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B, and S reorganized at Vicenza, Italy and redesignated 1st U.S. Army Missile Command (Medium); (6) 1 Jan 1958, U.S. Army SETAF assigned to Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe.

Primary mission (as of 31 Mar 1958): to provide ground delivered atomic

support to Italian ground forces under Нq, , Allied Land Forces Southern Europe.

Subcommands (as of 31 Mar 1958): (1) 1st U.S. Army Missile Command (Medium); (2) U.S. Army Logistical Command, U.S. Army SETAF.

Commanders25 Oct 1955–26 Sep 1956 26 Sep 1956-1 Oct 1958 1 Oct 1958

.Maj. Gen. John H. Michaelis
..Maj. Gen, Harvey H. Fischer

Maj. Gen. John P. Daley

OTHER OVERSEA AGENCIES OF THE ARMY Among these may be mentioned mili. to attend special maneuvers of the tary attaches, MAAG's, and military French cavalry. This resulted, in 1885, missions.

in the creation of an embryonic DiviTHE ARMY ATTACHE SYSTEM. sion of Military Intelligence under The Every government, including our own, Adjutant General, which became the is interested in the armed forces of parent organization of the Army's atother nations and desires full and up- tache system. In 1888 Congress authorto-date information about them. If the ized the “pay of a clerk attendant on other nation is an actual or potential the collection and classification of milienemy or an actual or potential ally, tary information from abroad." Under the importance of such information is authority of that legislation the first obvious. Even if this is not the case, Army attache was detailed, on 11 March a study of its armed forces may bring 1889, to the American Legations at Lonto light some weapon, mechanical de- don and Berlin. Later in the same year vice, or system of organization, train- attaches were also sent to Paris, Vienna, ing, or tactics that can profitably be and St. Petersburg; and as the advantimitated or adapted.

ages of the arrangement became maniIn most periods of the world's history fest, more and more stations were such data had to be obtained surrepti- added. tiously. Military personnel, operating The functions of Army attaches have sub rosa and often in disguise, were changed little since the system was esquite commonly attached to embassies tablished. The attache is a trained obfor this purpose. However, a great server and reporter of matters permany of the facts about a country's taining to the foreign defense estabarmy, navy, and air force are public lishment; and his task is to ascertain, property anyhow; and many others are and to report periodically to the Deof such a nature that a trained and partment of the Army, information of intelligent man can learn them by dili- military or technical nature that gent observation, without resorting to would be of interest to any Army espionage or “cloak and dagger” meth- agency. He must be constantly on the ods. In recent generations most govern- alert for new ideas that might be ments have come to realize that, out- applied to our own Army. He studies side certain fields where secrecy is the organization of the army of the both practicable and important, it is nation to which he is accredited, the simpler to acquiesce in the collection of organization of its various branches and military information by officially-recog- units; its training techniques, and their nized representatives of the armed serv- effectiveness; the equipment of the ices of other nations, called attaches, units and of the individual soldiers; in exchange for a similar privilege ex- the service of supply; the cost of maintended to themselves.

tenance of troops; the organization and The first reported move of our gov- training of reserves; the mobilization ernment toward such overt collection of manpower and industry; and so on. of military data was in 1883, when the Beyond these matters of primary miliSecretary of War sent an Army officer

tary concern, he must interest himself

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in other fields. For example, to estimate how effectively the soldiers of the army he

is studying would fight against some other specific nation in a hypothetical war, he must study and analyze the political relations between the two countries, both today and in the past, and the reciprocal feelings and attitudes of their citizens. In fact, all of the many facets of industrial, social, cultural, and economic life come within his purview, insofar as they are related in any way to his field of interest.

Since an attache's inquiries and studies are based on military considerations, they do not duplicate or conflict with those of the civilian members of the embassy or legation staff. By close cooperation and joint effort, their studies supplement each other.

It is a not uncommon misconception that an Army attache serves as aide-decamp to the American ambassador (or minister) to whose embassy (or legation) he has been appointed. Although this was true to some extent in the early days of the attache system, it is no longer the case. The attache has a dual position in the diplomatic mission. He is under the local direction of the chief of mission, and is available to assist him in discharging certain responsibilities for which, as an Army officer, he is especially qualified. But also he represents the Department of the Army, and is the channel for liaison of various types between our Army and that of the country where he is stationed.

The staff of an attache depends on the importance of the area with which he is dealing. He may have one or more assistant attaches. Today there are total of 98 such assistants, serving at 43 of the 70 stations in the system. In addition, there are some 48 warrant officers, 178 enlisted men and 84 Army civilian employees distributed among the stations, all engaged in cryptographic, administrative, disbursing, and stenographic work. Alien civilians are hired locally for such positions as translator, receptionist, chauffeur, and janitor.

Attaches must travel a great deal; must attend official receptions, ceremonies, reviews, manuevers, dinners, cocktail parties, and so on; must enter

tain extensively; and must make innumerable calls on agencies with which they are required to keep contact. The cost of all this, in addition to normal living expenses, is considerable. Officers on attache duty are therefore reimbursed, within strictly defined limitations, for the extraordinary and unusual expenses incident to their assignment. At one time this was not done, with the natural result that the field from which the Army could pick its attaches was restricted to the relatively few officers who had a considerable personal income in addition to their pay. The disadvantages of such a limitation are obvious.

The Navy and the Air Force also have their attaches. Under authority of the Department of Defense, each Service runs its own attache system. However, when attaches of two or all three Services are accredited to a particular country and located at its capital, they work closely together to prevent duplication of effort. Such facilities as communications, finance and fiscal services, motor pools, and the like are operated jointly to the greatest extent possible.

MILITARY MISSIONS AND MILITARY ASSISTANCE. Our entrance into these fields dates from 1926, when we began establishing military missions in various Latin-American countries. Their purpose was to foster friendly relations, and also to assist in preventing any such country from falling within the sphere of influence of any nonAmerican Power. In 1942, after our entrance into World War II, two missions were set up in Iran. In 1948 we started a program of aid to Greece against the Communist menace, providing both military equipment and training assistance. With the continued increase in such military aid, a new kind of agency was created for its effective administration, known as the Military Advisory Assistance Group (MAAG). The first two MAAG's were established, in Greece and Turkey, in 1949.

In 1945 Congress authorized the Mutual Defense Assistance Program, intended to promote the security of the United States and the individual and collective self-defense of friendly nations. Included in the program is the provision of military equipment and

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training needed to develop or maintain eral officer or flag officer) with a small effective military-type units, in coun- joint staff and sections provided by the tries which are important to our own Services having programs in the country security but are unable to create or concerned. The chief of a MAAG is support such units without our help. specially selected, and is then nominated This part of the program is administered to the Department of Defense by the by the Department of the Army under military department concerned. the Department of Defense.

In addition to the above, there are In each such country there is a basic

cases where our military assistance to organization, the “U. S. Country Team,"

a nation is chiefly limited to training functioning under our Ambassador or

its armed forces. Such activity is adMinister. When military assistance is a

ministered by U. S. Military Missions. part of the program, it is administered

A mission is provided at the request of by the type of unit (MAAG) which had

the host nation and its duties are clearly been created for a similar purpose be

outlined in a bilateral agreement before the passage of the 1954 act.

tween the two governments. In general, A MAAG is usually a joint organi

missions are small and pertain to only zation of Army, Navy, and Air Force

one of the Armed Services. They are personnel. It advises the foreign govern- advisory in character. ment as to the determination of military

For econoniy of forces, the scope of needs, the use and care of equipment

certain military missions has been exfurnished by us, and the conduct of military training. Programs in the va

panded to handle some of the work rious countries differ in emphasis, scope,

ordinarily done by MAAG's. Most of the and magnitude; there are variations in

missions in Latin-American countries the kind of aid given, and in the degree

have been designated as MAAG's and of self-sufficiency of the nations being

perform MAAG functions. aided. The makeup and activities of During 1957 about 6,000 Army perMAAG's vary accordingly. Basically sonnel were employed on MAAG's or they consist of a chief (usually a gen- military missions in foreign countries.

LOCATIONS. Below are listed the nations or oversea areas in which American MAAG's, military missions, and military attaches are located, and also those where there are sizable American forces.

Country

MAAGS & Military Sizable
Missions Attache Forces

Country

MAAGS & Military Sizable
Missions Attache Forces

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Afghanistan
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Burma
Cambodia
Canada
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Dominican

Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Germany
Great Britain
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Zungary

(Belgium)

Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jordan
Korea
Laos
Lebanon
Liberia
Libya
Luxembourg
Malaya
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Norway
Pakistan
Panama,

Republic of
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines,

Republic of
Poland
Portugal

(Haiti)

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Military forces are composed of elements termed commands. A command is composed of a commander, a staff, and subordinate units.

In the Army, as in any large civilian corporation, the executive head or commander has two categories of persons to whom he gives orders: first, the commanders of the subordinate units of his command; and second, his personal assistants who advise him in matters relating to their specialties, and to whom he delegates certain parts of his executive and administrative duties. This latter group is called the staff.

The staff assists and advises the commander. It relieves him of details by furnishing basic information and technical advice to assist him in arriving at sound decisions; by developing his basic decision into adequate plans, translating the plans into orders, and transmitting the orders to subordinate leaders; by insuring compliance with these orders through constructive inspection and observation for the commander; by keeping the commander informed of everything he ought to know; by anticipating future needs and drafting tentative plans to meet them; and by supplementing the commander's efforts to secure unity of action throughout the command. Staffs exist in some form

all commands from battalion or battle group upward. However, the lowest command level at which a fully developed general staf is normally found is the division.

DIVISION STAFF. The division staff is divided into three levels: the chief

of staff, the general or coordinating staff (G-staff), and the special or functional staff.

Chief of Staff, Division. This level is represented by an individual, or by a group headed by the Chief of Staff. It is the coordinating and directing head of the staff, and its main connecting link with the commander. The Chief of Staff is also the principal assistant and adviser to the commander, and normally is the senior staff officer in the headquarters. This level is a means of freeing the commander, to a large degree, from minor details, so that he may devote his time to the overall leadership and command requirements of his position.

General Staff, Division. The general or coordinating staff (G-staff) is normally organized into four or five general functional sections, and is the commander's agency for harmonizing the plans, duties and operations of all elements of the command, including subordinate units and the special staff. It coordinates all activities to insure the most efficient employment of the force as a whole. The heads of the general staff sections are called assistant chiefs of staff. Their tasks are to assist the chief of staff in planning and coordinating activities pertaining to one or another of the four, or five, principal functional areas of the commander's responsibilities: personnel, intelligence, operations and training, logistics, and (sometimes) civil affairs/military government. More specifically, the matters with which they deal are as follows

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Also commands appropriate unit,

Organired when G} can no longer effectively perform these duties. Figure 2. Staff Organization, Infantry Division. Personnel Officer (A.C. of S. G1): commander, and all interested agencies maintenance of unit strength; main- and staff sections, fully informed of the tenance of morale; discipline, law and enemy's situation and capabilities, and order; the handling of personnel as in- of the weather and terrain. In addition, dividuals; the internal organization of he has certain operational functions the headquarters and its administrative with respect to specialized intelligence functioning.

agencies. Intelligence Officer (A.C. of S. G2): The Operations and Training Officer military intellegence and counterintelli- (A.C. of S. G3): organization, training gence. His primary task is to keep the and tactical operations.

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