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York: Oxford University Press, 1985), are notable CCP FOREIGN RELATIONS temporary revolutionary history) (Beijing: efforts at moving Soviet history beyond a thin, simple,
continued from page 129
Zhonggong dangshi ziliao, 1987), is broadly and strongly judgmental “totalitarian” model associated with the Cold War. An elaborated, well-grounded have had their major writings published. The
cast but omits limited circulation source alternative appears to await the completion of a new Mao collection (discussed below) is the best
materials and journals. A draft version of the generation of historical research.
known, but the list extends to those who Zhang volume containing more citations to 30. Paul A. Cohen, “The Post-Mao Reforms in Histori
restricted ("internal circulation") materials cal Perspective," Journal of Asian Studies 47 (August played a prominent role briefly in the mid1988), 518-40, highlights the dangers of a heavy reli- and late 1920s (such as Qu Qiubai and Peng appeared in Dangshi ziliao zhengji tongxun ance on an abstract Leninist party model to the neglect Shuzhi), the group that accompanied Mao to
7-12 (1985). A partial English translation, of long-term historical patterns.
the top (such as Liu Shaoqi, Wang Jiaxiang, prepared by Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich, 31. For an effort at teasing out an informal foreignpolicy ideology that might be applicable to China, see
has appeared in Chinese Studies in History Deng Xiaoping, Peng Dehuai, and Chen Yun), my own Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Ha- party intellectuals (such as Chen Hansheng
23 (Summer 1990), 3-94, and Chinese Studven: Yale University Press, 1987) and my follow-up and Ai Siqi), notable public supporters (such
ies in Sociology and Anthropology 22 essay, "Ideology," in "A Roundtable: Explaining the as Song Qingling), and even that party black
(Spring-Summer 1990), 3-158. Zhang Jingru History of American Foreign Relations,” Journal of American History 77 (June 1990), 108-115. Clifford sheep, Wang Ming. These volumes appear
and Tang Manzhen, eds., Zhonggong Geertz's “Ideology as a Cultural System,” in Ideology variously as wenji (collected works), wenxuan
langshixue shi [A history of CCP historical and Discontent, ed. David E. Apter (London: Free (selected works), xuanji (selections), and in
studies] (Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue, Press, 1964), 47-76, is a classic still worth reading. several cases junshi wenxuan (selected works
1990), traces the field's development, in32. George Lakoff, Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind (Chion military affairs). Generally these collec
cluding notably its opening up in the 1980s. cago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 92-93. tions, especially the ones published in the
Party history journals are a treasure 33. For an extended argument for the importance of early decades of the PRC, are less revealing
trove, offering fresh documentation, revealinternal categories and outlooks to the understanding on foreign affairs than the more recent mate
ing articles, and news of conferences and of Chinese values, see Thomas A. Metzger, Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China's
rials. The collected works for a few of the pending publications. A number of the chief
a Evolving Political Culture (New York: Columbia Uni- best known party figures can be found in journals underwent a confusing set of title versity Press, 1977). Andrew J. Nathan makes a translation.
changes in the late 1980s, and most are contrary case in favor of what he calls "evaluative
For an early introduction to these vari
restricted in their circulation. They are as a universalism,” those externally based judgments that not only are legitimate but also can stimulate better ous materials, see Michael H. Hunt and Odd
result difficult for researchers outside of understanding. Nathan, “The Place of Values in Cross- Arne Westad, “The Chinese Communist Party China to keep straight and use systematiCultural Studies: The Example of Democracy and and International Affairs: A Field Report on
cally. Of these journals Dangde wenxian China,” in Ideas Across Cultures: Essays on Chinese
New Historical Sources and Old Research [Literature on the party] (published by Thought in Honor of Benjamin Schwartz, ed. Paul A. Cohen and Merle Goldman (Cambridge: Harvard Uni
Problems,” China Quarterly 122 (Summer Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi and versity Council on East Asian Studies, 1990), 293-314. 1990), 258-72. Steven M. Goldstein and He Zhongyang dang'anguan, 1988-; "internal For instructive exercises in paying serious attention to Di offer an update in “New Chinese Sources
circulation”) and its earlier incarnation, language in the Chinese context, see Michael on the History of the Cold War,” Cold War
Wenxian he yanjiu [Documents and research) Schoenhals, Doing Things with Words in Chinese Politics (Berkeley: University of California Institute of International History Project Bulletin 1
(published by Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, East Asian Studies, 1992), and Frank Dikötter, The (Spring 1992), 4-6. Fernando Orlandi,
1982-87; "internal circulation"), deserve sinDiscourse of Race in Modern China (London: Hurst, “Nuove fonti e opportunità di ricerca sulla gling out for their fresh documentation as 1992). storia della Cina contemporanea, del
well as helpful articles. 34. The approach is thoughtfully discussed in James Farr, “Understanding Conceptual Change Politically,"
movimento comunista internazionale e della in Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, ed. guerra fredda" (Rome: working paper, Centro
Rise of an International Affairs Terrence Ball et al. (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Gino Germani di Studi Comparati sulla
Modernizzazione e lo Sviluppo, 1994), of-
CCP views on foreign affairs emerged 1987); and in Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vo- the new literature. Susanne Weigelin- during the late Qing and early Republic out cabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford Schwiedrzik, “Party Historiography in the
of a complex intellectual setting. This backUniversity Press, 1976).
People's Republic of China,” Australian ground is nicely suggested by a large body of
literature: Charlotte Furth, ed., The Limits of Michael H. Hunt is Everett H. Emerson Professor of History at the University of North Caro
78-113, stresses the highly political nature of Change: Essays on Conservatives Alternalina at Chapel Hill. This essay was adapted from
the party history establishment. CCP Re- tives in Republican China (Cambridge: a chapter of his forthcoming book, The Genesis search Newsletter, edited by Timothy Cheek, Harvard University Press, 1976); Hao Chang, of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy (New and the twice-monthly Zhonggong dangshi Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for York: Columbia University Press, 1996), and tongxun (CCP history newsletter) are both
Order and Meaning (1890-1911) (Berkealso appeared, in slightly different form, in
essential for keeping current with new pub- ley: University of California Press, 1987); Michael H. Hunt and Niu Jun, eds., Toward a lications and research projects.
Don C. Price, Russia and the Roots of the History of Chinese Communist Foreign Rela
There are in Chinese several major guides
Chinese Revolution, 1896-1911(Cambridge: tions, 1920s-1960s: Personalities and Interpreto party history literature. Zhang Zhuhong,
Harvard University Press, 1974); James tive Approaches (Washington, DC: Asia Pro
Pusey, China and Charles Darwin (Camgram, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Zhongguo xiandai gemingshi shiliaoxue (A Scholars, ).
study of historical materials on China's con- bridge: Harvard University Council on East
Asian Studies, 1983); Mary B. Rankin, Early Origins of Chinese Communism (New York: perialism and the Left Guomindang," Mod
" Chinese Revolutionaries: Radical Intellec- Oxford University Press, 1989); Lawrence ern China 11 (January 1985), 39-76; and P. tuals in Shanghai and Chekiang, 1902-1911 Sullivan and Richard H. Solomon, "The Cavendish, “Anti-imperialism in the (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Formation of Chinese Communist Ideology Kuomintang 1923-8," in Studies in the So1971); Benjamin I. Schwartz, In Search of in the May Fourth Era: A Content Analysis cial History of China and South-east Asia, Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West of Hsin ch’ing nien,” in Ideology and Poli- ed. Jerome Ch'en and Nicholas Tarling (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, tics in Contemporary China, ed. Chalmers (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University 1964); Harold Z. Schiffrin, Sun Yat-sen and Johnson (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970), 23-56. the Origins of the Chinese Revolution (Ber- Press, 1973); Hans J. van de Ven, From To form a more precise impression of keley: University of California Press, 1970); Friends to Comrades: The Founding of the CCP views on imperialism, turn to contemLi Yu-ning, The Introduction of Socialism Chinese Communist Party, 1920-1927 (Ber- porary materials, notably prominent party into China (New York: Columbia Univer- keley: University of California Press, 1991); journals such as Xiangdao zhoubao (The sity East Asian Institute, 1971); Martin Michael Y. L. Luk, The Origins of Chinese guide weekly)(1922-27) and the collections Bernal, Chinese Socialism to 1907 (Ithaca: Bolshevism: An Ideology in the Making of Central Committee documents (noted Cornell University Press, 1976); Arif Dirlik, 1921-1928 (Hong Kong: Oxford University above). Evidence on the general attractiveAnarchism in the Chinese Revolution (Ber- Press, 1989); Marilyn A. Levine, The Found ness of anti-imperialism as a tool of political keley: University of California Press, 1991); Generation: Chinese Communists in Eu- mobilization can be found in Wusa yundong Peter Zarrow, Anarchism and Chinese Po- rope during the Twenties (Seattle: Univer- shiliao (Historical materials on the May 30 litical Culture (New York: Columbia Uni- sity of Washington Press, 1993); and Ben- (1925) movement), comp. Shanghai shehui versity Press, 1990); Chow Tse-tsung, The jamin Yang, From Revolution to Politics: kexueyuan lishi yanjiusuo, vol. 1 (Shanghai: May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revo- Chinese Communists on the Long March Shanghai renmin, 1981); Sanyiba yundong lution in Modern China (Cambridge: Harvard (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990). Benjamin ziliao [Materials on the March 18 (1926) University Press, 1964); Lin Yü-sheng, The I. Schwartz, Chinese Communism and the movement), comp. Sun Dunheng and Wen Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Rise of Mao (originally published 1951; Hai (Beijing: Renmin, 1984); and Sanyiba Antitraditionalism in the May Fourth Era Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966), can'an ziliao huibian (Materials on the March (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, is a classic that still commands attention. 18 (1926) massacre), comp. Jiang Changren 1979); Vera Schwarcz, The Chinese En- There is good material on early party (Beijing: Beijing, 1985). lightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of leaders. See in particular Maurice Meisner, The CCP's relationship to the Commuthe May Fourth Movement of 1919 (Berke- Li Dazhao and the Origins of Chinese Marx- nist International (Comintern) in the 1920s ley: University of California Press, 1986); ism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, and early 1930s is, despite limited, fragmenand Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections 1967); Huang Sung-k’ang, Li Ta-chao and tary evidence, the subject of a good range of on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium the Impact of Marxism on Modern Chinese studies. The central work is C. Martin Wilbur (Cambridge: Harvard University East Asian Thinking (The Hague: Mouton, 1965); Li and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Research Center, 1972).
Dazhao wenji (Collected works of Li Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist Writings from the People's Republic of Dazhao), comp. Yuan Qian et al. (2 vols.; China, 1920-1927 (Cambridge: Harvard China offer such a constricted treatment of Beijing: Renmin, 1984); Lee Feigon, Chen University Press, 1989), a much expanded the CCP's May Fourth background that they Duxiu: Founder of the Chinese Communist version of C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lienare of only limited use. Broader perspec- Party (Princeton: Princeton University Press, ying How, eds., Documents on Communism, tives are available in documentary collec- 1983); Duxiu wencun (A collection of writ- Nationalism, and Soviet Advisers in China, tions such as Wusi aiguo yundong (the Mayings by (Chen) Duxiu] (originally published 1918-1927: Papers Seized in the 1927 Pefourth patriotic movement), comp. Zhongguo 1922; 2 vols.; Jiulong: Yuandong, 1965); king Raid (New York: Columbia University shehui kexueyuan jindaishi yanjiusuo jindai and Zhang Guotao, The Rise of the Chinese Press, 1956). The following are more speziliao bianjizu (2 vols.; Beijing: Zhongguo Communist Party: The Autobiography of cialized but no less important: Tony Saich, shehui kexue, 1979); and Shehui zhuyi Chang Kuo-t'ao (2 vols.; Lawrence: Uni- The Origins of the First United Front in sixiang zai Zhongguo de chuanbo (The versity of Kansas Press, 1971-72).
China: The Role of Sneevliet (Alias Maring) propagation of socialist thought in China) (3 The variant views on imperialism in the (2 vols.; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1991); Jane L. vols., Beijing: Zhonggong zhongyang 1920s emerge from A. James Gregor and Price, Cadres, Commanders, and Commisdangxiao keyan bangongshi, 1985). The Maria Hsia Chang, “Marxism, Sun Yat-sen, sars: The Training of the Chinese Commulatter is but one of a number of documentary and the Concept of 'Imperialism'," Pacific nist Leadership, 1920-1945(Boulder, Colo.: collections that have been compiled in China Affairs 55 (Spring 1982), 54-79; Herman Westview Press, 1976); M. F. Yuriev and A. over the last decade on ideological transmis- Mast III, “Tai Chi-t’ao, Sunism and Marx- V.Pantsov, "Comintern, CPSU (B) and Ideosion and formation around the time of May ism During the May Fourth Movement in logical and Organizational Evolution of the Fourth.
Shanghai,” Modern Asian Studies 5 (July Communist Party of China," in RevolutionAn accumulation of research spanning 1971), 227-49; Edmund S. K. Fung, “The ary Democracy and Communists in the East, several decades offers good insight on the Chinese Nationalists and the Unequal Trea- ed. R. Ulyanovsky (Moscow: Progress Pubfounding of the CCP and subsequent party- ties 1924-1931," Modern Asian Studies 21 lishers, 1984); and Alexander Pantsov, “From building. See in particular Arif Dirlik, The (October 1987), 793-819; Fung, “Anti-Im- Students to Dissidents: The Chinese
Trotskyists in Soviet Russia," trans. John Leninist Theory and Strategy (Princeton: the Myth of the 'Lost Chance', 1948-1950," Sexton, Issues and Studies (Taibei), vol. 30, Princeton University Press, 1984), chaps. 4, Modern Asian Studies 28 (1994), 475-502; pt. 1 (March 1994), 97-126, pt. 2 (April 8-10; Frank S.T. Hsiao and Lawrence R. and Chen Jian, "The Ward Case and the 1994), 56-73, and pt. 3 (May 1994), 77-109. Sullivan, “A Political History of the Taiwan- Emergence of Sino-American ConfrontaOnce standard accounts still deserving at- ese Communist Party, 1928-1931," Journal tion, 1948-1950," Australian Journal of tention include Allen Whiting, Soviet Poli- of Asian Studies 42 (February 1983), 269-89; Chinese Affairs 30 (July 1993), 149-70. cies in China, 1917-1924 (New York: Co- and Hsiao and Sullivan, “The Chinese Com- A number of studies prepared without lumbia University Press, 1954); and Dan N. munist Party and the Status of Taiwan, 1928- benefit of the recently released documentaJacobs, Borodin: Stalin's Man in China 1943,” Pacific Affairs 52 (Fall 1979), 446- tion are still worth attention. James Reardon(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 67.
Anderson, Yenan and the Great Powers: 1981).
The Origins of Chinese Communist Foreign There are some revealing memoirs on The Emergence of a Foreign Policy Policy, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia the early CCP-Soviet relationship. Yueh
University Press, 1980), stirred up debate by Sheng, Sun Yat-sen University in Moscow
minimizing ideological constraints on CCP and the Chinese Revolution: A Personal The CCP's handling of the United States policy and by arguing for a “lost chance" at Account ([Lawrence]: University of Kansas and the Soviet Union during the Pacific War the end of the Pacific War when the CCP was Center for East Asian Studies, 1971); and and into the early Cold War period has been frustrated in its attempt to avert Sino-AmeriWang Fan-hsi, Chinese Revolutionary: the subject of roughly three decades of seri- can hostility and to minimize dependence on Memoirs, 1919-1949, trans. Gregor Benton ous scholarship. The appearance of new docu- the Soviet Union. (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, mentation has rendered much of that litera- This interpretative challenge was 1980), are notable for their treatment of ture obsolete and compromised interpreta- quickly taken up by several contributors to study in Moscow and its personal impact. tions advanced as recently as the late 1980s. Uncertain Years: Chinese-American RelaOtto Braun, A Comintern Agent in China, Several major works drawing on the fresh tions, 1947-1950, ed. Dorothy Borg and 1932-1939, trans. Jeanne Moore (Stanford: source materials have already appeared. John Waldo Heinrichs (New York: Columbia Stanford University Press, 1982), is colored W. Garver's Chinese-Soviet Relations, 1937- University Press, 1980), 181-278, 293-303. by a strong anti-Mao animus.
1945: The Diplomacy of Chinese National- See in particular my own “Mao Tse-tung and Among a substantial collection of gen- ism (New York: Oxford University Press, the issue of Accommodation with the United eral surveys
in Chinese on the CCP and the 1988) stresses the CCP's policy of maneuver States, 1948-1950," Steven M. Goldstein's Comintern, the standouts are Xiang Qing, and places Mao alongside Jiang Jieshi response, “Chinese Communist Policy ToGongchan guoji he Zhongguo geming guanxi (Chiang Kai-shek) as a nationalist whose ward the United States: Opportunities and shigao [Draft history of the relations be- outlook drove him into “rebellion” (274) Constraints, 1944-1950," and Steven I. tween the Comintern and the Chinese revo- against Moscow. Odd Arne Westad's Cold Levine's two commentaries. Goldstein relution] (Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1988); Yang War and Revolution: Soviet-American Ri- visited the debate in “Sino-American RelaYunruo and Yang Kuisong, Gongchan guoji valry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil tions, 1948-1950: Lost Chance or No he Zhongguo geming (The Comintern and War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia Uni- Chance?" in Sino-American Relations, 1945the Chinese revolution] (Shanghai: Shang- versity Press, 1993), sets Mao's policy in an 1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical hai renmin, 1988); and Yang Kuisong, impressively international context and pic- Decade, ed. Harry Harding and Yuan Ming Zhongjian didai de geming: Zhongguo tures as largely abortive his efforts to make (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, geming de celue zai guoji beijing xia de the great powers serve his party's cause in 1989), 119-42. yanbian [Revolution in the intermediate the immediate aftermath of World War II. These Goldstein accounts emphasize zone: The development of China's revolu- Also drawing on new material are shorter policy constraints imposed by formal party tionary strategy against an international studies: John W. Garver, “The Origins of the ideology. They as well as his “The Chinese background] (Beijing: Zhonggong Second United Front: The Comintern and the Revolution and the Colonial Areas: The zhongyang dangxiao, 1992), the freshest Chinese Communist Party,” China Quar- View from Yenan, 1937-41,” China Quarand most detailed treatment. All three ac- terly 113 (March 1988), 29-59; Garver, "The terly 75 (September 1978), 594-622, and his counts carry the story into the 1940s-down Soviet Union and the Xi'an Incident,” Aus- “The CCP's Foreign Policy of Opposition, to the dissolution of the Comintern and tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 26 (July 1937-1945," in China's Bitter Victory: The beyond.
1991), 147-75; Michael M. Sheng, “Mao, War with Japan, 1937-1945, ed. James C. Treatment of the CCP approach to na- Stalin, and the Formation of the Anti-Japa- Hsiung and Steven I. Levine (Armonk, N.Y.: tional minorities and its support for foreign nese United Front, 1935-37," China Quar. M. E. Sharpe, 1992), 107-134, draw from his liberation movements, an important issue as terly 129 (March 1992), 149-70; Sheng, “Chinese Communist Perspectives on Interearly as the 1920s, can be found in June T. “America's Lost Chance in China? A Reap- national Affairs, 1937-1941” (Ph.D. thesis,
( Dreyer, China's Forty Millions: Minority praisal of Chinese Communist Policy To- Columbia University, 1972), a pioneering Nationalities and National Integration in ward the United States Before 1945," Aus- effort at systematic treatment based largely the People's Republic of China (Cambridge: tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 29 (Janu- on party press and other public pronounceHarvard University Press, 1976); Walker ary 1993), 135-57; Sheng, "Chinese Com- ments available to researchers at the time. Connor, The National Question in Marxist- munist Policy Toward the United States and Levine's own major statement, Anvil of
Victory: The Communist Revolution in Man- tious account to date is Niu Jun's Cong and Jiefangjun, 1984): Wu Xiuquan, Wode churia, 1945-1948 (New York: Columbia Yanan zouxiang shijie: Zhongguo licheng [My course) (Beijing: Jiefangjun, University Press, 1987), also joined the is- gongchandang duiwai guanxi de qiyuan gongchandang duiwai guanxi de qiyuan 1984); Peter Vladimirov, The Vladimirov
, sue by looking at revolutionary mobilization [Moving from Yanan toward the world: the Diary, Yenan, China: 1942-1945 (Garden in a strategically pivotal and internationally origins of Chinese Communist foreign rela- City, N.Y., 1975), a translation that is not as sensitive region. It elaborates themes antici- tions] (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1992). Niu complete as the Russian original, and in any pated in his "A New Look at American locates the origins of the CCP's independent case betrays a tendentious quality that inMediation in the Chinese Civil War: The foreign policy in the Yanan years, and per- vites some suspicion; and Ivan V. Kovalev Marshall Mission and Manchuria,” Diplo- haps better than any other account—in En- and Sergei N. Goncharov, “Stalin's Diamatic History 3 (Fall 1979), 349-75, and his glish or Chinese-provides the supporting logue with Mao Zedong,” trans. Craig essay, "Soviet-American Rivalry in Man- evidence. He builds here on his earlier work Seibert, Journal of Northeast Asian Studies churia and the Cold War,” in Dimensions of on the CCP's handling of the Hurley and 10 (Winter 1991-92), 45-76. Chen Jian has Chinese Foreign Policy, ed. Chun-tu Hsieh Marshall missions, Cong He'erli dao translated the portions of the Shi Zhe mem(New York: Praeger, 1977), 10-43.
Maxie 'er: Meiguo tiaochu guogong maodun oir dealing with the 1949 missions by Other early accounts grappling with shimo [From Hurley to Marshall: a full ac- Mikoyan and Liu Shaoqi in Chinese HistoCCP foreign policy ideology include Okabe count of the U.S. mediation of the contradic- rians 5 (Spring 1992), 35-46; and 6 (Spring Tatsumi, “The Cold War and China,” in The tions between the Nationalists and the Com- 1993), 67-90. Origins of the Cold War in Asia, ed. munists] (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1988). Yonosuke Nagai and Akira Iriye (New York: Chinese specialists have published ex
Mao Zedong Columbia University Press, 1977), 224-51; tensively in Chinese journals on various key and Warren I. Cohen, “The Development of aspects of CCP policy in this period. A Anyone interested in tracing Mao's Chinese Communist Policy toward the portion of that work has appeared in transla- evolving outlook on international affairs and United States,” Orbis 11 (Spring and Sum- tion. See especially Zhang Baijia, “Chinese his central policy role from the mid-1930s mer 1967), 219-37 and 551-69.
Policies toward the United States, 1937- has an embarrassment of documentary riches A growing body of scholarship helps 1945," and He Di, “The Evolution of the to contend with. Indeed, a wide variety of situate CCP external relations in the broader Chinese Communist Party's Policy toward materials have accumulated layer upon layer context of base building, revolutionary war- the United States, 1944-1949,” in Sino- so that systematic research requires considfare, peasant mobilization, and united front American Relations, 1945-1955, 14-28 and erable patience. Those who press on will policy in the 1930s and 1940s. Key items 31-50 respectively; and Yang Kuisong, “The find as their reward Mao emerging from include Odoric Y. K. Wou, Mobilizing the Soviet Factor and the CCP's Policy Toward these materials a more complex and more Masses: Building Revolution in Henan the United States in the 1940s,” Chinese interesting figure than previously guessed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994); Historians 5 (Spring 1992), 17-34.
Most notable among the English-lanGregor Benton, Mountain Fires: The Red Key sources for this period, aside from guage treatments of Mao's career is the body Army's Three-Year War in South China, the central party documents mentioned of writing by Stuart R. Schram. See in par1934-1938 (Berkeley: University of Cali- above, are Zhongyang tongzhanbu and ticular Schram's classic life-and-times bifornia Press, 1992); Kui-Kwong Shum, The Zhongyang dang'anguan, comps., ography, Mao Tse-tung (Harmondsworth, Chinese Communists' Road to Power: The Zhonggong zhongyang kang Ri minzu tongyi Eng.: Penguin, 1966); the update to it in Mao Anti-Japanese National United Front, 1935- zhanxian wenjian xuanbian (A selection of Zedong: A Preliminary Reassessment (New 1945 (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, documents on the CCP Central Committee's York and Hong Kong: St. Martin's Press and 1988); Levine, Anvil of Victory(cited above); national anti-Japanese united front] (3 vols.; Chinese University Press, 1983); and finally Chen Yung-fa, Making Revolution: The Beijing: Dang'an, 1984-86; “internal circu- his The Thought of Mao Tse-tung (CamCommunist Movement in Eastern and Cen- lation"); and Zhongyang tongzhanbu and bridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, tral China, 1937-1945 (Berkeley: Univer- Zhongyang dang'anguan, comps., 1989), consisting of two essays that first sity of California Press, 1986); and Suzanne Zhonggong zhongyang jiefang zhanzheng appeared in The Cambridge History of China, Pepper, Civil War in China: The Political shiqi tongyi zhanxian wenjian xuanbian (A vols. 13 and 15. See also Frederick C. Struggle, 1945-1949 (Berkeley: University selection of documents on the CCP Central Teiwes, “Mao and His Lieutenants,” Ausof California Press, 1978). Some of the Committee's united front during the period tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 19-20 issues raised by this literature are discussed of liberation struggle] (Beijing: Dang'an, (January-July 1988), 1-80; Jerome Ch'en, in Kathleen J. Hartford and Steven M. 1988; "internal circulation").
Mao and the Chinese Revolution (London: Goldstein, “Perspectives on the Chinese Personal accounts are useful in supple- Oxford University Press, 1965); Frederic Communist Revolution," in Single Sparks: menting the primary collections. See Shi Wakeman, Jr., History and Will: PhilosophiChina's Rural Revolutions, ed. Goldstein Zhe with Li Haiwen, Zai lishi juren shenbian: cal Perspectives of Mao Tse-tung's Thought and Hartford (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Shi Zhe huiyilu (Alongside the giants of (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 3-33.
history: Shi Zhe's memoir] (Beijing: 1973); Dick Wilson, ed., Mao Tse-tung in PRC historians have led the way in Zhongyang wenxian, 1991); Nie Rongzhen, the Scales of History (Cambridge, Eng.: filling out the picture of CCP policy from the Nie Rongzhen huiyilu (The memoirs of Nie Cambridge University Press, 1977); Robert late 1930s down to 1949. The most ambi- Rongzhen) (3 vols.; Beijing: Janshi, 1983, A. Scalapino, “The Evolution of a Young
Revolutionary-Mao Zedong in 1919- indicated, 1975).
a new series on Mao the military strategist: 1921," Journal of Asian Studies 42 (No- The officially sanctioned and most fre- Junshi kexue chubanshe and Zhongyang vember 1982), 29-61; He Di, “The Most quently cited collection of Mao's writings, wenxian chubanshe, comps., Mao Zedong Respected Enemy: Mao Zedong's Percep- post- as well as pre-1949, is Mao Zedong junshi wenji (A collection of Mao Zedong tion of the United States," China Quarterly xuanji (Selected works of Mao Zedong] (5 works on military affairs ) (6 vols., Beijing: 137 (March 1994), 144-58; and Benjamin I. vols., Beijing: Renmin, 1952-77). It has long
vols., Beijing: Renmin, 1952-77). It has long publisher same as compiler, 1993), which Schwartz, “The Maoist Image of the World been available in translation: Selected Works expands on Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun Order,” Journal of International Affairs 21 of Mao Tse-tung (5 vols.; Beijing: Foreign junshi kexueyuan, comp., Mao Zedong junshi (1967), 92-102. The Schwartz article is Languages Press, 1961-77).
wenxuan (A selection of Mao Zedong works notable as a pioneering effort to inject more Aware that Selected Works is highly on military affairs) (Beijing: Zhongguo sophistication and subtlety into the study of selective and politically edited, scholars out- renmin jiefangjun zhanshi, 1981; "internal Mao's guiding ideas by placing earlier for- side China have subjected the Mao corpus to circulation"; Tokyo reprint: Sososha, 1985).
” eign relations practices and experience as critical analysis, sought to supplement it with A second is the detailed and authoritative well as twentieth-century nationalism along- fresh materials, and prepared translations account of Mao's emergence and triumph as side Marxist-Leninist sources.
based on the most authentic originals avail- a revolutionary leader in Zhonggong There is a good body of writings on able. The effort began in earnest with Stuart zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi (under the Mao's early years. The starting point has Schram's 1963 compilation and translation direction of Pang Xianzhi), Mao Zedong long been Mao's own recital in Edgar Snow's of key documents, The Political Thought of nianpu, 1893-1949 (A chronological biogRed Star Over China (originally published Mao Tse-tung (rev. ed.; Harmondsworth, raphy of Mao Zedong, 1893-1949] (3 vols.; 1938; New York: Grove Press, 1961). The Eng.: Penguin, 1969). The major nonofficial Beijing: Renmin and Zhongyang wenxian, first to add to the picture was Xiao San (Emi collection, launched in Japan under the su- 1993). A third is Zhonggong zhongyang Hsiao), Mao Zedong tongzhi de pervision of Takeuchi Minoru, provided a wenxian yanjiushi, comp., Mao Zedong wenji qingshaonian shidai (Comrade Mao reliable and considerably fuller body of Mao (Collected works of Mao Zedong] (2 vols. to Zedong's boyhood and youth) (originally materials at least down to 1949. The first date; Beijing: Renmin, 1983-), which stands published 1948; rev. and exp. ed., series appeared as Mao Zedong ji (Collected as a supplement to the well known xuanji Guangzhou: Xinhua, 1950). A translation is writings of Mao Zedong] (10 vols.; Tokyo: (selected works) but which is largely silent available as Mao Tse-tung: His Childhood Hokubosha, 1971-72); it was followed by a on international issues. A fourth anniverand Youth (Bombay: People's Publishing second, supplementary series, Mao Zedong sary collection on Mao's diplomacy has also House, 1953). Li Rui followed with Mao ji bujuan (Supplements to the collected writ- appeared: Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan Zedong tongzhi de chuqi geming huodong ings of Mao Zedong] (9 vols.; Tokyo: [Selected Diplomatic Papers of Mao Zedong] (Comrade Mao Zedong's initial revolution- Sososha, 1983-85). A parallel project to (Beijing: The Central Press of Historical ary activities) (Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian, provide a full English-language collection, Documents, 1994). Helpful in putting Mao's 1957). The translation prepared by An- Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writ- role in the revolution in context are collecthony W. Sariti and James C. Hsiung ap- ings, 1912-1949, is now underway. The tions of central party documents and the pears as The Early Revolutionary Activities PreMarxist Period, 1912-1920, ed. Stuart R. documents on overall united front policy of Mao Tse-tung (White Plains, N.Y.: M. E. Schram (Armonk, N.Y.:M.E. Sharpe, 1992), from 1935-1948 (both cited above). Sharpe, 1977). Li Rui has since offered a is the first volume to appear.
For the post-1949 Mao turn to the clasrevised and expanded version of the biogra- Collections compiled by the party his- sified series compiled by Zhonggong phy: Mao Zedong de zaoqi geming huodong tory establishment in China over the last zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, Jianguo yilai [Mao Zedong's early revolutionary activ- decade have added significant, fresh light on Mao Zedong wengao (Mao Zedong manuity] (Changsha: Hunan renmin, 1980). The Mao's general outlook and his emergence as scripts for the period following the estabrecollections by Siao Yu (Xiao Yü; Xiao a maker of foreign policy. These collections lishment of the country) (8 vols. to date; Zisheng), Mao Tse-tung and I Were Beg- include Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1987- ; “ingars (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University yanjiushi, comp., Mao Zedong shuxin xuanji ternal circulation”). This series sheds new Press, 1959), sound a somewhat sour tone. (A selection of Mao Zedong correspondence) light on Mao and world affairs down to the Recently a full collection of early writings (Beijing: Renmin, 1983); Zhonggong late 1950s, and taken together with the outhas been published in China: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi and Xinhua pouring of Mao material during the Cultural zhongyang Wenxian yanjiushi and tongxunshe, comps., Mao Zedong xinwen Revolution, gives us the basis for beginning Zhonggong Hunan shengwei “Mao Zedong gongzuo wenxuan (A selection of Mao to understand Mao's PRC years. The formizaoqi wengao” bianjizu, comps., Mao Zedong works on journalism) (Beijing: dable task of collecting, collating, and veriZedong zaoqi wengao, 1912.6-1920.11 Xinhua, 1983); and Zhonggong zhongyang fying these materials has only begun. For a [Mao Zedong manuscripts from the early tongyi zhanxian gongzuobu yanjiushi et al., good recent guide, see Timothy Cheek, "Texperiod, June 1912-November 1920] comps., Mao Zedong lun tongyi zhanxian tually Speaking: An Assessment of Newly (Changsha: Hunan, 1990; “internal circula- [Mao Zedong on the united front) (Beijing: Available Mao Texts,” in The Secret tion”). M. Henri Day offers translations of Zhongguo wenshi, 1988).
Speeches of Chairman Mao: From the Hunsome early writings in Mao Zedong, 1917- The hundredth anniversary of Mao's dred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward, 1927: Documents (Stockholm: publisher not birth gave rise to new compilations. One was ed. Roderick MacFarquhar et al.(Cambridge: