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Ofñce, Administrative Office, and the Chiefs of Corps) and ten major divisions (Personnel and Training, Medical Plans and Operations, Supply, Preventive Medicine, Nursing, Medical Statistics, Dental, Veterinary, Professional, and Medical Intelligence), and the Headquarters of the new Army Medical Research and Development Command.

The Research and Development Command, established by DA General Order No. 31, 23 August 1958, points up the increasing importance of Army medical research in the national effort. Brigadier General Joseph H. McNinch was named first Commander of the new organization. The Research and Development Division of the Army Surgeon General's Office became the Headquarters for the new command which will serve as a focal point for the direction of the Army Medical Service's worldwide research and development program to provide the Army with better preventive medicine measures and more effective and rapid treatment techniques.

The commissioned officers of the Army Medical Service are distributed in six "corps" or groups: the Medical Corps, the Dental Corps, the Veterinary Corps, the Army Nurse Corps, the Medical Service Corps (pharmacists, optometrists, and specialists in administration, sanitary engineering, medical supply, and allied medical sciences), and the Army Medical Specialist Corps (dietitians, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). The professional functions of the several corps are indicated by their names. More specifically, the Medical Corps includes practitioners of general medicine, general surgery, and the various specialties—such as preventive medicine, neuropsychiatry, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, radiology, and orthopedic surgery. Aside from their professional duties, Army Medical Service officers may be assigned to perform administrative, staff and command functions connected with medical service,

Requirements for appointment as an Army Medical Service officer vary with the several corps. The Army provides no undergraduate medical, dental, or veterinary training; candidates

those corps must have received their professional degrees from accredited civilian institutions. In other corps, a civilian degree or some equivalent experience approved by The Surgeon General is required. Additional standards as to age and physical and moral fitness must be met. The nature of the requirements also depends on whether the applicant seeks entrance to the Army Reserve (active or inactive status) or the Regular Army, and on whether he or she has had a previous appointment. (Full information on appointments to the various corps may be obtained from the Personnel Division, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington 25, D. C.)

Officers of the various corps, and enlisted personnel of the Army Medical Service, receive professional and military training at the Army Medical Service School; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Army Medical Service Meat and Dairy Hygiene School; United States Army Medical Optical and Maintenance Activity, and in Army hospitals. Officers are trained in basic and advanced military subjects appropriate to their corps and assignments. Medical officers are afforded opportunities to specialize in the various professional fields by means of residencies which follow military or civilian internship training. The Service is constantly improving and expanding the residency training program to provide sufficient training spaces for all approved applicants. Fellowship training is conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and the Surgical Research Unit, Brooke Army Medical Center. This training is for specially selected medical, dental, and veterinary corps officers. Enlisted personnel are trained in career patterns in the various technical fields of the medical service to qualify them as valuable assistants in the medical care team. Career patterns include X-ray, dental, and medical laboratory, operating procedures, preventive medicine, and medical supply. Courses designed to develop these enlisted technicians conducted at the various installations

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mentioned above. Continuing and in- able to Regular Army personnel in those tensive applicatory and on-the-job specialized areas not offered by medical training is also provided in all military service schools. Service school training occupational specialties at Army med- is available to active Army, U. S. Army ical facilities throughout the world. Reserve (not on active duty), and NaTraining in civilian institutions is avail- tional Guard personnel.

SURGEONS GENERAL. The following have served as Surgeons General or equivalent27 Jul 1775—17 Oct 1775

.Benjamin Church, Director General and Chief Physician

of the Hospital of the Army 17 Oct 1775—9 Jan 1777

...John Morgan, Director General and Physician in Chief

of the American Hospital 11 Apr 1777–3 Jan 1781 .William Shippen, Jr., Director General of the Military Hospitals

of the Continental Army 17 Jan 1781–3 Nov 1783 John Cochran, Director General of the Military Hospitals

of the Continental Army 19 Jul 1798—15 Jun 1800

James Craik, Physician General 11 Jun 1813-15 Jun 1815

James Tilton, Physician and Surgeon General 8 Apr 1818-17 Oct 1836

..Joseph Lovell, Surgeon General 30 NOV 1836—15 May 1861

Thomas Lawson, Surgeon General 15 May 1861-14 Apr 1862

Clement Alexander Finley, Surgeon General 25 Apr 1862-18 Aug 1864

William Alexander Hammond, Brigadier General,

Surgeon General 22 Aug 1864—30 Jun 1882

.Joseph K. Barnes, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 3 Jul 1882—10 Oct 1883

Charles Henry Crane, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 23 Nov 1883–6 Aug 1886

. Robert Murray, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 18 Nov 1886—16 Aug 1890

John Moore, Brigadier General Surgeon General 16 Aug 1890—4 Dec 1890

.Jedediah Hyde Baxter, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 23 Dec 1890—29 May 1893

Charles Sutherland, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 30 May 1893-8 Jun 1902 George Miller Sternberg, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 8 Jun 1902—7 Sept 1902

William Henry Forwood, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 7 Sept 1902–14 Jan 1909 . Robert Maitland O'Reilly, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 14 Jan 1909–27 Dec 1913

.George H. Torney, Brigadier General, Surgeon General 16 Jan 19143 Oct 1918 William Crawford Gorgas, Brigadier General and Major General,

Surgeon General 4 Oct 1918-31 May 1931 .Merritte Weber Ireland, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1931—31 May 1935 Robert Urie Patterson, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1935—31 May 1939 .. Charles Ransom Reynolds, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1939-31 May 1943

James Carre Magee, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1943–31 May 1947

Norman T. Kirk, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1947–31 May 1951

Raymond W. Bliss, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1951-31 May 1955

George E. Armstrong, Major General, The Surgeon General 1 Jun 1955

..... Silas B. Hays, Major General, The Surgeon General

THE CHAPLAINS The Army chaplain fulfills the role of librarians as well. As late as World War religious ministry to the Army on a I the operation of the post exchange worldwide scale. Wherever our troops and the unit post office, the sale of are stationed, at home or overseas, the War Bonds, and the supervision of athchaplain is at hand to bring them letics were among the miscellaneous spiritual guidance, and to minister to activities to which chaplains werc their needs.

asked to devote their time. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The Following World War I, however, this Army Chaplains came into existence on situation progressively improved. An 29 July 1775. On that date the Second important contributing factor was the Continental Congress conferred official establishment in 1920 of the Office of status on clergymen serving as chap- the Chief of Chaplains, as a headlains in the Army, by fixing their pay quarters from which the increasingly at $20.00 a month (the same as the pay important religious program of the of a captain). From then on they have Army could be directed. served in all of our wars. However, for That program received further immany years their pri ry mission- petus in World War II. The churches, furnishing spiritual ministrations-suf- sonding their clergymen in great numfered because of the many other tasks bers to accompany their membership assigned to them. In the 1840's, for ex- serving in the Armed Forces, stated emample, they were required by law to phatically concerning the spiritual life "perform the duties of schoolmaster" of the soldiers: “They shall not march at Army posts. They often acted as alone"; and the Army came to recog

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nize, more fully than at any time in the past, the spiritual responsibilities of its chaplains and their vital importance. Nearly 9,000 of them saw service during the war, and their ministrations were made available to our troops on a scale never before attempted. Similarly, in the Korean conflict they were able to carry into the fighting zone the worship services and other spiritual ministrations which are an integral part of our country's heritage.

Today the Army's religious program is strong and secure, with the primarily religious function of its chaplains fully recognized.

In their dedicated service to their fellowmen, 279 of our Army chaplains have given their lives in the course of our history. Some were killed in action; some died as a result of wounds, disease, prisoner-of-war confinement, from other causes.” Many other chaplains have been decorated for gallantry or for distinguished service.

THE CHAPLAINS TODAY. By religious affiliation, the chaplains fall into one of the three major categories of Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish. The Protestant chaplains are drawn from a number of different denominations. Numerical allocation by faith and denomination is in proportion to membership strengths as reported by the various religious bodies of the United States. Currently the Army carries a total of some 1,200 "soldiers of God" on its active-duty roster. This is a ratio of about one chaplain to every 850 enlisted personnel and officers. The presence of military dependents at most Army installations has greatly increased the number of persons to be served, and has widened correspondingly the scope of chaplains' duties. Those duties are of five principal kinds: religious services, religious education, pastoral activities, character guidance, and community relations.

WORSHIP SERVICES AND OTHER RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES. Chaplains conduct worship services at least once a week, on the Sabbath, and often sev

eral times during the week as well. In addition to a general Protestant service, a Protestant chaplain may conduct a separate service for the members of his own denomination. Marriages, baptisms, funerals, and other special religious ceremonies are also performed by the chaplain, as a part of his duties as a clergyman in uniform.

Through the religious services and other chapel activities that it provides, the Army tries to bring to the soldier, wherever the conditions of military service permit, the familiar surroundings of the church or synagogue in his home community. This is considered to be a factor of primary importance in watching over his moral welfare and encouraging his spiritual growth.

A special feature of the Army religious program is the conduct of retreats, which give servicemen and women an opportunity to gain spiritual refreshment through participation in special religious activities over a period of several days. Retreats for members of the three major faiths are held at three main retreat centers in Berchtesgaden (Germany), Oiso, (Japan) and Seoul, (Korea). In addition, Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish retreats are regularly scheduled at many Army installations.

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. The chaplain administers a comprehensive program of religious education through Sunday or Sabbath Schools, catechism classes, Bible study groups, and allied activities. Audio-visual aids are an important element of the instruction.

PASTORAL ACTIVITIES. Counseling interviews, visits to parishioners at home or in barracks, hospital visitations, visits to men in prison, and other aspects of pastoral care occupy a prominent place among the chaplain's duties.

CHARACTER GUIDANCE. Each month the Chaplain gives an hour or more of instruction in character development, as a regular part of the Army training program. It is designed to educate men in the ethical concepts. and to show them the importance of

7 An outstanding instance is that of the four chaplains-two Protestant, one Roman Catholic. and on. Jewish-who gave their life jackets to other men aboard the torpedoed and sinking troop transport. SS Dorchester, on the morning of 3 February 1943, and in so doing sacrificed their own lives. Survivors reported seeing the chaplains standing together on deck, linked arm-in-arm, with voices raised in prayer, as the ship made her Anal plunge.

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loyalty to duty, to honor, to country, United States Army Reserve, and the and to God. Military character guid- National Guard. ance fortifies the servicemen's Code of The Office of the Chief of Chaplains Conduct-particularly Article 6 of the is the headquarters for administration Code, which states: "I will never for- of the Army chaplains. Details of adget that I am an American fighting ministration are handled through staff man, responsible for my actions, and chaplains assigned to the major Army dedicated to the principles which made commands throughout the world. my country free. I will trust in my Courses of study for chaplains are conGod and in the United States of ducted at the U. S. Army Chaplain America."

School, Fort Slocum, New York. ChapCOMMUNITY RELATIONS. By main

lains newly entered on active duty retaining liaison with religious leaders

ceive their basic instruction at the and groups in civilian communities lo

School; others come there for advanced cated near Army installations, chap

training, at intervals during their serylains seek to foster relationships which

ice careers. can be of mutual benefit.

Every Army chaplain must be

priest, minister, or rabbi endorsed by CHAPELS. There are over 800 Army

the religious faith or denomination to chapels, of permanent or semi-perma

which he belongs. There are slight nent construction, in the United States

differences in age requirements, acand overseas. This number is augmented

cording to whether the appointment is by scores of temporary structures

in the Regular Army, Reserve, or Naerected for small units in the more

tional Guard. isolated locations. Some of the larger

The Army chaplain is a member of permanent-type chapels are designated

the commanding officer's staff, serving "chapel centers." They are usually made

as advisor on all matters pertaining to up of a main chapel, a chaplain's office,

the religious life and morals of the classrooms, a large assembly room for

members of the command. Authority social events, and a kitchen and dining

invested in the military commander area.

applies only to the military relationship. ORGANIZATION. The United States Ecclesiastically the chaplain is govArmy Chaplain Branch is composed of erned by the laws and tenets of his chaplains of the Regular Army, the church.

CHIEFS OF CHAPLAINS. The following have served 1920–1927

.Chaplain (Col.) John T. Axton (Congregationalist) 1927—1928

Chaplain (Col.) Edmund P. Easterbrook (Methodist Episcopal) 1929-1933

.Chaplain (Col.) Julian E. Yates (Northern Baptist) 1933—1937

Chaplain (Col.)

Alva J. Brasted (Northern Baptist) 23 Dec 1937–1 Apr 1945

.Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) William R. Arnold (Roman Catholic) 17 Jul 1945—2 Aug 1949 .Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Luther D. Miller (Protestant Episcopal) 19 Sept 1949-29 Apr 1952

..Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Roy H. Parker (Southern Baptist) 29 Apr 1952–30 Apr 1954

Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Ivan L. Bennett (Southern Baptist) 1 May 1954—31 Oct 1958

.. Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Patrick J. Ryan (Roman Catholic) 1 NOV 1958

. Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Frank A. Tobey (American Baptist)

THE INSPECTORS GENERAL In every Army there must be an HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. The agency whose duty is to make periodic office of the Inspector General of the inspections and checks of the per- Army was created by law on 13 Decformance of other Army agencies in a ember 1777, by a resolution of the Conspecified wide variety of fields. This tinental Congress, which included the function, in our Army, is performed statement "... that it is essential to by The Inspector General of the Army the promotion of discipline in the and his organization, known collec- American Army, and to the reformatively as “The Inspectors General." tion of the various abuses which pre

See chapter 21, "Prisoners of War."

. For the benefit of readers not familiar with military matters, it must be emphasized that inspectors general are not the only Army agency which makes inspections." On the contrary, it is fundamental that the commander of any unit, and also various of his staff officers, must make frequent personal inspections of all the imit's activities which are within their respective fields of interest. The work of inspectors general, described in more detall below, is an important but specialized aspect of this overall supervision.

vail in the different departments, that an appointment be made of inspectors general agreeable to the practice of the best disciplined European armies." Somewhat later, Congress provided that the Inspector General and his assistants would be subject to Congress, to the Board of War, and to the Commander-in-Chief.

Baron von Steuben, a Prussian army officer and former aide to Frederick the Great, who had come to America in 1777 to offer his services to the Revolutionary forces, was made Inspector General in the following year, with the rank of major general.20 His stated duties were: "To muster the troops monthly, noting the number and condition of the men, their discipline and drill, state of arms and equipment, clothing, ration, etc., to reject all unserviceable recruits and to discharge or transfer to the invalid corps all men disabled in the service, and to report all abuses, neglect and deficiencies to the Commander in Chief, the commander of the organization and to the Board of War.” In fact, he also acted as an organizer and as a senior drillmaster and instructor in the art of war; duties which today are performed by other agencies. He made invaluable contributions to the discipline, tactics, and general efficiency of the Army, and in the latter part of the war was a commander of troops.

In the post-Revolutionary period the position of Inspector General was perpetuated. One of those holding it was Alexander Hamilton, who was appointed in 1798 when trouble with France seemed imminent. The Act of 3 March 1813 established the “Inspector General's Department" with an Inspector General of the Army and 24 subordinates. It also provided for the detail of inspectors general to serve with large tactical and geographical military commands, and for frequent inspections of all elements of the Army. In various guises, this basic plan has been followed ever since.

There were 215 officers detailed in the Inspector General's Department in World War I. Under the Reorganization Act of 4 June 1920, the Depart

ment consisted of The Inspector General and 61 other officers, which number could be increased or decreased 15 percent at the discretion of the President. From 1920 to 1939 the strength of the Department changed but little and the mission remained the same. In 1940, each commander of a division or larger unit was allotted an inspector general, who was under his direct control.

During World War II the Inspector General's Department expanded to a maximum of 1,267 officers. Within the Office of The Inspector General, the Special Inspections Division inspected troop units before they went to ports of embarkation, to see that their organization and equipment were in accordance with War Department regulations and with conditions in the theater to which they were going. The overseas Inspections Division sent its members all over the world, to look into complaints made to the War Department. The Procurement and Construction Inspections Division investigated procurement activities and cost-plus-fixed-fee construction work,

The Army Organization Act of 1950 provided for the detail of officers as inspectors general, but not for an "Inspector General's Department" as such. That term is therefore no longer used.

THE AGENCY TODAY. It consists of The Inspector General of the Army and such other officers as are authorized by law or regulations and are detailed as prescribed. The Inspector General of the Army and his staff are part of the Department of the Army, and are confidential agents of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff. The staffs of divisions, and of other units of comparable or larger size, likewise normally have inspectors general who are confidential agents of their respective commanders. A commander whose staff includes an inspector general may designate officers temporarily to perform the duties of inspectors general, or to assist regularly detailed inspectors general.

SPHERES OF INQUIRY, The mission of The Inspector General of the Army is to inquire into and report upon matters which pertain to the discipline, economy, and efficiency of the

10 Three other officers had previously carried the title of Inspector General, but von Steuben was the first to perform its functions.

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