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19 Apr 1777–18 Jun 1777
Col. Morgan Connor
.Maj. William Northb
..Lt. John Pratte
.Lt. Ebenezer Dennye
.Lt. Henry DeButtse Maj. Michael Rudolphe .Capt. Edward Butlerc
..Maj. John Mills .Maj. Jonathan Haskelle
Capt. Edward Butlerc
...Maj. T. H. Cushinge .Brig. Gen. Willlam North .Lt. Col. T. H. Cushingt
..Maj. A. Y. Nicholli .Lt. Col. Alexander Macomba
.Brig. Gen. T. H. Cushing Brig. Gen. Zebulon M. Pike
Brig. Gen. W. H. Winderd
.Col. James Gadsden
Col. Roger Jones
Col. Samuel Cooper .Brig. Gen. Lorenzo Thomas .Brig. Gen. E. D. Townsend
..Brig. Gen. R. C. Drum
.Brig. Gen. J. C. Kelton .Brig. Gen. Robert Williams
Brig. Gen. G. D. Ruggles
Brig. Gen. Samuel Breck .Maj. Gen. Henry C. Corbin Maj. Gen. Fred C. Ainsworthe Maj. Gen. Fred C. Ainsworth .Brig. Gen. William P. Hall .Brig. Gen. George Andrews .Maj. Gen. Henry P. McCain
Maj. Gen. Peter C. Harris .Maj. Gen. Robert C. Davis
..Maj. Gen. Lutz Wahl
.Maj. Gen. Edgar T. Conley
...Maj. Gen. James A. Ulio .Brig. Gen. Edward F. Witsella .Maj. Gen. Edward F. Witsella
.Maj. Gen. Edward F. Witsell .Maj. Gen. William E. Bergina .Maj. Gen. William E. Bergin
Maj. Gen. John A. Klein .Maj. Gen. Herbert M. Jones
.Maj. Gen. Robert V. Lee
à Acting Adjutant General.
THE FINANCE CORPS The Finance Corps provides financial under Washington while they were beservices for the Army, and for the sieging the British in Boston. When other Armed Services as directed. the American Army moved south from
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. On 16 Massachusetts, William Palfrey, then June 1776 the Continental Congress aide-de-camp to Washington, succeeded resolved "That there be one Paymaster to the position, which he held until General ... for the Army.” James 1781. The Army's pay scale, at that time, Warren, a distinguished patriot, who started at six and two-thirds dollars a at the time was President of the month for a private. However, in the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, absence of ready money, Congress was appointed the first Paymaster- issued printed promises to pay, which General. He paid the American troops the troops had to accept in place of
cash, and which depreciated rapidly. It is a tribute to our soldiers that they won the Revolution on money that was "not worth a continental.”
Shortly after the War of 1812 the Pay Department was reorganized. Up to that time line officers were detailed to pay the troops, and were only indirectly under the supervision of the Paymaster General. Under the system, paymasters, usually with the rank of major, paid the regiments. During the Civil War more than one billion dollars were paid to soldiers, with a relatively low expense and with losses of less than one-tenth of one percent for the war period.
In 1912 the Pay, Commissary, and Quartermaster Departments were consolidated under the
Quartermaster General of the Army. This agency, however, did not meet the needs of the Army in the financial field after we entered World War I. Accordingly the position of Director of Finance was created, and Brigadier General Herbert Lord appointed thereto. The organization which he set up became a permanent Finance Department in 1920. Unlike its predecessors it handled not simply military pay and travel expenditures, but all financial activities of the War Department, including centralized disbursing, auditing, accounting, and budgeting.
In 1933, President Roosevelt directed the Chief of Finance to assume responsibility for paying the Civilian Conservation Corps. This was a large undertaking, requiring sums greater than the amounts disbursed in the SpanishAmerican War.
During World War II the workload of the Finance Department expanded rapidly. To a greater extent than in any previous war, the Army provided finance services for its personnel. The Department had the immense task of making prompt payments to ten million persons at home and overseas, largely in combat areas and under very difficult conditions. It also provided leadership in reducing wasteful soldier spending through various means, including the sale of War Bonds. In 1945 such sales were over $125,000,000. At the peak of the war the Department had nearly 22,000 military and 15,000
civilian personnel. The handling of allotments and family allowances was transferred from the Finance Department to the Office of Dependency Benefits in Newark, New Jersey, which employed more than 10,000 persons and mailed more than 8,000,000 checks monthly to soldiers' dependents. After the war this function was returned to the Chief of Finance.
In 1950 the Finance Department was redesignated the Finance Corps.
THE CORPS TODAY. The Chief of Finance has the mission of formulating, coordinating, and supervising the execution of plans and policies concerning Army finance matters. For his relations to the Comptroller of the Army and other agencies in the Department of the Army, see Chapter 3, “Department of the Army." His office is located in Washington, D.C. Under his direct command are the Finance Center, U.S. Army; the Finance and Accounts Office, U.S. Army; and the Finance School, U.S. Army.
OFFICE, CHIEF OF FINANCE. This office is concerned with the delevopment of systems and procedures relating to military pay and allowances, travel, commercial account payments, and civilian pay; the development of regulations covering the issuance of checks and savings bonds, and the handling of cash; and the furnishing of advice and assistance to the Army disbursing network. It also handles the preparation and defense of budget estimates and the management of budget programs for military pay of the Army and related activities; long range planning for finance service; and the performance of career management for members of the Corps.
THE FINANCE CENTER, U.S. ARMY. This agency, located at Fort Benjamin Harrison (Ind.), performs various centralized finance functions for the Army, and one major function for the Air Force. Its principal responsibility is the payment of various types of allotments of pay, as authorized by members of the Army. It issues U. S. Savings Bonds for which allotments have been established. It pays retired members of the Army, and settles freight and passenger transportation and meal ticket bills for both
the Army and the Air Force. It exam- expedites the payment of bills and the ines and balances military pay records, related accounting. and performs related accounting for PROCUREMENT OF OFFICERS. As the expenditures and collections. It regards a person applying for a commaintains individual accounts with mission in the Finance Corps, with or service members having soldiers' de. without concurrent active duty, the posits. It settles claims for and against governing consideration is whether he the United States, and acts as a central- has the technical qualifications. This ized collection agency for delinquent would be evidenced, generally, by a indebtedness. It maintains financial degree of master of business adminrecords of inactivated activities, and istration, or by a baccalaureate degree clears discrepancies in disbursing with a major in accounting, business officers' accounts.
administration, commercial science, or THE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS related fields. In addition to academic OFFICE, U.S. ARMY. This office is background, related business experilocated in Washington, D.C. Its basic ence is also desirable. mission is accounting. It performs the With respect to a person who holds Department of the Army level sum- a reserve commission and applies for mary accounting and reporting for all active duty with the Corps, the governappropriations, funds, and receipt ac- ing consideration is whether he has the counts available to the Department, capacity for advanced professional deand prepares the consolidated state- velopment. Factors considered are: prement of accountability for Army dis- vious training at college level, in subbursing officers. It is involved in the jects related to finance and accounting; appropriation and fund accounting for extensive military and/or civilian exthe Chief of Finance command organi- perience in accounting, banking, and zation. It also performs certain finan- finance; current enrollment in off-duty cial and accounting services for De- college or USAFI courses leading to partment of the Army agencies. a degree; attainment of a passing score
FINANCE SCHOOL, U.S. ARMY. For on the Educational Requirements Test, details of this agency see chapter 8. or the Educational Development Test
FINANCE ACTIVITIES ELSEWHERE (college level); favorable deterIN THE ARMY. Financial management mination of college two-year equivais a command responsibility. Therefore, lency evaluation by the Department finance and accounting offices are part of the Army. of the staffs of major commands in CHIEFS OF SERVICE. The followCONUS and overseas. Officers of the ing have served Finance Corps serve as comptrollers PAYMASTERS GENERAL (1775-1912) and as finance and accounting officers
Date appointed 27 Jun 1755
James Warren in Army commands and in the tech
27 Apr 1776
.Lt. Col. William Palfrey nical services. Other have auditing, 17 Jan 1781
.Lt. Col. John Pierce budgeting, and accounting duties. Fin
8 May 1792
Caleb Swan 1 Jul 1808
Robert Brent ance Disbursing Sections provide serv- 28 Aug 1819
Nathan Towson ice for mobile Army units. Enlisted 1 Jun 1821
Daniel Parker 8 May 1822
Col. Nathan Towson members of the Corps have an im- 20 Jul 1854
Col. B. F. Larned portant part in its activities.
6 Sep 1862
Col. T. P. Andrews 29 NOV 1864
Brig. Gen. B. W. Brice The Chief of Finance has responsi- 1 Jan 1872 .Brig. Gen. Benjamin Alvord bility for technical supervision of these
8 Jun 1880
Brig. Gen. N. W. Brown
17 Feb 1882 .Brig. Gen. W. B. Rochester financial and accounting offices in the 10 Mar 1890 Brig. Gen. William Smith field. However, final responsibility for
27 Mar 1895
.Brig. Gen. T. H. Stanton 30 Jan 1899
..Brig. Gen, A. B. Carey disbursement of funds lies with the
12 Jul 1899
..Brig. Gen. A. E. Bates command which incurred the obliga
23 Jan 1904 Brig. Gen. Francis S. Dodge
11 Sep 1906 . Brig. Gen. Culver C. Sniffen tions. This organizational arrangement 1 Jan 1908 ...Brig. Gen. Charles H. Whipple
Period 1912-1920. In this period the functions of the Pay Department were performed by the Quartermaster Corps.
Chiefs of Finance (1920 to Date) 1 Jul 1920—30 Jun 1922
.Brig. Gen. H. M. Lorda • Director of Finance 11 Oct 1918-30 Jun 1930.
1 Jul 1922—22 Apl 1928 23 Apl 1928—22 Apl 1932 23 Apl 1932–22 Apl 1936 23 Apl 1936–22 Apl 1940 23 Apl 1940–1 Jun 1945 14 Jul 1945—10 Feb 1949 11 Feb 194931 Mar 1951 28 Jul 1951-27 Jul 1955 28 Jul 1955—31 Mar 1956 18 May 1956-31 Aug 1958 1 Sep 1958
.Maj. Gen. K. W. Walker Maj. Gen. R. L. Carmichael
Maj. Gen. F. W. Coleman
..Maj. Gen. J. B. Hess
THE UNITED STATES WOMEN'S ARMY CORPS
The purpose of this agency is to provide a
means by which American women can make a direct contribution of their skills and abilities to the United States Army, in peace and war.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The Corps began as the “Women's Army Auxiliary Corps" authorized by an Act of Congress approved 14 May 1942. After operating for а year
an auxiliary agency, it was made a regular component of the Army of the United States by an act approved 1 July 1943, and
renamed "Women's Army Corps."
Basic training for recruits began at Fort Des Moines (Iowa) on 20 July 1942. Later it was carried on at four other points as well: Daytona Beach (Fla.), Fort Oglethorpe (Ga.), Fort Devens (Mass.), and Camp Ruston (La.), with sections of the latter at Camp Polk (La.) and Monticello (Ark.). Many graduates of basic training received advanced training at WAC and other Army schools as clerks, medical and laboratory technicians, finance specialists, signal technicians, and in many other specialized lines.
Training of officer candidates also began at Fort Des Moines on 20 July 1942, with class numbering 440 women. The members of this group, and the eight subsequent ones, were selected from civilian life. Thereafter all personnel for officer candidate training were chosen from the ranks of enlisted women. A total of 60 classes were trained at Forts Des Moines and Oglethorpe, the last graduates being commissioned on 17 November 1945. WAC officers also attended advanced Army schools--Adjutant General, Inspector General, Special Services, Finance, Quartermaster, and Command and General Staff.
WAC personnel served with the
Army Ground, Air, and Service Forces, the administrative and technical services, and the General Staff Corps. The first contingent of enlisted women ever to serve outside the continental United States arrived in North Africa on 27 January 1943. In all, during World War II, over 17,000 WAC's were on duty in oversea theaters, including Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, ChinaBurma-India, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific. At its peak (April 1945) the Corps had a strength of about 100,000, including 6,000 officers. Over 600 WAC's, mostly among those serving overseas, received decorations and awards; the highest award given was the Distinguished Service Medal, to Col. Oveta Culp Hobby, first Director of the Corps.
In the demobilization period after the war, many women who would have liked to make the Army their career nevertheless left the service, for the reason that the Corps had no permanent status. To remedy this situation an act of Congress, approved 12 June 1948, made the Corps a permanent part of both the Regular Army and the Organized Reserve Corps. Thereupon enlistments into the Regular Army began, and officers were processed for integration into it. The first basic class and the first officer candidate class (Regular Army) began training at Camp Lee (Va.) on 4 October 1948. On 18 December the President signed the first list of WAC officers to be integrated into the Regular Army.
After World War II the strength of the Corps remained at about 7,000 until the outbreak of hostilities in Korea. Then it began to expand again. Voluntary recall of enlisted WAC reservists and company grade officers began on 21 August 1950; involuntary recall was authorized in September;
recruiting objectives were raised; and by December of 1951 some 14,000 women were on active duty. Many were assigned to the Far East Command, to replace men who had been transferred to Korea.
In December, 1956, the Corps was redesignated United States Women's Army Corps.
THE CORPS TODAY. At the close of fiscal year 1957 there were 800 WAC officers, 43 warrant officers, and 7,136 enlisted women on active duty. They were assigned throughout the continental United States, and also in USAREUR, USARPAC/FE, and USARPAC/HAW.
Enlisted women are utilized in 130 military occupational specialties in seven of the Army's ten occupational fields. They are continually being assigned to new areas of specialization in the Army-for example, Army Air Defense Command units—so that, in case of mobilization, there will be a
nucleus of trained women in those fields. WAC commissioned officers and warrant officers are assigned in eight of the ten occupational fields. They are utilized in staff and operational assignments at all levels of staff and command. All officers are commissioned in the Corps, but many are detailed in other branches of the Army. The Director has the temporary rank of colonel, and is assigned to the Office of the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, as advisor on WAC affairs.
Standards for enlistment are high, with emphasis placed on quality of recruits rather than quantity. Applicants for appointment as officers must meet high mental, educational, moral, and physical requirements. Training is conducted at the permanent U.S. Women's Army Corps Center at Fort McClellan (Ala.), which was established on 26 May 1954. Both officer and enlisted personnel attend advanced Army Schools.
DIRECTORS. The following have served as Directors of the WAAC, WAC and USWAC: 14 May 1942–12 Jul 1945
Col. Oveta Culp Hobby 12 Jul 1945—5 May 1947
Col. Westray Battle Boyce 5 May 1947—3 Jan 1953
Col. Mary A. Hallaren 3 Jan 1953-3 Jan 1957
Col. Irene O. Galloway 3 Jan 1957
Col. Mary L. Milligan
THE ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE
The mission of the Army Medical Service is both the prevention (as far as practicable) and the treatment of disease and injuries, including wounds received in battle. Prevention involves sanitary and other protective measures, and also physical examinations to insure that only persons of prescribed standards of fitness are brought into or retained in the military service. To accomplish its mission the Service maintains and operates dispensaries, hospitals, training schools, and research establishments, and provides medical units for the Army's combat and service forces.
The Service also has important supply functions. In the course of its work it utilizes an immense variety of supplies and equipment, in the categories of drugs, biologicals, and official reagents; surgical dressing material;
surgical, dental, X-ray, optical, and veterinary instruments, equipment, and supplies; hospital furniture, equipment, utensils, and supplies; medical field equipment and supplies.
The Service is headed by the Army Surgeon General. As the Chief of a technical service he is a staff officer of the Department of the Army, under the direct supervision and control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics. However, on matters of health, medical care of troops, and the mobilization of professional military personnel, he has direct access to the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff.
The Office of the Surgeon General consists of an executive group (Special Assistant for Nuclear Energy, Comptroller, Inspector General, Provost Marshal, Legal Office, Special Assistant for Reserve Forces, Technical Liaison
o For further information on the past and present activities of the Army Medical Service, and on the installations and personnel under its supervision, see chapter 15.