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The army group commander prepares plans for an operation; allots troops and administrative support to the field armies, and to other directly subordinate elements, if any; assigns their zones of action or sectors, missions, and objectives; and coordinates their movements and efforts. Execution of the tasks is decentralized to subordinate commanders. The battle is influenced, from the army group level, by shifting major units; by reallocating combat and administrative support; by the use of support retained under army group control; and by the employment of army group reserves.
An army group, like a field army, is designated by a spelled-out number. The United States has used army groups only in World War II, when the following were organized: Sixth Army Group, under Gen. Jacob L.
Devers Twelfth Army Group, under Gen. Omar N.
Bradley Fifteenth Army Group, under Gen. Mark
W. Clark TASK FORCE. This is a generic term for an organization established to perform a specific mission, and "tailormade" to that end.' It may be composed of elements of any one Armed Service, any two of them, or all three.
In future wars, operations will be conducted over large areas and will require a rapid concentration of force from widely dispersed positions. Highly mobile task forces, which can deliver either atomic or nonatomic fire, will ideally meet these requirements.
Task Forces in Division Operations. Mobile task forces will often be used in division operations. Such a force may vary in size from a reinforced platoon to an armored division combat command or a reinforced infantry battle group, depending on the mission, the terrain, and our own and the enemy's situation. It must be entirely mobile, self-contained logistically, and equipped for complete voice radio communications. The ratio of firepower to manpower must be the maximum possible.
In the offensive these mobile task forces will execute lightning strikes against the enemy, by means of fire,
maneuver, and shock action, followed by rapid dispersion. Defensive operations will be characterized by mobile task forces operating over extended areas. Elements occupying the forward defensive area will be located to force the enemy into areas favorable to the defender. Units attacked by the enemy will block while mobile forces from reserve and adjacent positions counterattack, possibly in conjunction with the fires of atomic weapons.
The task force concept is used habitually in organizing the armored division for combat.
In World War II and the Korean War, task forces were widely used. An exexample taken at random is Task Force ELLIS, formed by the 88th Infantry Division after the capture of Rome on 4 June 1945. It consisted of a reconnaissance squadron, a tank battalion, an infantry battalion, an artillery battalion and a tank destroyer company. Its mission was to maintain contact with the withdrawing Germans to prevent the establishment of another defensive line. It accomplished this mission, and continued operations until its zone was pinched out by a juncture with the British Eighth Army about 60 miles north of Rome. At one time the task force continued to attack during the hours of darkness to intersect one of the main routes of enemy withdrawal. A colorful "tank versus tank" action ensued, resulting in a victory for the task force, the destruction of an enemy column, and the capture of many prisoners.
Joint Task Forces. A joint task force is formed under a single command from elements of two or of all three of the Armed Services. Such an organization is normally used for amphibious or airborne operations, because of the absolute need for authoritative direction, close coordination, and cooperation. The commander is designated when the task force is formed; he may be from any one of the Services which provide elements of the force. Joint task forces may be designated on the basis of the mission; for example, a Joint Airborne Task Force for an airborne operation.
• Its formal definition is: "1. Temporary grouping of units under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a specific operation or mission. 2. Semipermanent organization of units under one commander for the purpose of carrying out a continuing specific task. 3. Major subdivision of a fleet or any independent command organized for the accomplishment of a specific task."
CONTINENTAL COMMANDS AND SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS
In addition to the Department of the here, however, it was dependent on the Army, the establishments and activi- Department of the Army for guidance ties of the Army within the continental in the suballocation of funds for operaUnited States include the following- tion of the Zone of the Interior (ZI). The United States Continental Army Com
Its command status
largely nominal and it concerned itself Six Zone of the Interior Armies and the
Military District of Washington, with primarily with training and tactical territorial jurisdiction.
operations, functioning principally as A great number of service establishments
devoted to the housing, supply, and an inspector of training. training of the Army, research and de
Early in 1956, plans were initiated velopment, etc. Certain agencies concerned with the de- looking to a theater-army type comfense of the United States against direct
mand. Under this concept, USCONARC attack (such as the United States Army Air Defense Command), and with allied
would constitute a single command over activities.
the Armies in the Continental United THE UNITED STATES CONTINEN.
States. It would have responsibilities TAL ARMY COMMAND. This Com
for the education and training of Army mand, often referred to as U. S. CON
forces, administrative and logistical supARC, or CONARC, is the principal field
port of the Army Reserve units and inagency of the Department of the Army dividuals and units of the Army ROTC, within the continental United States for supervision and coordination of Comaccomplishing the Army's mission. It bat Development activities, Army-wide, traces its beginning to an organization
and be charged with planning for the known as General Headquarters, United
ground defense of the continental States Army, established in 1940, which
United States. Its subordinate units later became the Army Ground Forces.
would execute these functions under For the evolution of these agencies, and
the Commanding General, their functions during and after World This concept was put into effect on War II, see chapter 27.
4 April 1957 by AR 10-7. Thereby the In 1954 an Advisory Committee on nominal command status of the ComArmy Organization (the so-called manding General, USCONARC, was “Davies Committee") and the Secre- changed to that of true command. tary of the Army recommended the Figure 1 shows the organization of establishment of a Continental Army USCONARC as of 10 March 1958. Command to provide for the more effec- Under the formal statement of his tive direction of the Zone of the In- mission contained in Army Regulations terior Armies, to limit the number of 10-7, the Commanding General, United commanders reporting directly to the States Continental Army Command, Chief of Staff, and to permit operation commands the six armies within the of the Zone of the Interior Armies as Continental United States, the Military truly decentralized activities. On 1 Feb- District of Washington, U. S. Army, and ruary 1955, the Office Chief of Army Field such other units, activities, and installaForces was redesignated Continental tions as may be assigned by the DeArmy Command with headquarters at partment of the Army. Within overall Fort Monroe, (Va.). Its Commanding Department of the Army policies he General was assigned responsibility for directs and controls the personnel, inthe command of the six armies within telligence, operation, training, logistic, the continental United States, the Mili- comptroller, and administrative activitary District of Washington, and certain ties of all elements of his command, other units, activities, and installations. including the Army reserve compo
As then established, and for the en- nents. He directs the Army combat desuing two years, USCONARC had only velopment activities under the general limited control over the men, money, guidance and supervision of Depart. and facilities of these agencies. The ment of the Army, and submits recomchief additional responsibility assigned mendations to Department of the Army to it on its creation had been in the in connection therewith for final apfield of budgeting and funding. Even proval.
Figure 1. Continental Army Command. Specifically, he has five major fields ROTC). In addition to commanding the of responsibility
Army Reserve, the Commanding GenTraining and Readiness of Today's eral, USCONARC, establishes criteria Army. He directs and supervises the for, and supervises, the training of aplargest military training operation in proximately 400,000 National Guardsthe free world. This includes the train- men and is responsible for the Reserve ing, within the Continental United Officers Training Corps with some 228,States, of hundreds of combat and 000 cadets in more than 700 universities, combat-support units, hundreds of colleges, and high schools. thousands of soldiers used in these Development of the Army of the units and as replacements in oversea Future. While charged with improving units, the Army Reserve, the National the Army of today, USCONARC also Guard, the ROTC, and those individuals has a major responsibility for developtrained under the Reserve Forces Act ing the Army of tomorrow. To this end of 1955. Seven major Army training it coordinates the Army-wide plans, centers produce more than 250,000 studies, field experiments, and tests from trained soldiers each year. In addition, which are developed the new operamore than 150,000 United States and tional concepts, organizations, weapforeign students are trained annually ons, and equipment needed to keep in some 600 resident courses in abreast of changed technological condiArmy schools, and over 130,000 other tions and to insure superiority over all students are enrolled in nonresidence possible enemies. courses. In furtherance of this far- Planning for and Conduct of the reaching training activity, USCONARC Ground Defense of the Continental annually plans and conducts large- United States. Duties in this area inscale maneuvers and field exercises. clude the provision of reinforcements
Development and Training of the for oversea commands, rendering assistArmy's Reserve Forces (National ance in disaster relief and other doGuard, U. S. Army Reserve, and mestic emergencies, and preparation
5 For detailed information on Army training, see chapter 8.
and coordination of mobilization plans manding General, USCONARC, more and programs.
than 400,000 military personnel of the Broad Management of Logistic Ac- Active Army (nearly half its total tivities in the United States. This covers strength); 75,000 civilians; and nearly the planning, direction, and control of 2,000,000 persons in the reserve forces. logistic activities in support of Active The majority of them were distributed Army and Reserve Forces assigned to among about a hundred posts and stathe command, including the mainte- tions throughout the country. nance of facilities and equipment, opera
Commanders. The tion of laundries and commissaries, pro
served as head of the United States vision of medical service, and the fur
Continental Army Command
or its nishing of supplies and equipment.
predecessor agenciesIn 1958 there were, under the ComLt. Gen. Lesley J. McNair9 July 1940-8 March 1942
Chief of Staff, General Headquarters, US Army 9 March 1942–13 July 1944
..Commanding General, Army Ground Forces Lt. Gen. Ben Lear14 July 1944-20 January 1945
..Commanding General, Army Ground Forces Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell24 January 1945-22 June 1945
.Commanding General, Army Ground Forces Gen. Jacob L. Devers 23 July 1945—9 March 1948
Commanding General, Army Ground Forces 10 March 1948—30 September 1949
.Chief of Army Field Forces Gen. Mark W. Clark1 October 1949--5 May 1952
Chief of Army Field Forces Gen. John R. Hodge8 May 1952-30 June 1953
..Chief of Army Field Forces Gen. John E. Dahlquist24 August 1953—31 January 1955
..Chief of Army Field Forces 1 February 1955—28 February 1956 ...Commanding General, Continental Army Command Gen. Willard G. Wyman
1 March 1956—31 July 1958 .......Commanding General, Continental Army Commande Gen. Bruce C. Clarke1 August 1958
Commanding General, U.S. Continental Army Command • Redesignated United States Continental Army Command effective 1 January 1957. ZONE OF THE INTERIOR ARMIES Fourth United States Army, with AND ARMY AREAS. For the purposes headquarters at Fort Sam Houston, of overall control of Army activities, Texas; the States of Arkansas, Oklathe continental United States is divided homa, New Mexico, Texas, and into six major geographical areas, plus Louisiana. a smaller area known as the Military Fifth United States Army, with headDistrict of Washington. A Zone of the quarters at Chicago, Illinois; the States Interior Army is located in each of of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, these areas except MDW. The armies North Dakota, South Dakota, Indiana, and areas are as follows
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, NeFirst United States Army, with head- braska, Colorado, and Wyoming. quarters at Governors Island, New York Sixth United States Army, with headCity; the States of Maine, Vermont, quarters at the Presidio of San FranNew Hampshire, Massachusetts, Con- cisco, California; the States of Monnecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and tana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, CaliNew Jersey.
fornia, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Second United States Army, with The Military District of Washington, headquarters at Fort George C. Meade, with headquarters in Washington, D.C.; Maryland; the States of Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, the adjacent Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Dela- counties of Arlington, Fairfax, King ware, Maryland and Virginia, less those Georges, Prince William, Stafford and areas in the latter two States which Westmoreland, and the city of Alexanare included in the Military District of dria, in Virginia; and the counties of Washington.
Calvert, Charles, Montgomery, Prince Third United States Army, with head- Georges, and St. Marys in Maryland. quarters at Fort McPherson, Georgia; In general the responsibilities of the the States of Tennessee, North Carolina, commanding general of each of these South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mis- areas include, but are not limited to, sissippi, and Florida.
the following: command and support
of all assigned or attached units, activities, and installations; logistical and administrative support of other units, activities, or installations as directed or covered by agreement; preparation and execution of plans and programs in accordance with overall Army policies; training, equipping and combat readiness of, and deployment of, assigned combat forces and support elements; conduct of field exercises, troop tests, and training tests, and conduct of local field and command post exercises; command of training centers within his geographical area; conduct of rifle and pistol matches; providing training aids and publications for assigned training; conducting industrial defense surveys; providing domestic transportation of materials and personnel; providing medical care, including physical and mental examinations, of military personnel within his geographical area; providing assistance to civilian agencies in time of disaster; operation of assigned personnel recruiting and processing facilities; operation of communication and pictorial service; conduct of intelli. gence and industrial security activities; command and supervision of the Army Reserve and ROTC and the support of the National Guard of the United States within his geographical area, including supervision of their training; conducting the sale, salvage, or destruction of surplus or excess military property; operation and maintenance of installations and facilities under his command (Class I installations and activities), and provision of certain support services for installations and activities under the command of heads of Headquarters Department of the Army staff agencies (Class II? installations and activities).
Various special responsibilities have been assigned to certain armies that are not common to all. Chief among these are administrative and other support responsibilities for units or activities outside the Continental United States, and responsibilities assigned to the Military District of Washington, incident to the location of the seat of Federal
government within that area. Among the latter are foreign liaison activities, conduct of military ceremonies, exhibits and demonstrations, coordination and provision for military funerals, and maintenance and provision of the honor guard for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery.
With respect to the National Guard and Reserve, the Commanding General of USCONARC has delegated to the Zone of Interior Army commanders the responsibility of supervising the training of individuals and units of the Army National Guard in accordance with policies and criteria established by Headquarters, USCONARC. He has also transferred to the Commanding General, United States Army Air Defense Command, the training supervision responsibility (including inspection and testing) for Army National Guard Task Organization units (assigned continental United States air defense missions) meeting minimum prescribed training criteria, when those units are designated by the Commanding General, USCONARC, to the Army National Guard Antiaircraft Special Security Force. Zone of Interior Army commanders command all Army Reserve units in their respective areas, and are responsible for implementing all USCONARC training directives and policies pertaining thereto. They supervise, inspect, report status of training, program and furnish necessary annual field training sites, and provide active Army support for both reserve duty and annual unit training of both reserve components. They furnish necessary administrative and logistical support of units and individuals of the Army Reserve. They maintain close liaison with the several State adjutants general in matters pertaining to the Army National Guard.
The Commanding Generals of United States Army Corps (Reserve), which were established within each Army area beginning in the fall of 1957, are responsible for the operation, training, ad
* A Class I installation is one under the command of the Commanding General of a Zone of Interior Army. A Class I activity is one under the direct command of the Commanding General, US CONARC, or of the Commanding General of a Zone Interior Army.
7 A Class II installation is one under the command of the head of a Headquarters, Department of the Army agency. A Class II activity is one under the command of & Headquarters. Department of the Army agency, or of the Commanding General, United States Army Air Defense Command.