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147, excluding military arsenals (aero-manu- 985 mln. rbls. - weapons shipments for 60 be a certain ratio maintained between fighter facturing enterprises, tank enterprises, ship- divisions; 2,126 mln. rbls. - military-naval jets and reciprocating engine planes. building enterprises). Explains that these shipments; 100 mln. rbls. - caoutchouc; 800 Stalin says that reciprocating engine 147 enterprises are not military, though they mln. rbls. - industrial equipment.

fighter-planes should be gradually retired serve military needs.

Stalin. We will have to give something, and replaced by jets. Fighter jets have a Stalin. We usually build few new en- though the exact amount must be calculated. speed of 800 kilometers. Pilots should be terprises; we try to expand existing ones. We cannot give four billion.

trained on reciprocating engine planes and It's more economical. However, China will Zhou Enlai says that this amount does then transferred to jet planes. Reciprocating have to build new ones, since there aren't not include aviation. They intend to pay cash engine planes should be completely retired enough existing ones. During the war we for aviation.

over the next two years. We will give you converted aero-maintenance shops into aero- Stalin. The question here is not in the new fighters with speeds of 1000-1100 km/ manufacturing plants, and automobile fac- monetary amount, but in whether we will be h. You must not fall behind in this matter. tories into tank factories. We frequently able to produce this much equipment. All Zhou Enlai raises the question of proresorted to inter-enterprise cooperation, pro- that will have to be determined, which will viding China with technical documentation ducing parts in various enterprises and then take some two months.

for the manufacture of the following weapassembling them. China ought to try this Zhou Enlai shifts to the question of ons: 122mm howitzers, 37mm guns and method. It is simpler than building special specialists. Says that beginning with 1953, 67.2mm field guns. factories.

China will need new specialists in the fol- Stalin says that the blueprints can be Zhou Enlai says that during the civil lowing fields: financial and economic mat- provided. war years they also made use of cooperation ters - 190 people, military - 417, medical Zhou Enlai asks whether they should among enterprises in the manufacture of school instructors and others - 140. In addi- immediately begin the construction of tank light weapons, but now they are embarking tion, they will also need specialists for the factories or build automobile and tractor upon the manufacture of heavy weapons, military industry, though this matter is still factories first, and then convert them to tank and that requires creating a base. being studied.

production. Shifts to the question of how to cover Stalin. This will have to be examined: Stalin responds that some sort of a tank the cost of the trade imbalance between the what specialists, in which fields and with manufacturing plant should be built. Such a Soviet Union and China. Says that there are what profiles. We will send some, though plant could be gradually expanded. As for 3 ways to cover this cost: 1) increase Chi- it's difficult to say how many.

automobile factories, you definitely need nese exports to the USSR; 2) receive pay- Have you found the Soviet specialists more of them. ments in foreign currency - dollars, pound currently working in China useful?

Zhou Enlai says that they will redraft sterling, Hong Kong dollars, Swiss francs; Zhou Enlai responds that they are very their five year plan and will seek our advice; 3) credit. Asks which of the three options is useful.

the redrafted materials will be submitted to most acceptable.

Asks whether comrade Stalin has any comrade Molotov. Stalin. Perhaps it will be necessary to remarks to make on the recently submitted Stalin advises to fix the overall growth make use of all three. report.

[rate) at 15%, and at 20% for yearly plans. Zhou Enlai says that they are planning Stalin. The impression is a positive one. Notes that that would be a plan with a reserve to increase exports to the USSR to 13 bln. China is growing. China must become the margin. Points out the importance of giving rubles. We can supply cattle, leather, fur, flagship of Asia. It must in its turn supply the workers a slogan for overfulfilling the wool, silk, mineral resources, and food- other countries with specialists.

plan. Such a plan can be overfulfilled. Says stuffs: beans, fats, tea.

Zhou Enlai notes that the report contains that this is exactly how we draft our plans, Notes that over five years they could a footnote, specifying that in the event the with a certain reserve margin, since there is collect up to 200 mln. American dollars, as war ends, we would like to create an army of a possibility of having unfavorable circumwell as 1.6 bln. British pound sterling, Hong 3,200 thousand people, with 102 divisions. stances. You can't plan for everything. Kong dollars, and Swiss francs.

Stalin. That's good. But that's the mini- Stalin expresses interest in the producStalin. American dollars are preferable. mum. China must be well armed, especially tion of naval mines in the PRC. British pound sterling have limited circula- with air and naval forces.

Zhou Enlai responds that plans for a tion. As for Hong Kong dollars, you should Zhou Enlai. We project on having 150 naval mine factory are being drafted. consult our Ministry of Finance.

air regiments with 13,000 flight personnel. Stalin points out the importance of deThe Soviet Union needs lead, wolfram Stalin. That's too few. You'll have to fending Chinese sea ports. (tungsten), tin, and antimony. We would add some. You should have 200 air regi- Inquires about the situation in Macao. like you to increase the deliveries of these. ments.

Zhou Enlai replies that Macao continNotes that we would also accept lem- Zhou Enlai. Then we will have to in- ues, as before, to be in Portugal's hands. ons, oranges, and pineapples which the So- crease the number of flight personnel.

Stalin says that this scum that has situviet Union buys from other countries.

Stalin. That's right. You will probably ated itself on the very entrance to China must Zhou Enlai says that the loan of 4 bil- have to shift to three-regiment divisions.

. driven out. lion rubles that they would like to receive That's more economical - less division staff. Zhou Enlai says that in their relations from the USSR consists of the following: Zhou Enlai asks whether there needs to with Southeast Asian countries they are




maintaining a strategy of exerting peaceful Chinese troops there.

of a committee with participation of the influence without sending armed forces. He

immediately concerned parties and other offers the example of Burma, where PRC At the end of the discussion a meeting countries, including those which did not has been trying to influence its government was arranged for 4 September, at 9 o'clock take part in the Korean war.” through peaceful means. The same in Tibet. in the evening

He adds that the question of which and Asks whether this is a good strategy.

how many countries should take part in this Stalin. Tibet is a part of China. There Recorded by

A. Vyshinskii committee can be further discussed and demust be Chinese troops deployed in Tibet.

[signature] cided. As for Burma, you should proceed carefully.

N. Fedorenko Regarding the proposal of temporary Zhou Enlai says that the Burmese gov

[signature] withholding of 20% of POWs from each ernment is concealing its true position with

side, and the return of the remaining POWS, regard to China, but is actually maintaining (Source: APRF, f. 45, op. 1, d. 329, II. 75- the Soviet delegation will not involve itself an anti-China policy, orienting itself with 87, translation by Danny Rozas.

with this proposal, which will be left in Mao America and Britain.

Zedong's hands. Stalin. It would be good if there was a

ZHOU ENLAI asks, what is your opinpro-China government in Burma. There are

ion concerning the possibility of the Chinese quite a few scoundrels in the Burmese gov- V. Conversation between Stalin and government entering into a non-aggression ernment, who make themselves out to be Zhou Enlai, 19 September 1952

pact with India and Burma [?] Mao Zedong some sort of statesmen.

thinks such a pact would be expedient. Zhou Enlai explains that Chinese troops

[Classification level blacked-out: STALIN answers that we support comwere deployed in Tibet a year ago, and are

“NOT SECRET” stamped] rade Mao Zedong's opinion. Of course, now at the Indian border. The question of

there are and there will not be any obstacles whether there should be Chinese troops in RECORD OF CONVERSATION here. Tibet is moot.


ZHOU ENLAI asks, is it possible to Emphasizes that maintaining commu


delay the introduction of the second posinication with Tibet is difficult. In order to

19 September 1952

tion, to wait 2-3 weeks[?] communicate with Lhasa one needs 4-motor

STALIN answers that this is Mao transport planes, equipped with oxygen tanks Present: comrs. Molotov, Malenkov, Zedong's business. If Mao Zedong wants, and de-icing devices. Could not the Soviet

Beria, we can introduce in the Assembly the disUnion provide such planes? 2-motor planes

Mikoyan, Bulganin, Vyshinskii. cussion of the second position concerning can go 3/5 of the way, but that's as far as

the percentage of withheld POWs. they'll go.

Li Fuchun, Zhang Wentian, ZHOU ENLAI introduces a question Stalin replies that Soviet Union can

Su Yu, Shi Zhe about the third position - the possibility of assist with this.

transferring POWs to neutral countries so Zhou Enlai. In that case could China STALIN, opening the conversation with that their subsequent fate can be decided request 20 4-motor planes from the USSR? the Mexican proposal concerning the ex- separately. He says that this is talked about

Stalin replies that first we will provide change of POWs, says that we agree with in the international community, and asks 10, and then another 10.

Mao Zedong, that the Mexican proposal is whether comrade Stalin considers it posPoints out the importance of building a not acceptable, since it conforms with sible to support this position. road to Tibet.

America's position at the negotiations in STALIN answers, that we want the reZhou Enlai says that such a road is being Korea. If Mexico comes forward with its turn of all POWs. This also concurs with the built, but that its construction will take up all proposal at the UN, the USSR delegation Chinese position. If an agreement cannot be of next year and part of 1954.

will reject this proposal as not conducive to reached on this basis, we cannot deliver the Stalin notes that without a road it's the cessation of the war in Korea and will POWs to the UN [because the UN is a difficult to maintain the necessary order in strive towards the following:

military participant in the war; he asks, in Tibet. Tibetan Lamas are selling themselves “1. Immediate cessation of military ac- China's opinion, which country will the capto anyone - America, Britain, India - anyone tivities of the involved parties on land, sea tives be sent to[?] who will pay the higher price. and air.

ZHOU ENLAI answers: Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai says that, indeed, the Lamas 2. Return of all POWs to their native entrusted me to say, that we had in mind are hostile. This year (February, March, land in accordance with international stan- India. April) they were planning a rebellion, but dards.

STALIN asks who will be responsible, the Chinese People's Government was able 3. Withdrawal of foreign armies, in- in this case, for the expense of maintaining to suppress the rebels.

cluding the Chinese volunteer units, from POWs. It seems, every involved party? Notes that as a result of this, the Dalai Korea in the course of 2-3 months; a peace- ZHOU ENLAI answers that if the POWs Lama's brother fled abroad.

ful settlement of the Korean issue in the are transferred to India, then after some time Stalin says that a road to Tibet must be spirit of Korean unification, conducted by they will be transferred from India to China, built, and that it is essential to maintain Koreans themselves under the observation and then the Chinese and Korean parties will

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pay for the maintenance of Chinese and observed the debate, but then Britain re- wish the conclusion of a peace agreement Korean POWs.

jected its position and we supported the pro- with China and the Soviet Union. STALIN says that this proposal can be posal regarding the creation of the UN.

STALIN adds—and is preparing for acceptable, but we must keep in mind that ZHOU ENLAI asks whether there will aggression. He underscores that our posithe Americans will not want to deliver all be letters concerning this matter from com- tion was not directed against the Japanese the POWs, that they will keep some cap- rade Stalin to Mao Zedong.

people. tives, with the intention to recruit them. STALIN explains that it will be better ZHOU ENLAI raises the question of This was the case with our POWs. Now we without a letter. He sees that Zhou Enlai is Formosa. He says that since the Japanese are capturing several of our POWs a day, taking notes and he fully trusts him.

government has concluded an agreement who are being sent over by America. They ZHOU ENLAI mentioned the Peace with Jiang Jieshi, it thus has confirmed that are withholding POWs not because, as they Congress in Peking, scheduled in the end of it is ignoring the interests of the Chinese say, the POWs don't want to return - America September, saying that now it will be neces- people. This excludes the possibility of often refers to this - but so that they could sary to move the Congress to the beginning concluding a peace agreement. So long as a use them for spying.

of October. He adds that China is striving for peace agreementexists with Formosa, a peace ZHOU ENLAI concedes that this is the participation of Japan and India in this agreement between the PRC and Japan is not precisely so. Congress.

possible. He introduces the following scenario: STALIN asks if Pakistan will partici- STALIN emphasizes that the note on to cease fire and resolve the issue of POWs pate.

Port Arthur was directed against America later. He reminds that comrade Stalin agreed ZHOU ENLAI agrees that Pakistan and not against the Japanese people. America with this, if no agreement is reached regard- should participate as well and that Pakistan maintains a (naval] fleet around Taiwan and ing the percentage (of POWs) withheld. representatives are invited, but the Pakistan exploits Taiwan. He affirms the correctness

STALIN acknowledges that this can be government is not issuing them passports. of Zhou Enlai's point of view on the imposconsidered as one of possible scenarios, but As for India, a part of the Indian delegation sibility of a peace agreement with Jiang America is not likely to agree to it. has already arrived, and the Japanese delega- Jieshi, and indicates that the fact of the ZHOU ENLAI says that perhaps tion will arrive via Hong-Kong.

signing of an agreement by Japan with Jiang America will suggest this in the Assembly. STALIN says further that we should aim Jieshi only worsens its (Japan's) position.

STALIN. This would be good. for China to have the principal role (in the ZHOU ENLAI asks, what will be the
ZHOU ENLAI says that in the last Congress], because:

further development of events with regard to
discussion comrade Stalin suggested that 1/ the initiative in assembling the Con- Germany [?]
China take initiative in creating a continen- gress belongs to China;

STALIN says that it is difficult to foretal or regional UN. He asks whether there 2/ it will be better this way, because the cast. It seems, America will not support would be any other instructions regarding USSR is only partly located in Asia, and German unification. They plundered Gerthis matter.

China is entirely in Asia, therefore it should many; if the West Germany and East GerSTALIN answers that he continues to have the principal role.

many unite, then it will not be possible to hold his previous point of view. In addition ZHOU ENLAI asks what specific ac- plunder Germany any longer. That is why he says that, besides the current UN, it is tions will be taken by our delegation. America does not want German unification. necessary to create separate organizations STALIN answers: peace.

ZHOU ENLAI says: in his opinion, for Asia, Europe, etc., not in lieu of the UN, ZHOU ENLAI talks about Nehru's pro- even though America is rebuilding the milibut parallel to the UN. Let America create posal concerning the conference of five coun- tary forces of West Germany and Japan, an American organization, Europe - a Euro- tries - the Soviet Union, China, England, hoping to use them, this weapon can turn pean one, Asia - an Asian one, but parallel to France and USA.

against them. the UN, not contrary to the UN.

MOLOTOV explains that this was a STALIN says that it is quite possible, ZHOU ENLAI says that China has no proposal of the Committee of the National even though the German government will be interest in the UN and obviously it is neces- Congress Party.

controlled by nationalists, Hitler's followsary to take initiative in creating a continen- STALIN says, that this proposal should tal organization. be supported.

ZHOU ENLAI shifts to the situation in STALIN emphasizes that UN is an ZHOU ENLAI emphasizes that at such Xinjiang. He says that the work in Xinjiang American organization and we should de- a conference India, it goes without saying, is generally going well and that agricultural stroy it, while keeping up the appearance will speak (in agreement) with England, but, reforms are being instituted there. But, there that we are not against the UN; we should it would seem, that it would be advisable to are also some leftist excesses, which maniconduct this with an appearance of respect utilize this proposal.

fest themselves in unlawful confiscation of to the UN, without saying that it should be STALIN agrees with this.

domestic animals, in the domain of religion, destroyed, weakened, but in reality weaken ZHOU ENLAI says, that in connection and the reduction of interest rates and land it.

with the publication of the note about Port lease. To eliminate these excesses the CC He reminds, that during the war Arthur, the position which the PRC should Plenum was assembled, which released [PLA Churchill suggested to create a continental take with regard to Japan is completely clear. commander] Wang Zhen from the office of UN, but America opposed this. We quietly The PRC should indicate that Japan does not Secretary of Xinjiang CC CPC sub-bureau,

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and a group of CC members was directed to rades want to discuss these issues, then of (Chinese) national bourgeoisie. take care of the excesses. In general discon- course we will have no contradictions, but if MOLOTOV, returning to the question tent was eliminated, and cases of defection, they do not want it, then we will not have to of military credit, the payment for weapons including those to USSR territory, have been discuss anything.

for 60 Chinese divisions, asks whether he halted.

ZHOU ENLAI answers that the Chi- understood Zhou Enlai correctly the last STALIN says, that the excesses resulted nese comrades will definitely want to talk. time, that the cost of deliveries for 60 divifrom the desire to obtain land and domestic STALIN answers that, in this case, we sions is not related to the military credit, animals faster, confiscating both from the shall find the time.

granted by the Soviet government to China rich.

ZHOU ENLAI says that it is possible from 1 February 1951, according to the ZHOU ENLAI notes that as soon as the that the comrades from Vietnam will also agreement. The deliveries of weaponry for rumors about reforms had spread, the hostile arrive.

60 Chinese infantry divisions will be paid in elements began to slaughter domestic ani- STALIN notes that the Vietnamese com- full amount according to the credit, granted mals.

rades are our friends and will be our wel- in a special agreement between China and STALIN notes that similar incidents come guests.

the Soviet Union. took place at a certain time in our experience ZHOU ENLAI, ending the conversion, ZHOU ENLAI answers that comrade as well. It is necessary to hurry up with the says they would like to receive instructions Molotov understood him absolutely correform. If the agricultural reform is not concerning all these issues.

rectly, and again asserts, that the weapon instituted, such looting will continue to oc- STALIN asks - instructions or sugges- supplies for 60 Chinese divisions have to be cur. tions?

paid in full, according to the rates estabZHOU ENLAI explains that the agri- ZHOU ENLAI answers that from com- lished for countries other than China, and cultural reform is being instituted in crop rade Stalin's perspective perhaps this would not in half. farming regions, and redistribution and ex- be advice, but in their perception these would STALIN says that in this case we should cesses connected with it [are occurring) in be instructions.

sign a special agreement. the animal farming regions. Since animal STALIN notes that we give only ad- He mentions the gifts presented to Soherders participated in the redistribution, the vice, convey our opinion, and the Chinese viet representatives by the Chinese governChinese government has decided to improve comrades may accept it or not; instructions, ment, and notes that there have been very their condition, which should improve the on the other hand, are mandatory.

many gifts. general condition as well.

ZHOU ENLAI repeats that from the ZHOU ENLAI explains that they could STALIN says: of course, it is up to you. Chinese perspective these are instructions, not present gifts to comrade Stalin for the

ZHOU ENLAI says that according to most valuable instructions. He notes that 70th anniversary [of Stalin's birth). They the Liu Shaoqi report, two representatives they do not accept these instructions blindly, attended the museum of gifts, saw the gifts from the Indonesian communist party should but consider it necessary to understand and sent by other countries, and they feel they arrive at the XIX [Party) Congress, and he accept them deliberately.

must make up for what they were not able to asks whether it would be timely to discuss STALIN emphasizes that we know do before. party issues in Moscow with them. China too little, and that is why we are STALIN


that we also would like to STALIN says that it is difficult to tell cautious in giving instructions.

present the Chinese delegation automobiles yet. It depends on whether they will address ZHOU ENLAI says that comrade Stalin made in USSR. He says that we have autothe CC. He points out, that when the repre- certainly is well familiar with the particular mobiles “ZIS”, smaller than “ZIM”, but sentatives from the Indian communist party issues they are addressing, and asks again very beautiful, and we would like to present arrived, they asked us to help in determining whether there will be any instructions. you with these “ZIMs.” the party policy, and we had to do it, even Comrade STALIN answers that our Then he mentions the question concernthough we were busy.

advice is this: we should remember, that ing Song Qingling (also Soong Chingling; ZHOU ENLAI reports that the Japa- England and America will try to place their widow of Chinese nationalist Sun Yat-sen nese comrades should arrive as well, and it is people into the apparatus of the Chinese and then Vice Chairperson of the Central likely they will also want to discuss party government. It does not matter if they are People's Government of the PRC). issues.

American or French. They will work to ZHOU ENLAI says that he is working STALIN answers that older brothers undermine, try to cause decay from within, on getting her closer to him, that she is cannot refuse their younger brothers in such could even commit such crimes as poison- gradually shifting from bourgeoisie ideola matter. He says that this should be dis- ings. That is why we must be alert. He says ogy to our side, that she comes out with good cussed with Liu Shaoqi, who has substantial we should keep this in mind. Here - these are articles based on our ideology. She says that experience, and clarified how the Chinese all the instructions.

Song Qingling is very proud of being the comrades perceive it.

ZHOU ENLAI says that these are very winner of the International Stalin Peace ZHOU ENLAI points out that Liu valuable instructions. He agrees that not Award. Shaoqi intends to bring with him appropriate only Americans, English and French can The conversation started at 10:30, ended material, in order to discuss a number of commit such treacheries, but they also push at 12:30. questions.

the Chinese into it. STALIN notes that if the Chinese com- STALIN adds - their agents from the

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Recorded by: [signature] /A. Vyshinskii/

(signature] /N. Fedorenko/

how to solve the treaty problem and offer its opinions.

(Source: APRF, f. 45, op. 1, d. 343, II. 97103; translated by Danny Rozas with Kathryn Weathersby.]

(See Pei Jianzhang et al., Zhonghua renmin gongheguo waijiaoshi (A Diplomatic History of the People's Republic of China] (Beijing: World Affairs Press, 1994), pp.1718.)

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These documents from the Russian Presidential Archives provide significant new insights into the making and development of the Sino-Soviet alliance in 19491950. They usefully complement the account contained in the memoirs of Shi Zhe, Mao Zedong's Russian language interpreter, who has been one of the main sources of our knowledge about the relationship between Beijing and Moscow during the early Cold War period. (See Shi Zhe, Zai lishi juren shenbian: Shi Zhe huiyilu [Together with Historical Giants: Shi Zhe's Memoirs] (Beijing: The Central Press of Historical Documents, 1992).) As the translator of Shi Zhe's memoirs, I am deeply impressed by the richness of the information in these documents. I am also surprised, in spite of some discrepancies, by the extent to which Russian and Chinese materials (including Shi Zhe's memoirs and other sources) are in accord. I will therefore focus my comments on comparing Chinese and Russian sources on the same events as reflected in these documents.

Let me start with the meeting between Mao and Stalin on 16 December 1949. The Russian minutes of the meeting are highly compatible with, but more detailed than, Mao Zedong's own summary of the meeting in his telegram to Liu Shaoqi on 18 December. Mao's telegram reads as follows:

the treaty, loans, Taiwan, and the publication of my selected works.

(2) Stalin said that the Americans are afraid of war. The Americans ask other countries to fight the war (for them), but other countries are also afraid of fighting a war. According to him, it is unlikely that a war will break out, and we agree with his opinions.

(3) With regard to the question of the treaty, Stalin said that because of the Yalta agreement, it is improper for us to overturn the legitimacy of the old Chinese-Soviet treaty. If we are to abolish the old treaty and to sign a new treaty, the status of the Kurile Islands will be changed, and the United States will have an excuse to take away the Kurile Islands. Therefore, on the question of the Soviet Union's thirty-year lease of Lushun [Port Arthur), we should not change it in format; however, in reality, the Soviet Union will withdraw its troops from Lushun and will let Chinese troops occupy it. Iexpressed (the view] that too early a withdrawal (of the Soviet troops from Lushun) will create unfavorable conditions for us. He replied that the Soviet withdrawal of troops (from Lushun] does not mean that the Soviet Union will stand by with folded arms (in a crisis); rather, it is possible to find ways through which China will not become the first to bear the brunt. His opinion is that we may sign a statement, which will solve the Lushun problem in accordance with the above-mentioned ideas, and that by doing so, China will also gain political capital (zhengzhi ziben). I said that it is necessary for us to maintain the legitimacy of the Yalta agreement. However, the public opinion in China believes that as the old treaty was signed by the Guomindang, it has lost its standing with the Guomindang's downfall. He replied that the old treaty needs to be revised, and that the revision is necessarily substantial, but it will not come until two years from now.

(4) Stalin said that it is unnecessary for the Foreign Minister (Zhou Enlai] to fly here just for signing a statement. I told him that I will consider it. I hope that the commercial, loan and aviation agreements will be signed at the same time, and Premier [Zhou Enlai) should come. It is hoped that the Politburo will discuss

As far as the meeting between Mao Zedong and Stalin on 22 January 1950 is concerned, the Russian minutes are also compatible with the information provided by Shi Zhe's memoirs. Shi Zhe relates that Mao Zedong and Stalin discussed the principles underlying the new Chinese-Soviet treaty at this meeting. Mao emphasized that the treaty should serve to increase the political, military, economic, cultural, and diplomatic cooperation between China and the Soviet Union, while at the same time paying special attention to the prevention of a reemergence of Japanese militarism. On the China Eastern Railway issue, Shi Zhe recalls that Mao agreed not to change its joint administration structure, but proposed that its administrative head be Chinese and that China's investment in it should be increased from parity to fifty-one percent. However, the Soviets desired to retain a 50:50 ratio between Chinese and Soviet investments. On the issue of Port Arthur (Luda), Mao and Stalin agreed to establish a deadline for the withdrawal of Soviet troops to begin after the signing of a peace treaty with Japan. On the issue of Dairen (Dalian), Stalin claimed that the Soviets had no intention to retain rights there and that the Chinese should feel free to manage the city. Shi Zhe also mentioned that Mao and Stalin discussed issues concerning Sinkiang (Xinjiang) and Manchuria, but some "unpleasant feelings” emerged on the Chinese side because the Chinese leaders believed that these issues were their internal affairs. (Shi Zhe, Zailishi juren shenbian, pp. 445-446.) One finds a similar record of the discussion of these issues in the Russian minutes.

Shi Zhe also covers in his memoirs Zhou Enlai's visit to the Soviet Union in August and September 1952, describing in detail Zhou's meetings with Stalin on 20 August and 3 September. Shi Zhe recalls that at the first meeting Zhou Enlai explained to Stalin the Chinese leadership’s assessment of the international situation in general and the Korean War situation in

(1) [I] arrived in Moscow on the 16th, and met with Stalin for two hours at 10 p.m. (Beijing time). His attitude was really sincere. The questions involved include the prospect of peace,

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