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Burlington Ordnance Plant
Chicago Ordnance Plant
Coraopolis Ordnance Steel Foundry
Cornhusker Ordnance Plant
Dickson Gun Plant
East Chicago Ordnance Steel Foundry
Green River Ordnance Plant
Gull Ordnance Plant
Hoosier Ordnance Plant (Indiana Arsenal)
Indiana Ordnance Works (Indiana Arsenal)
Jefferson Proving Ground
Jeffersonville Quartermaster Depot (Activity)
Kankakee Ordnance Works (Jollet Arsenal)
Kansas Ordnance Plant
Keystone Ordnance Works
Lenape Ordnance Modification Center
Lima Ordnance Steel Foundry
Louisiana Ordnance Plant
Malta Test Station
Marshall Chemical Plant
Maumelle Ordnance Works
Melvindale Ordnance Forge Plant
Michoud Ordnance Plant
Milan Arsenal (Activity)
National Tube Company
Nebraska Ordnance Plant
New Cumberland Chemical Plant (Activity at

New Cumberland General Depot)
New River Ordnance Plant (Radford Arsenal)
Niagara Falls Chemical Plant
Niskayuna Modification Plant
Oklahoma Ordnance Works
Ordnance Assembly Plant (Activity at

Army Chemical Center)
Owl 4X Plant
Pacific Ordnance Steel Foundry
Phosphate Development Works
Plum Brook Ordnance Works
Ravenna Arsenal (Activity)
Ridgewood Ordnance Plant
Rockford Ordnance Plant
St. Louis Chemical Plant
St. Louis Ordnance Plant
St. Louis Ordnance Steel Foundry
Seattle Chemical Plant
Sunflower Ordnance Works
Twin Cities Arsenal
Volunteer Ordnance Works
Wabash River Ordnance Works
Weldon Springs Ordnance Works
West Virginia Ordnance Works

Burlington, N. J.
6630 Fullerton Ave., Chicago, nii.
Coraopolis, Pa.
Grand Island, Nebr.
Houston, Texas
East Chicago, Ind.
Dixon, Ill.
. Prairie, Miss.
Charlestown, Ind.
Charlestown, Ind.
Madison, Ind.
Jeffersonville, Ind.
Joliet, Ill.
Parsons, Kans.
Meadville, Pa.
Newark, Del.
Lima, Ohio
Shreveport, La.
Schenectady, N. Y.
New Martinsville, W. Va.
Little Rock, Ark.
Detroit, Mich.
New Orleans, La.
Milan, Tenn.
McKeesport, Pa.
Wahoo, Nebr.
New Cumberland, Pa.
Radford, Va.
Niagara Falls, N. Y.
Schenectady, N. Y.
Pryor, Okla.
Army Chemical Center, Md.
Azusa, Calif.
Pittsburgh, Calif.
Muscle Shoals, Ala.
Sandusky, Ohio
Apco, Ohio
Cincinnati, Ohio
Rockford, Ill.
E. St. Louis, Ill.
St. Louis, Mo.
St. Louis, Mo.
Seattle, Wash.
Lawrence, Kas.
Minneapolis, Minn.
Chattanooga, Tenn.
Newport, Ind.
Weldon Springs, Mo.
Point Pleasant, w. Va.

CONTINENTAL DEFENSE AND OTHER DOMESTIC MISSIONS

Under this head may be considered the defensive missions of the Army against enemy attack by air (the U. S. Army Air Defense Command) and by land, and also the Army's role in domestic emergencies.

THE UNITED STATES ARMY AIR DEFENSE COMMAND. The United States Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM) provides the Commander-in-Chief, North American Air Defense Command, with combat-ready Army forces, for the air defense of certain designated areas, which among them contain most of our nation's vital installations, industrial complexes, and heavy population centers. The task of USARADCOM is to develop an air defense force so strong that (1) it may deter a potential aggressor from attack

ing by air at all, and (2) if he does attack, it can destroy the aircraft which are headed for any particular defended area, before they have reached the bomb release line.

Historical Background. Four decades of Army experience with antiaircraft artillery have laid a firm foundation for today's USARADCOM.

The Army's air defense role began in 1917, when a three-man mission of Coast Artillery officers went to France to study French and British antiaircraft weapons and techniques. Our first AA artillery units were established in the AEF in that year. From the end of the war until 1942, AA artillery was under the Coast Artillery Corps. In March of 1942 the separate Antiaircraft Command (AAC) was organized, as an element of the Army Ground Forces.

The development of the atomic bomb, and of increasingly high-speed highaltitude jet aircraft, pointed to the vital need for long range supersonic guided missiles which can destroy these aircraft before they reach their target. Accordingly, in 1945 the Army started the development of such a missile. The outbreak of the Korean conflict, with its potentialities for a major war, accelerated the project. On 1 July 1950 the Army Antiaircraft Command (ARAACOM) was set up as a separate command. On 10 April 1951 it took over all AA artillery units allocated to the air defense of the United States. In December 1953 the first Nike guided missile unit occupied its tactical site. On 21 March 1957 USARADCOM received its present name.

Thus from the first “balloon guns" and rudely converted field artillery pieces of World War I, the science of antiaircraft artillery has grown into a highly complex system of electronically guided missiles adapted to use either conventional or atomic warheads.

Organization. USARADCOM's headquarters are at Ent Air Force Base, Colorado Springs (Colo.). It is one of the largest combat-ready commands of the Army. It is directly under the administrative and training control of the Chief of Staff of the Army. Part of its administrative support, and all of its logistical support, is furnished by the Zone of the Interior armies and the Military District of Washington. The agency is divided into five regional defense areas. The regions are further divided into “defense localities,” each of which is charged with the defense of a specific locality.

Weapons. The principal antiaircraft weapons available to USARADCOM are the several types of Nike missile and the Hawk missile. The Nikes are supersonic surface-to-air guided missiles. First to become operational was Nike Ajax, a liquid-fueled, rocket-type missile, about 20 feet long and a foot in diameter, with two sets of fins for guidance and steering. The missile and booster together weigh slightly over one ton. Ajax can meet an attack from any direction, and, can destroy any known manned aircraft.

The Nike Hercules missile is an improved version of Ajax, larger, faster, and with a much greater range. Although more than twice the diameter of Ajax, it is extremely maneuverable at altitudes above those which Ajax can reach. Its speed permits the interception of manned aircraft at a greater distance from the area being protected. With a nuclear warhead it can destroy whole flights of aircraft, instead of merely a single plane. A "universal" type fire-control system permits the Hercules system to fire the Ajar as well, if desired, and even increases the effectiveness of the latter.

Ajax and Hercules were both designed to guard against high-flying planes. To complement them the Army has developed the Hawk missile, which can destroy planes Aying at the lowest possible level at safe distances from the defended area. It can be used either at fixed installations in the United States, or with the combat elements of a field army here or abroad. It can be moved over highways, or by helicopter or fixed wing aircraft. It is about 16 feet long and 14 inches in diameter, and uses a solid fuel propellant.

The advent of the ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) means that our continental air defenses must be made effective, not only against aircraft but against missiles as well. To this end the Army is developing an antimissile missile called Nike Zeus. It is now in the "component development" stage.

The Command Guidance System. The Nike incorporates a unique "command guidance" system which controls its flight throughout its course and up to the point of intercept and destructive burst. In-flight control is maintained by an electronic computer. Its "brain" is fed information from two radar devices, one of which tracks the target while the other follows the missile itself. The computer digests the information from the two tracking radars, and simultaneously flashes electronic "commands" to the missile to keep it locked on an unerring course. Each maneuver of the target aircraft is immediately translated into a "command" which is beamed to the missile to effect a corresponding change in its course, from

the moment when it is launched until it reaches the target and explodes.

A third radar, the acquisition radar, detects distant aircraft and transfers target information to the target-tracking radar.

In a typical engagement, warning of the hostile aircraft's approach would come from the nation's early warning system. This information would be transferred to the Army's surveillance radars, located around USARADCOM posts, which coordinate the operations of several batteries, and then would be relayed to the batteries ready to engage the target. Each battery's acquisition radar would pick up the target and follow it in until the target-tracking radar locked on the target. From the instant that a Nike missile was launched, the target and missile tracking radars would work in unison, one locked on the enemy aircraft and the other on the missile.

Army Missile Master. This is an electronic facility for coordinating the fire of Nike batteries and other advanced Army air defense weapons. Its development was started in 1945. It is a combination of the latest automatic electronic equipment and of human supervision imposed at critical points. In this way the tremendous capacity of electronics for the instantaneous handling of information and solution of complex problems is combined with the judgment of trained operators.

The system can operate either independently or in conjunction with units of the Air Force's semiautomatic ground environment area defense system (known as SAGE). It is the first integrated system for tying together all elements of AA missile defense, from target detection to target destruction, for the coordination and direction of a large number of Nike batteries. It collects information on the location and identity of aircraft, presents it on electronic displays, and distributes data to the batteries. Thus each battery receives a continuous flow of up-to-date data on all aircraft within the defense area, sufficient for the proper selection of a target. In addition, the Missile Master operators observe the activities of all batteries in the system, and can direct a particular battery to fire on a

particular target, or prevent friendly aircraft from being fired on.

Locations. Nike installations are deployed throughout the United States, in defense of industrial, thickly-populated, and strategically-important areas. At battery sites, emplacements are built which include both underground and above-ground launching systems. Only 40 or 50 acres are needed per battery site-from 6 to 8 acres for the control area, the rest for the missile launching area. However, there are certain special requirements which a site must meet; for example, there must be an unobstructed line of sight between the battery control and the launching areas. Also, for maximum defensive efficiency, the various batteries protecting an area must be properly located with respect to one another. These requirements impose fairly stringent conditions on site selection.

Enlistment Choices. Prior service men who are enlisting or reenlisting for assignment to USARADCOM are permitted the following metropolitan duty areas Baltimore, Md. New York, N. Y. Boston, Mass.

Norfolk, Va. Buffalo, N. Y.

Philadelphla, Pa. Caribou, Maine Pittsburgh, Pa. Chicago, Ill.

Providence, R. I. Cleveland, Ohio Rapid City, 8. Dak. Detroit, Mich.

Richland, Wash. Gary, Ind.

San Francisco, Calll. Los Angeles, Calli. Seattle, Wash. Manchester, Conn. Spokane, Wash. Milwaukee, Wis. Washington, D. C. New Haven, Conn.

CONTINENTAL GROUND DEFENSE. The ground defense of the continental United States is based on the planned use of mobile striking forces, whose mission would be to destroy the enemy wherever encountered. These forces would in general be committed under the control of Defense Sector Commanders. Each Zone of Interior Army area (see above) contains two or more defense sectors.

The locations from which these forces would operate have been selected so as to give the greatest possible protection to the most critical elements of our war-making capacity. Economy of force dictates that the forces be mobile, and not committed to static defense missions at specific critical sites.

When possible, Active Army combat units are used. If such troops are not readily available, composite units from the overhead of posts, camps, and stations, and National Guard troops, are used, in that order. Plans include airlifting of elements of these forces, either by Army aviation or by Air Force planes.

The Navy and the Air Force have a corollary responsibility to assist and support the Army in the ground defense mission.

DOMESTIC EMERGENCIES. Among the Armed Services, the Army has primary responsibility for furnishing support to civil authorities in domestic emergencies. (The other Services have a corollary responsibility in this field; their efforts are coordinated and controlled by the Army.) Domestic emergencies may be of three separate but overlapping types: domestic disturbances, natural disasters, and civil defense.

Domestic Disturbances. The Army's responsibility in this field is covered in Army Regulations 500-50, and in supporting domestic emergency plans of the Department of the Army, the United States Continental Army Command, and the six Zone of Interior Armies. The use of Federal military forces to intervene in a domestic disturbance is authorized under four conditions

(1) At the request of a State legislature or Governor, when authority available to him is unable to control a disturbance within his State.

(2) To enforce Federal law.

(3) To insure equal rights to all citizens.

(4) To protect Federal property. In the first three conditions, the authority of the President of the United States is required. With respect to the last condition, such authority is desirable; but a military commander may have to intervene without such thority when time is of the essence. Not only is a commander authorized to intervene in such circumstances, but he is negligent in the performance of his duty if he does not.

Martial Law is the ultimate in intervention to suppress a domestic disturbance. For this reason its declaration should preferably be by Presidential Proclamation. However, under

circumstances where a commander of troops is unable to communicate with higher authority to obtain a Presidential Proclamation, he may and should exercise his own judgment in this matter. It should be emphasized that the authority of a commander under Martial Law is governed only by the necessity of the moment, and that he is authorized to employ only that force which is necessary to the establishment and maintenance of law and order and the preservation of life and property. The acts of a military commander, under these circumstances, are subject to review in a civil court after the fact. If it appears that his actions could not be considered as reasonably necessary under the circumstances, he may be held liable to fine or imprisonment or both.

Natural Disasters. The Army has a traditional role in assisting civil authorities in this field. Its mission is covered in Army Regulations 500-60 and appropriate implementing plans. As with other domestic emergencies, the primary responsibility for coping with the results of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, or earthquakes, belongs with State and local authorities and such organizations as the American Red Cross. However, experience has shown that these civilian organizations do not normally possess the discipline, organization, communi. cations, and other resources needed in a major disaster. In theory, Federal military resources should not be committed in disaster relief until all the resources available to the civil thorities have been committed. But humanitarian aspects are paramount and it is a military commander's duty to use the means at his disposal to prevent human suffering and save lives.

The Army is justifiably proud of its record of service to the nation in times of disaster such as the San Francisco earthquake, the New England floods of 1955, and many others. Hardly a day passes that the Army does not commit some resource, however small, in disaster relief somewhere in the continental United States. (See also chapter 31.)

Civil Defense. This field, unlike those of domestic disturbances and natural

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disasters, is a relatively new one, and (1) The case of an area in which an the Army's relation to it has not yet effective civil defense mechanism gone beyond the planning stage. Here has survived the attack and is preagain, primary responsibility lies with pared to cope with its results. Milithe civil authorities, under the overall tary support would then consist coordination of the Federal Civil De- principally in furnishing teams of fense Administration. But the very fact specialists, who would at the rethat, in repeated instances, civil au- quest of civil defense authorities, thority has been forced to turn to the handle certain tasks for which their military for help in natural disaster military training

has

prepared relief clearly indicates that the wide- them. For example, a mess team spread damage which would result drawn from the mess personnel of from a nuclear attack of any scope a military unit might operate an would almost certainly require military emergency feeding facility for large assistance in some form. The Army and numbers of refugees in a camp for the other Armed Services are prepar- the homeless; or a team of Signal ing plans accordingly.

Corps personnel might provide emerAny such Army assistance would be gency radio or telephone communiof the nature of a contingency mission, cations, or repair damage to existfor the primary task of the Armed ing facilities. Services in time of war is the success- (2) The case of an area in which the ful prosecution of that war. However, civil defense mechanism, along with a major disruption of the nation's other components of civil authority, "mobilization base"—the complex of has not survived the attack and centers of population and production, cannot function. In such a situation and means of transportation and com- it is contemplated that military munication, which stand behind our cadres would assemble the neceswar effort-would greatly hinder the sary civilian resources and direct prosecution of that effort by the Armed them in coping with the results of Services. So it may well be that, for a the attack. These civilian resources short period following a nuclear at- include both personnel and matack, a considerable part of the mili- teriel, and both skilled and untary resources within the continental skilled labor and professional seryUnited States would of necessity be ices. The plans in preparation engaged in dealing with the results of would tie specific military units to that attack. In fact, the Secretary of specific civilian resources in specific Defense has specifically charged the areas which might be devastated. Services to be prepared to establish One of the most important conor maintain law and order, and protect siderations in this planning is to life and property, under these circum- insure that the military-civilian stances. Plans being prepared for such organizations which emerge are so a contingency recognize two alterna- tailored that the entire operation tive conditions under which assistance may be returned to civilian control might be needed

at the earliest possible moment.

OVERSEA COMMANDS Contingents of the American Army United States. The present trend is tohave been stationed overseas ever since ward fewer men and more firepower. we acquired possessions which involved Commanders of Army oversea comus in the responsibility of maintain- mands, while receiving directives from ing order and defending the territories the Department of the Army, operate and inhabitants against possible aggres

in a more or less autonomous manner, sion. In recent years a great increase in the commander making his decisions the number of our troops abroad has according to the local situation. The been necessary, for reasons explained degree of autonomy varies with the elsewhere (see Introduction). In 1957 interest of the national policy in any there were about 400,000 Army person- given geographical area. nel located outside the continental

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