures
1957
1958
1959
1957
1958
1959
1957 1958

1959
GENERAL ACCOUNTS:
Military Personnel, Army

$3,598,940 $3,468,000 $3,330,200
Operation and Maintenance, Army

$3,566,704* $3,113,000 $3,105,200 $3,586,956 $3,475,000 $3,325,000

3,170,549 3,158,000 3,040,000 3,055,057 3,215,0000 3,040,000
Reserve Personnel, Army

2,884,723 3,109,000 2,992,000
178,564 203,200 185,000 215,000
Army National Guard

197,000 185,000 164,619 200,000 185,000

306,189 326,700 298,000 320,162 333,800 298,000 294,168 320,000 300,000 Research and Development, Army

427,397 456,900 466,000 410,0001 400,0000 471,000 435,084 450,000 460,000 Procurement of Equipment and Missiles, Army 1,796,295 1,574,000 1,620,000

1,405,000 1,602,157 1,450,000 1,301,000 National Board for Promotion of Rifle Practice

239 250 300 357

300
203
250

300
Operation and Maintenance, Alaska Communi-
cation System ....

4,950 5,500 5,500 5,000 5,500 5,500 5,892 5,400 5,500
Construction, Alaska Communication System

93
500

100
Military Construction, Army

310,000

412,538 360,000 290,000
Military Construction, Army Reserve Forces
51,152 27,000 35,000 55,000 55,000

40,663 45,000 35,000
M Accounts (Cert. Claims)

-753 1,871
Total General Accounts

$9,880,650 $9,561,294 $9,111,262 $7,627,280 $7,629,550 $8,510,000 $9,426,343 $9,417,021 $8,893,900
SPECIAL ACCOUNTS:
Preparation for Sale or Salvage of Military
Property

18,986 21,000 22,000 18,986 21,000 22,000 18,800 20,000 22,000
OTHER ACCOUNTS:
Defense Housing

--563 400 -400
Management Fund

2,020 Army Stock Fund

-362,618 420,000 --253,000 Army Industrial Fund

-31,848 23,000 Advances and Reimbursements

10,459 Replacing Accounts

3,379

500

96
Sub-total All Accounts

$9,899,636 $9,582,294 $9,133,262 $7,646,266 $7,650,550 $8,532,000 $9,062,689 $9,043,000 $8,663,000
PROPOSED FOR LATER TRANSMISSION:
Military Personnel, Army

164,000

$ 162,000

12,000
8,000

12,000
Military Construction, Army

8,000
188,738

8,000
320,000

35,000
Total, Department of the Army

$9,899,636 $9,582,294 $9,506,000 $7,646,266 $7,650,550 $9,036,000 $9,062,689 $9,043,000 $8,880,000
Excludes $27,444 thousand in 1957, $400 minion in 1958 and $225 million from authorized transfers to this account from unobligated balances of this account.
• President's budget indicates that $10 million will be transferred to the Advance Research Projects Agency, OSID.
e Excludes $10 million reappropriated.
d Excludes $22,674 thousand in 1957 and $45,100 thousand in 1958 transferred from Emergency Fund, DOD.
• See proposed for later transmission,
1 Excludes $202 million transferred from Army Stock Fund.

504 257

345,871 341,487 131,262

164,000 Reserve Personnel, Army

12,000 Army National Guard

Chapter 22

THE NATIONAL DEFENSE TEAM

To fight and win a modern war requires the close cooperation of the three Armed Services—Army, Navy, and Air Force—which operate principally by land, water, and air respectively. Until quite recently the Air Force was a part of the Army, and the Army and Navy operated for the most part independently under a common strategic plan, arrangements being improvised for joint local enterprises. However, beginning with “Pearl Harbor Day" which marked our entrance into World War II, we learned the lesson that such hit-or-miss cooperation between independent agencies is no longer good enough. It is true that the Armed Services are, and always have been, under the common command of the President. But a President, in

peace or war, has enormous preoccupations in the domestic and diplomatic fields. While he can determine the broad plans and overall joint strategy for a war, he has no time to work out the details of inter-Service cooperation or to umpire inter-Service disputes. A closer bond and tighter control are needed at a level below the President. These have been attained by the creation of the Department of Defense at the seat of Government, and by the concept of “joint command" in the field.

This chapter deals briefly with the parts which the Army's sister Services --the Navy and the Air Force-play in the national defense team, and with the Department of Defense, which coordinates the team's efforts.

THE UNITED STATES NAVY

MISSION. Section 206 of the National and, in accordance with integrated joint

mobilization plans, for the expansion of the Security Act of 1947 deals with the De

peacetime components of the Navy to meet partment of the Navy and reads as fol- the needs of war.

All naval aviation shall be integrated lows—

with the naval service as part thereof with

in the Department of the Navy. Naval aviaSec. 206. (a) The term "Department of tion shall consist of combat and service and the Navy" as used in this act shall be con- training forces, and shall include land-based strued to mean the Department of the Navy naval aviation, air transport essential for at the seat of government; the headquarters, naval operations, all air weapons and air United States Marine Corps; the entire techniques involved in the operations and operating forces of the United States Navy, activities of the United States Navy, and including naval aviation, and of the United the entire remainder of the aeronautical States Marine Corps, including the reserve organization of the United States Navy, tocomponents of such forces; all field activi- gether with the personnel necessary therefor. ties, headquarters, forces, bases, installa

The Navy shall be generally responsible tions, activities, and functions under the for

naval reconnaissance, antisubmarine control or supervision of the Department of warfare, and protection of shipping. the Navy; and the United States Coast

The Navy shall develop aircraft, weapGuard when operating as a part of the Navy

ons, tactics, technique, organization, and pursuant to law.

equipment of naval combat and service (b) In general the United States Navy, elements; matters of joint concern as to within the Department of the Navy, shall these functions shall be coordinated between include naval combat and service forces the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. and such aviation as may be organic there- (c) The United States Marine Corps, within. It shall be organized, trained, and in the Department of the Navy, shall inequipped primarily for prompt and sustained clude land combat and service forces and combat incident to operations at sea. It such aviation as may be organic therein. shall be responsible for the preparation of The Marine Corps shall be

organized, naval forces necessary for the effective prose- trained, and equipped to provide

fleet cution of war except as otherwise assigned, marine forces of combined armas, together

with supporting alr components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign. It shall be the duty of the Marine Corps to develop, in coordination with the Army and the Air Force, those phases of amphibious operations which pertain to the tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by landing forces. In addition, the Marine Corps shall provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy, shall provide security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases, and shall perform such other duties as the President may direct: Provided, That such additional duties shall not detract from or interfere with the operations for which the Marine Corps is primarily organized. The Marine Corps shall be responsible, in accordance with integrated Joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of peacetime components of the Marine Corps to meet the needs of war.

THE MEANING OF SEAPOWER. "Seapower" is the ability of a nation to exercise dominant control over the ocean approaches to the country or countries with which it is at war. Seapower enables its possessor to deny the ocean highways to an enemy, to insure uninterrupted traffic for itself, its allies, and friends, and to apply the pressure of war directly and unremittingly against an enemy nation. Seapower is knowledge of how to use the sea; it is the understanding of the close coordination that must exist between it and other military elements to combine them for victory. Seapower is flexibility, is often the key to mobile strategy, and often makes possible the choice of the offensive. Seapower by itself may not win wars, but it has been a decisive factor in many wars.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. When the Federal Government was organized under the new Constitution in 1789, the War Department was made responsible for both the Army and the Navy (an interesting anticipation of the “Department of Defense" under which the Armed Services were united six generations later). The dual function could hardly be called a burden, however, since the new nation had neither ships nor marines.

The raids of the Barbary pirates led Congress in 1794 to authorize the construction of six frigates. Four years later, just as the first of them were about ready for sea, the United States embarked on an undeclared war against France. Recognizing that the increased

Naval Establishment called for specialized supervision, Congress not only voted to expand the Navy with readymade ships and new construction, but also created the Navy Department on 30 April 1798.

The Department arranged for fighting ships and adequate stores, and assigned general missions. Operational matters, however, were left largely in the hands of the ships' captains. In the War of 1812, despite a few highly successful frigate duels, our salt water warships and merchantmen were eventually tightly blockaded by the overwhelming forces of England's Navy. But on the Great Lakes, where the two sides started from scratch, our Navy proved itself by hastily building three little squadrons, two of which won decisive victories.

A Board of Navy Commissioners, modeled on England's Navy Board, was created in 1815. In 1842 Congress focused responsibility more closely by creating a separate bureau for each major logistical function, with each bureau chief accountable for performance in his technical specialty. The bureau system has survived as a major fixture of naval administration for over a century.

During the Civil War, the Navy not only protected Northern shipping from enemy raiders, but had three other strategic tasks: to blockade the whole Southern coast, to force its way into various Southern ports, and to cooperate with operations along the seaboard and the rivers.

By this time the "naval revolution" was under way. Steam was already taken for granted, new armor was coming into use, and rified guns were beginning to replace the smoothbores. Scientists and inventors were marshalled for the first time to assist the Navy with its problems; and for a while our nation led the world in these new developments of the art of war. Progress ceased, however, with the end of the Civil War. It was not until 1883 that Congress authorized four modern steel ships, which became the nucleus of the new Navy.

In 1915 there was created the position of Chief of Naval Operations. This provided a systematic planning agency which had hitherto been lacking. It failed to give adequate control over

areas

the bureaus of the Navy Department, and Army units convoyed and protected but that defect has been remedied since by the Navy, "island-hopped" across the World War II.

Pacific to their final landing in the By November 1917, in World War I, Philippines. The naval construction bat50 American destroyers were at work talions (“Seebees") did a remarkable with the British Navy in the antisub- job in building airfields and other milimarine campaign. By 1918 the strength tary installations during the advance. of U.S. naval forces in European waters In a series of campaigns in the western had grown to 5 battleships, 95 destroy- Pacific, the Japanese Navy was desers, and many other ships, patrol craft, troyed as an effective fighting force. In aircraft, and submarines. By the middle the Atlantic, meanwhile, hunter-killer of 1918, 70,000 mines had been laid across naval forces gradually eliminated the the entrance to the North Sea, 80 per- German U-boat menace. The Navy kept cent of them by vessels of the U.S. the sea lanes open for the shipment of Navy. During the war a total of over our armies to Europe and Africa, and 2,000,000 soldiers were moved across the its amphibious forces made possible the Atlantic in British or American trans- invasions of North Africa, Italy, and ports, convoyed largely by American France, warships. Not one man was lost in the

By the time that Japan declared its outward crossings due to enemy action.

surrender on board the battleship MisAfter World War I, the shore estab

souri on 2 September 1945, the personlishment (see below) was improved by

nel of the Navy, including Marines, had an extension of the naval districts from

increased from 280,000 (in 1941) to about seacoast strips into

covering

4,000,000 among them the entire United States

When the Korean War broke out, the and outlying possessions. Also naval aviation was effectively integrated into the

Navy went into action at once. It mainNaval Establishment. The aircraft car

tained complete mastery of the sea rier emerged as a cardinal element of a

throughout the conflict. Navy gunfire modern fleet. A Bureau of Aeronautics

and aviation played an important part was established in 1921.

in damaging enemy land communicaIn accordance with the Washington

tions. Naval craft cooperated in the InTreaty of 1922, the Navy scrapped, sank,

chon landing, which resulted in the or demilitarized nearly 2,000,000 tons of

North Korean army being knocked out vessels, including 31 capital ships.

of the war, and would have ended the Considerable construction was author

affair except for the intervention of Red ized by the Vincent-Trammell Act of

China. When the Chinese forces drove 1934. In 1938, following Japan's denunci

south, the Navy covered and protected ation of the Washington and London

the evacuation of some 200,000 troops Treaties, Congress authorized a further

and refugees, 17,500 vehicles, and 350,000 20% increase in naval strength.

tons of cargo, without the loss of a On 7 December 1941 (“Pearl Harbor

single man due to enemy action. Day") we had in service 216 major com- In World War I our naval losses were bat surface craft, of which about one- not great. One battleship and one heavy third were based on Pearl Harbor. The cruiser were mine casualties, although brilliantly executed Japanese air attack both succeeded in making port; and 46 sank or badly damaged 17 of these, in- other craft, mostly small, were sunk. cluding 8 battleships, thereby giving In World War II, however, the Navy Japan temporary naval superiority in the paid a heavy toll. At various times we Pacific. The Navy recovered promptly lost 2 battleships, 5 heavy aircraft carfrom this disaster. A two-ocean fleet riers, 6 escort carriers, 7 heavy cruisers, came into being, and tactics and arma- 3 light cruisers, 71 destroyers, 11 desment were modified to meet the new troyer escort vessels, 52 submarines, and conditions of sea warfare imposed by 538 of other categories, a total of 695 air power. The decisive battle of Mid- naval vessels. Personnel losses, includway, in June of 1942, turned the tide. ing Marines, were 89,554 dead and 104,9 Naval and Marine amphibious forces, 985 wounded.

1 Permanent casualties at Pearl Harbor; the other battleships damaged there were restored to service,

THE NAVY TODAY. Geographically as well as organizationally, the Navy consists of three separate but mutually supporting parts: The Navy Department, the operating forces, and the shore establishment.

NAVY DEPARTMENT. The Navy Department is the home office of the Naval Establishment, from which stem the overall policies, administrative command, and logistic direction to the operating forces and the shore establishment. At its head, and having the immediate supervision and direction of the entire Naval Establishment, is the Secretary of the Navy. In the performance of his duty he delegates parts of his authority to naval and civilian assistants.

Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958 (PL 85-599) a Service Secretary no longer functions as Executive Agent for a unified or specified command. The commander of a joint or a specified command reports directly to the Secretary of Defense through the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

OPERATING FORCES. The legal framework of the present Navy consists of seven laws enacted between 1940 and 1951. These called for the construction of new ships; the last, a bill passed on 11 March 1951, providing for 173 new warships and other vessels suitable for modern atomic warfare. They include not only supercarriers of the Forrestal type but atomic powered warships of all classes, many designed as guided missile ships.

The operating forces are organized into two main fleets (the Pacific Fleet and the Atlantic Fleet) and also into various forces, such as the U.S. Naval Forces, Western Pacific, and the U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

The Atlantic Command and the Pacific Command are each Joint Commands operating under the Secretary of Defense through the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Nomenclature of Naval Vessels and Craft. The following is a partial list of types of Navy vessels today, and of their standard abbreviations.

Aircraft Carriers
Aircraft Carriers

.CV
Attack Aircraft Carriers

.CVA Large

.CVB Small

..CVL Escort

..CVE Antisubmarine Warfare Support ....CVS Escort Helicopter

CVHE Assault Helicopter

CVHA Utility

CVU Destroyers

DD Escort Vessels

DE Leader

.DL Guided Missile

DDG Submarines

.SS Nuclear Powered

.SSN Radar Picket, Nuclear Powered SSR(N) Target

..SST Mine vessels (partial list of) Mine Layers

CM Mine Sweepers

AM Patrol vessels (partial list of) Submarine Chasers (136')

.PCS Submarine Chasers (173')

PC Escort (180')

.PCE Frigates

PF Gunboats

PG Motor Boats, Submarine Chasers PTC Yachts

PY Auxiliaries (partial list of) Destroyer Tenders

AD Ammunition Ships

AE Storeships

AF Amphibious Force Flagships

AGC Hospital Ships

AH Cargo Ships

.AK Cargo Ships, Attack

AKA Oilers

.AO Gasoline Tankers

AOG Transports

AP Transports, Attack

APA Repair Ships

AR Floating Dry Docks

.ARD Mobile Floating Dry Docks

AFD Salvage Vessels

ARS Aircraft Repair Ships

ARV Submarine Tenders

AS Ocean Tugs, Fleet

ATF Seaplane Tenders

.AV Aviation Supply Ships

AVS Landing ships Dock

LSD Medium

.LSM Medium (Rocket)

LSM(R) Tank

.LST Vehicle

.LSV Tank (Casualty Evacuation) LST(H) Landing craft: Flotilla Flagships

LC(FF) Infantry (Gunboat)

.LCI(G) Infantry (Large)

LCI(L) Infantry (Mortar)

LCI(M) Infantry (Rocket)

LCI(R) Support (Large) (Mk. III) .LCS(L)(3) District Craft, (including service craft and

floating equipment)
Landing Craft, Tank (Mk. V) ..LCT(5)
Landing Craft, Tank (Mk. VI) .LCT(6)
Motor Torpedo Boats

..PT
House Boats

YHB Fuel Oil Barges (self-propelled) YO Oil Storage Barges

YOS Stevedoring Barges

YS Floating Derricks

YD Degaussing Vessels

YDG Diving Tenders

YDT Dredges

YM Ferryboats and Launches

YFB Yard Floating Docks

YFD Car Floats

YCF Covered Lighters (self-propelled) YF Patrol Vessels

YP Floating Pile Drivers

YPD Salvage Pontoons

YSP Harbor Tugs, Big

YTB Floating Workshops

YR

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