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Harvard Council on East Asian Studies, wenxian yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai shuxin There are several good overviews that 1989), 78-81; and Cheek, “The 'Genius' xuanji (A selection of Zhou Enlai letters] must serve for the moment. The Cambridge Mao: A Treasure Trove of 23 Newly Avail- (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1988); History of China, vols. 14 and 15, covers able Volumes of Post-1949 Mao Zedong Zhonggong zhongyang tongyi zhanxian PRC foreign policy in chapters by Nakajima Texts,” Australian Journal of Chinese Af- gongzuobu and Zhonggong zhongyang Mineo, Allen S. Whiting, Thomas Robinson, fairs 19-20 (January-July 1988), 337-44.' wenxian yanjiushi, comps., Zhou Enlai and Jonathan D. Pollack, while also offering
To make the post-1949 Mao materials tongyi zhanxian wenxuan (A selection of helpful source essays. Samuel S. Kim, ed., available in English, Michael Y.M. Kau and Zhou Enlai writings on the united front] China and the World: Chinese Foreign ReJohn K. Leung launched a translation series (Beijing: Renmin, 1984); and Zhonghua lations in the Post-Cold War Era (3rd rev. in 1986. Two volumes of their The Writings renmin gongheguo waijiaobu and ed.; Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994), pulls of Mao Zedong, 1949-1976 (Armonk, N.Y.: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, together a good range of up-to-date accounts. M. E. Sharpe, 1986-) have appeared to date comps., Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan (Se- John W. Garver, Foreign Relations of the covering the period down to December 1957. lected diplomatic writings of Zhou Enlai] People's Republic of China (Englewood Their formidable task has been complicated (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1990). These Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993), provides a by the continuing flow of new materials out materials go well beyond the limited docu- thematic treatment with some attention to of China. Translated fragments are avail- mentation in Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian the pre-1949 background. Among older able elsewhere—in a variety of publications bianji weiyuanhui, comp., Zhou Enlai xuanji surveys Wang Gungwu's terse China and by U.S. Joint Publications Research Service (Selected works of Zhou Enlai] (2 vols.;
(Selected works of Zhou Enlai] (2 vols.; the World Since 1949: The Impact of Inde(better known as JPRS); in Stuart Schram, Beijing: Renmin, 1980, 1984), which is avail- pendence, Modernity, and Revolution (New Chairman Mao Talks to the People: Talks able in translation as Selected Works of Zhou York: St. Martin's Press, 1977), still deand Letters, 1956-1971 (New York: Pan- Enlai (2 vols.; Beijing: Foreign Languages serves attention for its commendable stress theon, 1975); and in MacFarquhar et al., The Press, 1981-89).
on setting CCP foreign relations in a broad Secret Speeches (cited above).
For an introduction to recent work in domestic context.
China on Zhou's diplomatic career and think- The PRC'sexercise of control over borZhou Enlai
ing, see Zhou Enlai yanjiu xueshu taolunhui der regions is still only poorly understood.
lunwenji (Collected academic conference For the moment the best places to start are Zhou deserves special attention as Mao's research papers on Zhou Enlai] (Beijing: Dreyer, China's Forty Millions(cited above); chief lieutenant in foreign affairs. For the Zhongyang wenxian, 1988); Zhonghua A. Tom Grunfeld, The Making of Modern moment the place to start is the archivally renmin gongheguo waijiaobu waijiaoshi Tibet (London: Zed, and Armonk, N.Y.:M. based biography, Zhonggong zhongyang bianjishi (under the direction of Pei E. Sharpe, 1987), chaps. 5-11; and Donald wenxian yanjiushi (under the direction of Jin Jianzhang), ed., Yanjiu Zhou Enlai-waijiao H. McMillen, Chinese Communist Power Chongji), Zhou Enlai zhuan, 1898-1949 sixiang yu shiyan (Studying Zhou Enlai- and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949-1977 (Boul[Biography of Zhou Enlai, 1898-1949) diplomatic thought and practice) (Beijing: der, Colo.: Westview, 1979). (Beijing: Renmin and Zhongyang wenxian, Shijie zhishi, 1989); Zhongguo geming The general secondary accounts in Chi1989). This biography should be used in bowuguan et al., comps., Zhou Enlai he tade nese on post-1949 policy increasingly reconjunction with Zhonggong zhongyang shiye: yanjiu xuancui [Zhou Enlai and his flect the new openness in the PRC but still wenxian yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai enterprises: a sampling of studies) (Beijing: stick close to the official line. Han Nianlong, nianpu, 1898-1949 (A chronicle of Zhou Zhonggong dangshi, 1991); and Zhonghua chief comp., Dangdai Zhongguo waijiao Enlai's life, 1898-1949] (Beijing: Zhongyang renmin gongheguo waijiaobu waijiaoshi [Chinese foreign affairs in recent times ] wenxian and Renmin, 1989). Zhou's early yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai waijiao (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan, 1987) years abroad are richly documented in Huai huodong dashiji, 1949-1975 (A record of is the best known of these. That volume has En, comp., Zhou zongli qingshaonian shidai Zhou Enlai's diplomatic activities, 1949- been translated as Diplomacy of Contemposhiwenshuxinji (A collection of writings from 1975] (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1993). rary China (Hong Kong: New Horizon, Premier Zhou's youth) (2 vols., Chengdu:
1990) by Qiu Ke'an. It appears as a part of Sichuan renmin, 1979-80); and Zhongguo The Foreign Policy of the PRC the series “Dangdai Zhongguo" (Contemgeming bowuguan, comp. Zhou Enlai
porary China), which includes studies on the tongzhi lüОu wenji xubian (A supplement to The new sources and studies that have armed forces also germane to foreign policy. the collected works from the time of com- refashioned our understanding of early CCP Zhongguo waijiaoshi: Zhonghua renmin rade Zhou Enlai's residence in Europe] attitudes and policies are just beginning to gongheguo shiqi, 1949-1979 [A diplomatic (Beijing: Wenwu, 1982). These materials have an impact on the post-1949 period. history of China: The PRC period, 1949largely supercede the treatment in Kai-yu Until more documentary publications ap- 1979] (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin, 1988) is Hsu, Chou En-lai: China's Grey Eminence pear and are digested, it is likely that our a major survey produced by Xie Yixian, who (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968), and understanding of PRC foreign policy will served in the foreign service before taking Dick Wilson, Zhou Enlai: A Biography (New remain thin and fragmentary, and the writ- up teaching duties in the Foreign Ministry's York: Viking, 1984).
ings in English on the topic will for the most Foreign Affairs College. Helpful documentation on Zhou's policy part hold to the well-established political These accounts should be supplemented role can be found in Zhonggong zhongyang science approaches.
by such memoirs as Bo Yibo, Ruogan zhongda juece yu shijian de huigu [Reflec- framework: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian Mark A. Ryan, Chinese Attitudes Toward tions on some major decisions and inci- yanjiushi, comp., Jianguo yilai zhongyao Nuclear Weapons: China and the United dents) (2 vols., Beijing: Zhonggong wenxian xuanbian (Beijing: Zhongyang States During the Korean War (Armonk, zhongyang dangxiao, 1991-93); Li wenxian, 1992-); and Zhonggong zhongyang
wenxian, 1992-); and Zhonggong zhongyang N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1989); Hao Yufan and Shengzhi, YaFei huiyi riji (A diary of the wenxian yanjiushi and Zhongyang Zhai Zhihai, “China's Decision to Enter the Asian-African conference] (Beijing: pub- dang'anguan “Dangde wenxian” bianjibu, Korean War: History Revisited,” China lisher not indicated, 1986); Liu Xiao, Chushi comps., Gongheguo zouguodelu: jianguo Quarterly 121 (March 1990), 94-115, which Sulian banian [Eight years as ambassador to yilai zhongyao wenxian zhuanti xuanji (1949- were in turn overtaken by Chen Jian, “The the Soviet Union] (Beijing: Zhonggong 1952) [The path travelled by the republic: a Sino-Soviet Alliance and China's Entry into dangshi ziliao, 1986); Wang Bingnan, selection of important documents on special the Korean War" (Washington, D.C.: ZhongMei huitan jiunian huigu [Looking topics since the founding of the country Woodrow Wilson Center Cold War Internaback on nine years of Sino-American talks] (1949-1952)] (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, tional History Project, 1992); Chen Jian, (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1985); and Wu 1991).
"China's Changing Aims during the Korean Xiuquan, Zai waijiaobu banian de jingli, For the Korean War, Allen S. Whiting's War, 1950-1951," The Journal of Ameri1950.1-1958.10 [Eight years' experience in China Crosses the Yalu: The Decision to can-East Asian Relations 1 (Spring 1992), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January Enter the Korean War (originally published
Enter the Korean War (originally published 8-41; Thomas J. Christensen, "Threats, As1950-October 1958) (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1960; Stanford: Stanford University Press, surances, and the Last Chance for Peace: 1983). This last item, the second volume of 1968) was a path-breaking work that long The Lessons of Mao's Korean War Telethe Wu memoirs, is translated as Eight Years stood as the single, indispensable work. His grams,” International Security 17 (Summer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January account of Chinese signalling from June to 1992), 122-54; and Michael H. Hunt, 1950-October 1958: Memoirs of a Diplo- November 1950 depicted Beijing as neither “Beijing and the Korean Crisis, June 1950mat (Beijing: New World Press, 1985). Moscow-dominated nor irrational but acting June 1951," Political Science Quarterly 107
Documentary collections are beginning essentially out of fear of “a determined, pow- (Fall 1992), 453-78. to open the window on PRC foreign rela- erful enemy on China's doorstep" (159). A Treatment of Sino-Soviet relations durtions. See in particular Jianguo yilai Mao decade later Edward Friedman, “Problems in ing the initial phase of the Korean War was Zedong wengao (cited above); the tightly Dealing with an Irrational Power," in for a time sharply limited by the lack of held collection compiled by Zhongguo America's Asia: Dissenting Essays on Asian- documentation. Robert R. Simmons, The renmin jiefangjun zhengzhi xueyuan dangshi American Relations, ed. Friedman and Mark Strained Alliance: Peking, Pyongyang, Mosjiaoyanshi (renamed Zhongguo jiefangjun Selden (New York: Pantheon, 1971), fol- cow and the Politics of the Korean War guofang daxue dangshi dangjian zhenggong lowed Whiting in stressing the defensive, (New York: Free Press, 1975); Wilbur A. jiaoyanshi), Zhonggong dangshi jiaoxue calculated, and rational nature of Chinese Chaffee, “Two Hypotheses of Sino-Soviet cankao ziliao [Reference materials for the policy and Beijing's “complex and differen- Relations as Concerns the Instigation of the teaching of CCP history](vols. to date num- tiated view of American foreign policy" (212). Korean War," Journal of Korean Affairs bered 12-27 with 25-27 withdrawn; n.p. The theme that China was essentially re- 6:3-4(1976-77), 1-13; and Nakajima Mineo, [Beijing?), n.d. (preface in vol. 12 dated sponding in Korea to a danger to its security "The Sino-Soviet Confrontation: Its Roots 1985]); Xinhuashe xinwen yanjiubu, comp., again enjoyed prominence in Melvin Gurtov in the International Background of the KoXinhuashe wenjian ziliao xuanbian (A se- and Byong-Moo Hwang, China under Threat: rean War,” Australian Journal of Chinese lection of documentary materials on the The Politics of Strategy and Diplomacy (Bal Affairs 1 (January 1979), 19-47, were early New China News Agency](4 vols.; no place timore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1980), chap. efforts to explore that topic and especially and no publisher, [1981-87?]); and 2., although by this point other competing the ways the war may have intensified strains Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun dangshi concerns—domestic issues, divisions within that would eventually bring about the Sinodangjian zhenggongjiaoyanshi and Guofang the leadership, and strong internationalist Soviet split. Drawing on new materials, daxue dangshi dangjian zhenggong elements in Beijing's justification for inter- Kathryn Weathersby treats "The Soviet Role jiaoyanshi, comps., "Wenhua dageming" vention—were beginning to creep into the in the Early Phase of the Korean War: New yanjiu ziliao [Research materials on the picture and blur the interpretation.
Documentary Evidence,” Journal of AmeriCultural Revolution"](3 vols.; Beijing: pub- The last few years have witnessed a can-East Asian Relations 2 (Winter 1993), lisher same as compiler, 1988; withdrawn flurry of publications, one after another broad
flurry of publications, one after another broad- 425-58, and also presents Soviet archival from circulation). The second series of ening and enriching our understanding of materials on the war in issues 3, 5, and 6 of ZhongMei guanxi ziliao huibian (A collec- Chinese policy and China's place in an inter- the Cold War International History Project tion of materials on Sino-American rela- national history of the early Cold War (while Bulletin. tions), comp. Shijie zhishi (2 vols.; Beijing: unfortunately neglecting the domestic di- The most detailed and up-to-date acShijie zhishi, 1960; “internal circulation”), mensions of that conflict). Chen Xiaolu, counts of the war's origins are to be found in reads like a "white paper" with a strong “China's Policy Toward the United States, Chen Jian, China's Road to the Korean War: emphasis on materials between 1949 and
1949-1955," and Jonathan D. Pollack, “The The Making of the Sino-American Confron1958, virtually all from the public domain. Korean War and Sino-American Relations,” tation (New York: Columbia University Two new collections are helpful in putting both in Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955, Press, 1994), notable for its stress on the early PRC foreign relations in a broad policy 184-97 and 213-37, were soon followed by strong revolutionary streak in Mao's foreign policy, and Sergei N. Goncharov, John W. Jian, “Peng Dehuai and China's Entry into over the Taiwan Strait and Vietnam is getLewis, and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: the Korean War,” Chinese Historians 6 ting increasing scrutiny by scholars exploitStalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford: (Spring 1993), 1-29.
ing fragmentary PRC revelations and docuStanford University Press, 1993), which The Chinese military has made a major mentation. Zhang Shu Guang, Deterrence depicts the two leaders as shrewd national- effort to tell its Korean War story not only in and Strategic Culture: Chinese-American ists and resolute realpolitikers engaged in an some of the general accounts noted above Confrontations, 1949-1958 (Ithaca: Cornell intricate game of international chess with but also in a long string of memoirs. They University Press, 1992), relates new inforideology counting for little.
include Peng Dehuai zishu bianjizu, ed., mation from Chinese sources to theoretical Within the Chinese historical establish- Peng Dehuai zishu [Peng Dehuai's own concerns with deterrence, calculated deciment, Yao Xu, Cong Yalujiang dao account) (Beijing: Renmin, 1981), which sion-making,
sion-making, and “learning" by Banmendian: Weida de kangMei yuanChao contains treatment of Korea prepared before policymakers. John W. Lewis and Xue Litai, zhanzheng [From the Yalu River to the Cultural Revolution and apparently with- China Builds the Bomb (Stanford: Stanford Panmunjom: the great war to resist America out access to personal files; Du Ping, Zai University Press, 1988), reveals how Mao's and aid Korea) (Beijing: Renmin, 1985;“in- zhiyuanjun zongbu (With the headquarters public dismissal of the American nuclear ternal circulation”); and Chai Chengwen of the volunteer army] (Beijing: Jiefangjun,
of the volunteer army] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, threat was belied by a high-priority program and Zhao Yongtian, KangMei yuanChao 1989); Yang Chengwu, Yang Chengwu
1989); Yang Chengwu, Yang Chengwu to create a Chinese bomb. jishi (A record of resisting America and huiyilu [Memoirs of Yang Chengwu) (2 A long list of special studies helps furaiding Korea) (Beijing: Zhonggong dangshi vols.; Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1987 and 1990); ther fill out our picture of PRC policy: Chen ziliao, 1987; "internal circulation"), were Yang Dezhi, Weile heping (For the sake of Jian, “China and the First Indochina War, the first to deal in detail with the war. Their peace) (Beijing: Changzheng, 1987); and 1950-54,” China Quarterly 133 (March work was in turn improved on by Junshi Hong Xuezhi, KangMei yuanChao 1993), 85-110; Qiang Zhai, “Transplanting jiaoxueyuan junshi lishi yanjiubu, comp., zhanzheng huiyi (“Recollections of the war the Chinese Model: Chinese Military AdvisZhongguo renmin zhiyuanjun kang Mei to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea"] ers and the First Vietnam War, 1950-1954," yuanChao zhanshi (A battle history of resis- (Beijing: Jiefangjun wenyi, 1990). Peng's Journal of Military History 57 (October tance to America and aid to Korea by the memoir is translated as Memoirs of a Chi- 1993), 689-715; Qiang Zhai, “China and the Chinese people's volunteer army] (Beijing: nese Marshal: The Autobiographical Notes Geneva Conference of 1954," China QuarJunshi jiaoxue, 1988; “internal circulation”); of Peng Dehuai (1898-1924), trans. Zheng terly 129 (March 1992), 103-22; Gordon H. Chai Chengwen and Zhao Yongtian, Longpu and ed. Sara Grimes (Beijing: For- Chang and He Di, “The Absence of War in Banmendian tanpan: Chaoxian zhanzheng eign Languages Press, 1984).
the U.S.-China Confrontation over Quemoy juan (The Panmunjom talks: a volume on There are abundant published source and Matsu in 1954-1955: Contingency, Luck, the Korean War] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1989); materials on the Korean conflict. Aside Deterrence?” American Historical Review Ye Yumeng, Chubing Chaoxian: kangMei from Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao and 98 (December 1993), 1500-24; Xiaobing Li, yuanChao lishi jishi (Sending troops to Ko Mao Zedong junshi wenxuan (both noted "Chinese Intentions and 1954-55 Offshore rea: a historical record of the resistance to above), see Peng Dehuai zhuanji bianxiezu, Islands Crisis,” Chinese Historians 3 (JanuAmerican and assistance to Korea] (Beijing: comp., Peng Dehuai junshi wenxuan (
Aary 1990), 45-59; He Di, “The Evolution of Beijing shiyue wenyi, 1990); Qi Dexue, selection of Peng Dehuai writings on mili- the People's Republic of China's Policy Chaoxian zhanzheng juece neimu (The in- tary affairs) (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, toward the Offshore Islands," in The Great side story of the Korean War decisions] 1988); and Zhongguo renmin kangMei Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960 (cited (Shenyang: Liaoning daxue, 1991); yuanChao zonghui xuanchuanbu, comp., above), 222-45; and Chen Jian, “China's “Dangdai Zhongguo" congshu bianji Weida de kangMei yuanChao yundong (The Involvement with the Vietnam War, 1964weiyuanhui, KangMei yuanChaozhanzheng great resist-America, aid-Korea campaign] 69,” China Quarterly 142 (June 1995), 357[The war to resist America and aid Korea (Beijing: Renmin, 1954), a collection of 387. (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1990); documents on domestic mobilization. For a Our understanding of the PRC's Taiand Xu Yan, Diyici jiaoliang: kangMei selection of Korean War materials trans- wan and Vietnam policies is, much like yuanChao zhanzheng de lishi huigu yu fansi lated from Jianguo yilai, volume 1, see Li insights on Korea, in debt to the Chinese [The first test of strength: a historical review Xiaobing et al., “Mao's Despatch of Chinese military. Xu Yan, Jinmen zhi zhan (1949and evaluation of the war to resist America Troops into Korea: Forty-Six Telegrams,
Troops into Korea: Forty-Six Telegrams, 1959 nian) [The battle for Jinmen (1949and aid Korea) (Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo July-October 1950,” Chinese Historians 5 1959)](Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, dianshi, 1990), the most complete and fully (Spring 1992), 63-86; Li Xiaobing and Glenn 1992), and Zhongguojunshi guwentuan lishi researched of the Chinese studies. Zhang Tracy, “Mao's Telegrams During the Ko- bianxiezu, Zhongguo junshi guwentuan Xi's unusually revealing “Peng Dehuai rean War, October-December 1950,” Chi- yuan Yue kangFa douzheng shishi (Historishouming shuaishi kangMei yuanChao de nese Historians 5 (Fall 1992), 65-85. cal facts about the struggle by the Chinese qianqian houhou” [The full story of Peng Goncharov et al., Uncertain Partners, 229- military advisory team to assist Vietnam and Dehuai's appointment to head the resistance 91, serves up a generous sampling of Chi- resist France) (Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1990; to the United States and the assistance to nese as well as Soviet documents on the “internal circulation”), are but examples from Korea),Zhonggong dangshi ziliao 31 (1989), origins of the war.
what is likely to become an imposing body 111-59, is available in a translation by Chen The subsequent Sino-American crisis of work.
culation only,” it is not difficult for scholars the early 1980s, contains many previously continued from page 131 outside of China to gain access to them. For unknown inner-Party instructions and tele
grams by Mao, especially the telegraphic how the situation has changed in the age of example, the Yenching Library and the li
communications between Mao and Chinese “reform and opening to the outside world.” brary of John K. Fairbank Center at Harvard
University, the East Asian Library at Colum- field commanders during the early stage of Insofar as the original works of CCP leaders
bia University, the East Asian Library at are concerned, the archives storing them,
China's military intervention in Korea (Ocespecially Beijing's Central Archives, re
Stanford University, the East Asian Library tober-December 1950). Its circulation was
at Toronto University, the Asian Section of highly restricted at first; after the mid-1980s, main inaccessible to most scholars (both Chinese and Western). If one carefully Library of Congress, and many other East however, it became available to scholars
Asian libraries in North America have col- outside of China through several channels, examines the contents of the selected works
lected various volumes of this set. of CCP leaders that have been compiled and
especially after it had been reprinted by a
The documents published in this collec- publisher in Hong Kong. The six-volume published since the early 1980s (especially the editions for internal circulation only"),
tion are of high historical value. They cover, Mao Zedong junshi wenji was published in however, it is easy to find that the policy of among other things, such important events as December 1993, on the 100th anniversary of "reform and opening to the outside world"
Mao Zedong's visit to the Soviet Union in Mao's birthday. Its coverage is extraordihas made its stamp on them. Put simply, the
1949-1950; China's participation in the Ko- narily uneven. The first five volumes, which "selected works" compiled and published in
rean War in 1950-1953; Mao Zedong's di- cover the period from the late 1920s to 1949, the 1980s and 1990s are more substantial,
rection of the “Three-Antis” and “Five-Antis” include many documents released only for
Movements in 1951-1952; Mao's and the the first time. The sixth volume, which and, so far as their texts are concerned, more
CCP leadership's management of relations reliable than previous collections. To make
covers the period from 1949 to 1976, conwith the Soviet Union in the mid- and late tains almost nothing new compared with the this point clear, I will introduce and examine several major "selected works” com
1950s; Mao's management of the Taiwan previously published Mao Zedong junshi piled and published during this period.
Crisis and the potential confrontation with wenji and Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao.
the United States in 1958; Mao's handling of In actuality, many documents concerning 1. Zhonggong zhongyang wenjian
the “Anti-Rightist Movement" and the “Great Mao's military activities during this postxuanji (Selected Documents of the CCP Central Committee). This documentary col
Leap Forward” in 1957-1958; and Mao's revolution period published in the other two lection covers the period from 1921 to 1949
presentations at the Lushan Conference in collections are deleted from this volume. in two different editions: A fourteen vol
1959. In many places, the documents pub- This is a great disappointment for scholars
lished in this collection confirm the inner- who are interested in Mao's activities during ume internal edition published in the mid
the PRC period. 1980s, and an eighteen volume open edition Party statements and instructions by Mao published in the early 1990s. Both editions
divulged during the “Cultural Revolution" 4. Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan (Secontain many previously unpublished ma
years. But the majority of the documents lected Diplomatic Papers of Mao Zedong). 8
contained in this collection have never been This collection focuses on Mao's diplomatic terials. The open edition contains almost fifteen percent more documents than the
released in the past. Most of the documents and strategic activities, emphasizing the postearlier internal one (however, a few “sensi
are published in their entirety; some, how- 1949 period. Some of the documents pubtive documents” that were included in the
ever, are published only in part. The quality lished in this volume are of high historical internal edition disappeared from the open
of the eight published volumes is uneven. value. For example, it has long been known
The first volume, which covers the period to scholars that in the summer of 1958, edition). The "quality" of some of the
from October 1949 to December 1950, is one major dispute emerged between Beijing and documents is impressive. For example, the
of the best. It offers, among other things, a Moscow in the wake of Moscow's proposal Central Committee's “Instructions on Dip
to establish a joint Chinese-Soviet submalomatic Affairs,” dated 18 August 1944, quite detailed coverage of Mao's visit to the clearly reveals the CCP leadership's per
Soviet Union, as well as how the CCP lead- rine flotilla. However, it has been unclear to
ership made the decision to enter the Korean scholars how this dispute developed. The ception of international affairs as well as its calculation on how the Party should best
War. Volume Four, covering the 1953- minutes of a talk between Mao Zedong and deal with the perceived situation. These
1954 period, is, compared with other vol- P.F. Yudin, the Soviet ambassador to China,
umes, extremely thin. As a whole, this coldocuments provide scholars with valuable
on July 22, 1958, published in this issue of lection provides scholars with much fresh the CWIHP Bulletin, reveal the Chinese information for understanding important decisions by the CCP leadership.
information (compared with what we knew attitude, including Mao's reasoning under2. Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao
in the past) and, therefore, must be regarded lying it, toward this question. (Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the as a basic reference for the study of Mao 5. Mao Zedong wenji (A Collection of
Mao Zedong's Papers).10 This collection Founding of the People's Republic of Zedong, the Chinese revolution, and the hisChina).3 The publication of this series be
tory of the People's Republic of China. publishes Mao's speeches, instructions, and
3. Mao Zedong junshi wenxuan (Se- telegrams not included in Mao Zedong xuanji. gan in late 1987, with eight volumes published by 1995, covering the period from
lected Military Papers of Mao Zedong) and Among the quite impressive documents reOctober 1949 to December 1959. Although
Mao Zedong junshi wenji (A Collection of leased are those about the CCP leadership's these volumes are marked "for internal cir
Mao Zedong's Military Papers, 6 volumes).7 handling of the Xian Incident of 1936.
Mao Zedong, 3 volumes).11 Published in 10. Peng Dehuai junshi wenxuan (Se- tions are more useful to researchers. Indeed, December 1993, the 100th anniversary of lected Military Papers of Peng Dehuai).17 the footnotes of several important collecMao's birth, it offers a quite detailed day-to- As the PRC's defense minister in the 1950s tions, such as Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong day account of Mao's activities up to 1949. and the commander of the Chinese Volun- wengao, Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan, and It releases many previously unknown im- teers in Korea, Peng Dehuai played an im- Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan, contain much portant documents, going beyond the cover- portant role in developing China's military important documentary information. age of other Mao collections. For example, and security strategies. This volume pub- Third, some of the collections, espeit publishes for the first time Mao Zedong's lishes some of Peng's most important mili- cially those for “internal circulation only,” telegram to the CCP's Nanjing Municipal tary papers, including his correspondences have broken many “forbidden zones” in the Committee dated 10 May 1949, in which with Mao during the early stages of the writing of the CCP history. For example, Mao established the principles for Huang Korean War.
scholars who are interested in the CCP's Hua to meet with John Leighton Stuart, the In addition to the above listed collec- management of the Xian Incident will find American ambassador to China who re- tions, other "selected works” that have been that the information offered by the documained after the Communist takeover of published since the 1980s include ones by ments in Zhonggong zhongyang wenjian Nanjing. 12
Chen Yun, Hu Qiaomu, Liu Shaoqi, Nie xuanji, Mao Zedong nianpu, Zhou Enlai 7. Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan (Se- Rongzhen, Wang Jiaxiang, Zhang Wentian, nianpu, and Mao Zedong wenji differ from lected Diplomatic Papers of Zhou Enlai).13 and Zhu De.18
the Party's propaganda in the past, indicatThis is a collection of minutes of internal
ing that the CCP leadership's attitude totalks, instructions, statements, and speeches Compared with the "selected works" ward Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) had related to Zhou Enlai's diplomatic activities. published earlier, the above list of selected been strongly influenced, or even defined, This collection includes some interesting works” published in the 1980s and 1990s by the Comintern. Also, the documents documents, such as the Chinese minutes of have several distinctive features. First, con- offered by Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao Zhou Enlai's talk with K.M. Pannikar, In- trary to the earlier practice of making exten- reveal that, different from the description of dian Ambassador to China, early in the morn- sive excisions from, or even revisions in the the official Party history, one of the considing of 3 October 1950. During this meeting original documents for the sake of publica- erations behind Mao Zedong's decision to Zhou Enlai issued the warning that if the tion, the compilation and editing of most of shell the Nationalist-controlled Jinmen IsAmerican forces crossed the 38th parallel in the volumes published in the past decade are lands in August 1958 was to assist the people Korea, China would “intervene” in the con- more faithful to the original text of the docu- in the Middle East, especially in Lebanon, in flict. 14
ments. For example, Zhonggong zhongyang their struggles against the U.S. imperial8. Zhou Enlai nianpu, 1898-1949 (A wenjian xuanji and Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong ists. 19 Chronicle of Zhou Enlai).15 This chronicle, wengao clearly indicate at the end of most However, one should not exaggerate like Mao Zedong nianpu, covers the period documents that they are printed according to the utility and significance of the historical up to 1949. It offers a day-to-day account of the original texts of the documents. In some documents released in “selected works." The Zhou Enlai's activities, from his early years cases, photocopies of original documents documents that have been included in the to the time of the nationwide victory of the are provided. This practice significantly “selected works” of the 1980s and 1990s are Chinese revolution. The Collection includes increases the reliability and historical value only a small portion of the entire body of complete texts of several important docu- of these publications.
original documents, and the criteria used in ments relating to Zhou Enlai.
Second, in the pre-1980 period, the ed- their selection remain highly dubious. In 9. Deng Xiaoping wenxuan (Selected iting and publication of "selected works” reality, through other sources, we know for Works of Deng Xiaoping, 3 volumes).16 As were generally controlled and conducted by certain that many documents, which in the China's most important leader after Mao's party cadres who always put the party's eyes of the editors have the potential of death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping played a cen- interests over everything else and who had harming the image of the CCP and its leaders tral role in China's “reform and opening to had, at best, only inadequate knowledge of being "generally correct,” have been intenthe outside world” period. This collection China's modern history. In the past decade, tionally excluded from the selections. offers researchers, as well as the general increasing numbers of professional histori- An example of this practice is a telepublic, a window through which to study ans, many of whom have B.A., M.A., gram Mao Zedong sent to Peng Dehuai on Deng Xiaoping's thoughts. The most im- even Ph.D. degrees in modern history, the 28 January 1951. Let me first give some portant volume of this collection is the third history of the Chinese revolution, and mod
history of the Chinese revolution, and mod- background introduction. After Chinese volume, which covers the period from 1982 ern Chinese politics, have joined the edito- troops entered the Korean War in October to 1992, when Deng was indisputably China's rial teams responsible for compiling and 1950, they waged three offensive campaigns paramount leader (although he never as- editing the “selected works.” Although these from late October 1950 to early January sumed that title). Among the documents scholars still must follow the general direc- 1951, driving the American/UN troops from published in the volume is the talk Deng tions of the Party in conducting their work, areas close to the Chinese-Korean border to gave after the 1989 Tiananmen Square trag- their professional training makes them less areas south of the 38th parallel. However, edy, in which Deng explained his reasoning willing than their predecessors to alter the the Chinese forces exhausted their offensive for opening fire on the demonstrators on documents. As a result, the documents se- potential because of heavy casualties, lack Beijing's streets.
lected are of better “quality” and the annota- of air support, and the overextension of