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vention in China's internal affairs, and with- Standing Committee meeting on 4 October. one more time about this particular matter. drawing all American armed forces from Zhou gave the editorial his final check and Then we wrote another editorial to re-critiTaiwan and Penghu). Chairman Mao asked approval. Its main content was our critiques cize the Dulles-Jiang meeting. me to finish my writing that evening. He and refusal of an American request for a Chairman Mao also said at the Politwas going to wait to read and check the cease-fire on the Jinmen-Mazu front. The buro Standing Committee meeting that there article that night. Mao told me that I could editorial clearly stated that there was no war were many problems in the relationship beleave right now to write the article without between China and America, so where did tween America and Jiang. The Americans waiting for the end of the meeting.

the cease-fire come from? It asked America wanted to make Jiang's "Republic of China" Leaving Zhongnanhai, I rushed back to to withdraw all of its naval and air forces one of their dependencies or even a manthe People's Daily's building. After order- from Taiwan and surrounding areas around dated territory. But Jiang desperately sought ing a dish of fried noodles as my dinner from the Taiwan Straits. It was a perfect timing for to maintain his semi-independence. Thus a restaurant across the street, I began to draft this editorial, corresponding to the “Defense came conflicts between Jiang and America. the editorial hurriedly in my office. With Ministry's Order,” which was issued on 13 Jiang Jieshi and his son Jiang Jingguo [Chiang

( Chairman Mao's instruction, my writing October and drafted by Chairman Mao. In Ching-kuo] still had a little bit of anti-Ameriwas very smooth and fast. A little bit after that order, the Defense Ministry announced can initiative. They would resist America if the midnight, I finished my draft. It was two a continuation of the suspension of our bom- it drove them too hard. Among such cases in or three o'clock in the early morning of the bardment for two more weeks. The suspen- the past were Jiang's condemnation of Hu 9th when the final proof of the article was sion, however, still contained the precondi- Shi (Hu Shih] 7 and his dismissal of General sent to Chairman Mao for checking and tion that no American ships could be escorts. Sun Liren18actions taken because Jiang approval. Mao read the editorial early the We would resume shelling immediately if believed that the troublemakers against him same morning and made important changes there were any American escort vessels. were supported by the Americans. Another in its last paragraph. He re-wrote the para- Two days later, Eisenhower ordered all good example of Jiang's independence was graph as follows: “Seemingly, the problem the warships from the Sixth Fleet which had the recent smashing and looting of the Ameristill needs to have more tests and observa- been sent as reinforcements to the Pacific to can Embassy in Taipei by Taiwanese tions. We are still very far away from the return to the Mediterranean. He also sent masses. 19 Jiang permitted American armed time of solving the problem. After all, the Dulles to Taiwan to confer with Jiang Jieshi. forces stationed in Taiwan only at the regiimperialists are the imperialists, and the The Editorial Department of the People's mental level, while rejecting larger units at reactionaries are the reactionaries. Let us Daily, without really knowing what was go- the divisional level which America had wait and see how they will make their ing on, wrote an editorial entitled “Having planned to send to Taiwan. After our shellmoves!" Chairman Mao noted his approval Only Themselves to Blame," saying that ing of Jinmen began, Jiang allowed only on the final proof: “Not very good, barely Dulles and Jiang played a “two-man show." 3,000 more American marines to reinforce publishable." The time written down below After the editorial was published on 21 Octo- Taiwan and they were stationed in Tainan sa his signature was six o'clock of 9 October. ber, Premier Zhou called us during the same city in southern Taiwan). As Chairman Mao

I received my manuscript sent back by morning and gave a pungent criticism that had pointed out two days earlier, we and Chairman Mao on the morning of 9 Octo- we were neither consistent with the facts nor Jiang Jieshi had some common points. The ber. Meanwhile, I received a telephone call with the policy made by the Central Commit- conflict at the Dulles-Jiang meeting sugfrom Mao's secretary, Lin Ke. Lin told me tee. When Chairman Mao chaired a Polit- gested that we might be able to ally with that Chairman Mao wanted to include buro Standing Committee meeting that after

buro Standing Committee meeting that after- Jiang to resist America in a certain way. Our Dulles's 8 October announcement of Ameri- noon, he also criticized our editorial as book- policy of not liberating Taiwan in the near can ships stopping their escorts in the edito- ish and naive, reeling and swaggering, which future might help Jiang relax and concenrial. Mao also suggested postponing its had a one-sided understanding of the Central

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trate on his fight against America's control. publication for one day. After reading Mao's Committee's policy and gave an inappropri

Committee's policy and gave an inappropri- We neither landed on Jinmen nor agreed revision and corrections, I felt that the ate emphasis to the American-Jiang solidar- with the American proposal for a “ceaseeditorial's title was not a very bold headline. ity. Chairman Mao believed that Dulles's fire.” This clearly caused problems between So, according to the changes he made in the mission to Taiwan was to persuade Jiang Americans and Jiang. In the past months, last paragraph, I changed the title to “Let's Jieshi to withdraw his troops from Jinmen- our policy had been one of shelling without See How They Make Their Moves.” After Mazu in exchange for our commitment not to landing and blockading without driving the editorial was published on 11 October, it liberate Taiwan so that America could gain a Jiang's troops to the wall. While continuing was thought to be Chairman Mao's writing total control of Taiwan's future. Disagree

total control of Taiwan's future. Disagree- the same policy, we should from now on because of its striking title and special style ing with Dulles, however, Jiang demanded implement it more flexibly in favor of supclose to that of the “Message to the Compa- that America commit to a “mutual defense” porting Jiang Jieshi to resist America's contriots in Taiwan."

of Jinmen-Mazu. Jiang and Dulles had a big trol. Two days later, the People's Daily pub- argument in which nobody gave in to the All the participants at the meeting agreed lished another editorial, “Stop Talking about other. As a result, the meeting ended in with Chairman Mao's ideas. Premier Zhou Cease-fire; To Leave Is the Best," on 13 discord and was not a “two-men show” of added that “shelling” was coordinated with October. This editorial was based upon solidarity. After the Politburo meeting, Chair- “blockading." Since we relaxed our “blockPremier Zhou's opinion at the Politburo man Mao asked Premier Zhou to talk to me ading," we might also need to relax our

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"shelling." Mao agreed with him by sug- sovereignty, you will eventually have no gesting that we should announce an odd place to call your home and be thrown out 1. Notation, Mao Zedong on Chen Geng's numbered-day shelling, with no shelling on into the sea.” The message announced that Report, 18 December 195722 even-numbered days. For the odd-num- we had already ordered PLA batteries on the Source: Mao Zedong junshi wenji (A Colbered-day shelling, our targets might be lim- Fujian front not to fire on the airport, har- lection of Mao Zedong's Military Papers) ited only to the harbors and airport, not the bors, ships, and beaches of Jinmen on even (Beijing: Military Science Press, 1993), defense works and residential buildings on days. On odd days, we might not bomb 6:373 the island. From now on, our shelling would either, as long as there were no ships or be limited in scope, and, moreover, the light airplanes coming to Jinmen.

Return to Comrade Peng Dehuai: shelling might not be on a regular basis. The same day the statement was issued, [What has been suggested in the report) Militarily it sounded like a joke, since such Chairman Mao sent for Tian Jiaying20 and is absolutely necessary. You should superpolicy was unknown in the history of Chi- me for a conversation. Besides asking us to vise and push the air force to go all out (to nese or world warfare. However, we were make a survey of the current condition of fulfill the task), so that we are sure that the engaged in a political battle, which was people's communes in Henan Province, Mao invading enemy will be annihilated. Please supposed to be fought this way. Chairman talked about the bombardment of Jinmen consider the question regarding our air force's Mao said that we only had “hand grenades” and Mazu. He said that during this event moving into Fujian in 1958. right now, but no atomic bombs. “Hand both we and the Americans adopted a grenades” could be successful for us to use brinkmanship policy. America concentrated 2. Letter, Mao Zedong to Peng Dehuai in beating Jiang's troops on Jin[men)-Ma[zu), many warships which invaded our territorial and Huang Kecheng, 27 July 195823 but not a good idea to use in fighting against waters and escorted Jiang's transportation Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao Americans, who had nuclear weapons. Later, fleets, but never fired on us. We fired 10,000 (Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the Forwhen everybody had nuclear weapons, very or 20,000 shells a day, or even more when- mation of the People's Republic) (Beijing: likely nobody would use them.

ever there were American escort ships. Our The Central Press of Historical Documents, Comrades [Liu] Shaoqi and (Deng] shells, however, fell only on Jiang's ships 1992), 7:326 Xiaoping wondered at the end of the meeting not on American ships. Some shells fell near whether we should issue a formal statement American ships, which frightened them and Comrades (Peng] Dehuai and (Huang] announcing future shelling on odd days only caused them to turn around. While confront- Kecheng: but not on even days. Chairman Mao be- ing each other in the Taiwan Straits, both [I) could not sleep [last night), but lieved it necessary. He also required me to sides continued talks in Warsaw. Ameri- thought about it again. It seems more approunderstand that the editorial mentioned early cans were on one side of the brink, and we on priate to hold our (plans) to attack Jinmen for in the meeting should not be published until the other. Even though both were at the several days. While holding our operations, our formal statement was issued.

brink of war, no one ever crossed the line. [we will] observe the situational developOn 25 October, the “Second Message to We used our brinkmanship policy to deal ment there. We will not attack whether or the Compatriots in Taiwan" drafted by Chair- with American brinkmanship. Mao contin- not the other side relieves a garrison. Until man Mao was issued in the name of Defense ued that there were many stories written in they launch a provocative attack, (we will]

a Minister Peng Dehuai. A result of the analy- Liaozhai Zhiyi (The Chinese Ghost Sto- then respond with a counterattack. The sis of Dulles's speech published by the U.S. ries)21 about people without fear of ghosts.

ries)21 about people without fear of ghosts. solution of the problem in the Middle East State Department on 23 October, the mes- One of the stories was titled "Qing Feng," takes time. Since we have time, why should sage pointed out that on the one hand Dulles which talked about a bohemian scholar we be in a big hurry? We will hold our attack finally saw a "Communist China" and was named Geng Qubing. One night, Geng was plans now, but one day we will put it into willing to make contact with it. On the other reading late in a remote village house. “A implementation. If the other side invades hand, however, this American bureaucrat ghost walks into his house with long hair and Zhang[zhou), Shan(tou), Fuzhou, and

)[ still considered the so-called "Republic of black face, and stares at the scholar. Laugh- Hangzhou, a best scenario [for us to take China" in Taiwan as a “political unit which ing, dipping his fingers into the black ink, action] would emerge. How do you think was factually existing.” The American plan and painting his face black himself, Geng about this idea? Could you have a discuswas first to separate Taiwan from the main- looked directly at the ghost with keen, spar- sion about this with other comrades? It is land, and second to mandate Taiwan's spe- kling eyes. The ghost felt embarrassed and extremely beneficial [for our decision-makcial status. The message read, “China's ran away." Chairman Mao told us that if we ing) with politics in command and going affairs must be handled by the Chinese them- were not afraid of ghosts, ghosts would be through repeated deliberations. To make a selves. For any problem unable to be solved unable to do anything to us. He said that our plan too quickly usually results in an unat once, we can give it further thought and experience in shelling Jinmen-Mazu was the thoughtful consideration. I did such things discuss it later between us. ... We are not case in point.

quite often and sometimes had unavoidable advising you to break up with Americans I can say that what Chairman Mao told miscalculations. What is your opinion? Even right now. These sort of ideas are not prac- us here is his summary of our management if the other side attacks us, (we still]can wait tical. We simply hope that you should not of the Jinmen-Mazu crisis of 1958.

for a couple of days for a clear calculation, yield to the pressure from Americans. If you

and then start our counterattack. Can all of live under somebody's thumb and lose your Part II. Documents

the above points be accounted as working out splendid plans here to defeat the enemy ing.

situation for one, two, three, or four years by in battles a thousand miles away, and having

using this point. You will eventually find some certainty of success that we will be Part II

out whether the West fears the East a bit ever-victorious? We must persist in the Distribute them to the Fujian Military Dis- more, or the East fears the West a bit more. principle of fighting no battle we are not trict and all other military districts; the party According to my opinion, it is Dulles who sure of winning. If you agree (with the committees of all provinces, metropolises,

committees of all provinces, metropolises, fears us more. Britain, America, Germany, above points), telegraph this letter to Ye Fei and regions; all departments of the Central France, and other western countries fear us a and ask him to think about it very carefully. Military Commission and all special forces lot more. Why do they have more fears? Let me know his opinion.

headquarters; all members of the Politburo This is an issue of strength, and an issue of Have a peaceful morning!

and the Secretariat of the Central Commit- popularity. Public attitude is indeed strength.

tee; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Lu There are more people on our side, and fewer Mao Zedong Dingyi;29 and Wu Lengxi.

on their side. Among the three doctrines (in 10 A.M., 27 July24

today's world]—communism, nationalism, 5. Speech, Mao Zedong at the Fifteenth and imperialism, communism and national3. Instruction, Mao Zedong to Peng Meeting of the Supreme State Council, 5 ism are relatively closer. Nationalism domiDehuai, 18 August 1958, 1:00 a.m.25 September 1958 (Excerpt)

nates a large part of the world, including the Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, Source: Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan (Se- three continents: Asia, Africa, and Latin 7:348

lected Diplomatic Papers of Mao Zedong] America. Even though the ruling groups of

(Beijing: The Central Press of Historical some countries in these continents are proComrade (Peng] Dehuai: Documents, 1994), 341-348

West, such as those in Thailand, Pakistan, [We are] preparing to shell Jinmen,

the Philippines, Japan, Turkey, and Iran, dealing with Jiang (Jieshi] directly and the As far as the international situation is among the people in these countries many, Americans indirectly. Therefore, do not concerned, our view has always been opti- probably quite a few, are pro-East. Only the conduct military maneuvers in Guangdong mistic, which can be summarized as "the monopoly-capitalists and a few people who

a and Shengzhen, so that the British would East Wind prevails over the West Wind.” have been totally poisoned by the monopolynot be scared.

At present, America commits itself to an capitalists want a war. Except for them, the

"all-round contract" policy along our coast. rest of the people, or the majority of the Mao Zedong

It seems to me that the Americans will only people (not all of them) do not want a war. In 1 A.M., 18 August

feel comfortable if they take complete re- northern European countries, for example,

sponsibility for Jinmen and Mazu, or even the ruling classes, though belonging to the P.S.: Please call air force headquarters for such small islands as Dadan, Erdan, and capitalists, do not want a war. The balance attention to the possibility that the Taiwan Dongding. America gets into our noose. of strength is like this. The truth is in the side might counterattack us by dispatching Thereby, America's neck is hanging in hands of the majority of the people, not in the large groups of air force (such as dozens, or China's iron noose. Although Taiwan is (for hands of Dulles. As a result, while they feel even over one hundred, airplanes) to try to the Americans] another noose, it is a bit rather diffident, we are solid and dependable

, take back air control over Jin[men) and farther from [the mainland). America now inside. We depend on the people, while they Ma(zu). If this happens, we should prepare moves its head closer to us, since it wants to support those reactionary rulers. This is to use large groups of air force to defeat take responsibility for Jinmen and other is- what Dulles is doing right now. He specialthem immediately. However, in chasing lands. Someday we will kick America, and izes in such people as “Generalissimo Jiang," them, (our planes) should not cross the it cannot run away, because it is tied up by (South Korean leader] Syngman Rhee, and space line over Jinmen and Mazu.26

[South Vietnam leader] Ngo Dinh Diem.

I would like to present some viewpoints, My viewpoint is that both sides are afraid (of 4. Instruction, Mao Zedong to Huang offering some ideas for the participants at each other], but they fear us a bit more. Kecheng, 3 September 195827

this meeting. Do not treat them as a decision, Thus, it is impossible for a war to break out. Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, or some kind of law. As law, they might not The second question is what is the na7:376

be changed; as opinions, they are alive and ture of the international military alliances

flexible. Let us use these points to review organized by the Americans and the other Part I

and analyze the current international situa- imperialists, such as the North Atlantic Comrade (Huang) Kecheng: tion.

[Treaty Organization), the Baghdad [Treaty Both the instruction and the appendix 28 The first question is who fears whom a Organization), and the Manila (Treaty Orgaare well written. Please send them to Com- bit more. I believe that the Americans are nization).30 We say that they are of an agrade Peng Dehuai immediately for his read- afraid of fighting a war. So are we. But the gressive nature. It is absolutely true that ing. Then, they should be approved by the question is which side actually fears the other these military organizations are of an agCentral Military Commission's meeting and a bit more. This is my point, as well as my gressive nature. However, against which issued thereafter. Please give a detailed observation. I would like to invite every- side do these organizations direct their spearexplanation of the reasons (for these docu- body here to apply this point to your observa- head? Are they attacking socialism, or naments) at the Military Commission's meet- tion from now on. You can observe the tionalism? It seems to me that they are

our noose.

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currently attacking the nationalist countries, in the world. Probably the Philippines can trouble with Britain and America. Domestisuch as Egypt, Lebanon, and the other weak be added to the list, but it offers only “con- cally, he would become a necessary teacher countries in the Middle East. But they will ditional support.” It is a tense situation, for who can educate the French proletarians, attack the socialist countries until, say, when example, that caused the Iraqi revolution, is just like “Generalissimo Jiang” in China. Hungary completely has failed, Poland has it not? The current tense situation is caused Without "Generalissimo Jiang," it would collapsed, Czechoslovakia and East Ger- by the imperialists themselves, not by us. In not be enough for the Chinese Communist many have fallen down, and even the Soviet the final analysis, however, the tense situa- Party's positive education alone to educate Union and us have encountered troubles. tion is more harmful for the imperialists. [China's) 600 million people. Currently, de They will attack us when we are shaking and Lenin once introduced this point in his dis- Gaulle is still enjoying his reputation. If you crumbling. Why should they fail to attack cussions about war. Lenin said that a war defeat him now, people are still missing him you when you are falling down? Stable and could motivate people's spiritual condition, as he is still alive. Let him come to power, strong, we are not falling down now, and making it tense. Although there is no war he will run no more than five, six, seven, they are unable to bite the hard bone. So they right now, a tense situation caused by the eight, or ten years. He will be finished turn to those more bitable countries, gnaw- current military confrontation can also bring sooner or later. After he is finished, no ing at Indonesia, India, Burma, and Ceylon. every positive factor into play, while at the second de Gaulle will be there and his poison They have attempted to overthrow (Gamal same time stimulating groups of backward will be completely released. You must alAbdul] Nasser,31 undermine Iraq, and sub- people to think.

low his poison to be released, just like that jugate Algeria. By now Latin America has The fourth point is about the issue of we did to our Rightists.32 You have to let made a significant progress. As (U.S.) vice withdrawing armed forces from the Middle him release the poison. If not, he always has president, [Richard) Nixon was not wel- East. American and British troops of ag- the poison. You can eliminate the poison comed in eight countries, where people spat gression must withdraw. The imperialists only after he releases it. and stoned him. When the political repre- now refuse to withdraw and intend to stay The sixth point is the embargo, that is, sentative of America was treated with saliva there. This is disadvantageous for the people, no trade with us. Is this advantageous or and rocks there, it means contempt for but it will at the same time educate the disadvantageous to us? I believe that the America's "dignity,” and an unwillingness people. In order to fight against aggressors, embargo benefits us a lot. We do not feel it to treat it “politely.” Because you are our you need to have a target; without a target, it (to be] disadvantageous at all. It will have

[ enemy, we therefore treat you with saliva is difficult for you to fight against the ag- tremendous beneficial impact on our shanand rocks. Thus, we should not take the gressors. The imperialists now come up dling of} clothing, food, housing, and transthree military organizations too seriously. there themselves to become the target, and portation, as well as on our reconstruction (We) need to analyze them. Even though refuse to leave. This arouses the people of (including the production of steel and iron). aggressive, they are not steady.

the entire world to fight against the Ameri- The embargo forces us to work out all the The third point is about the tension in can aggressors. After all, it seems to me that solutions ourselves. My appreciation goes the international situation. We are calling it is not so harmful for the people when the to He Yingqin33 all the time. In 1937 when every day for relaxing international tensions

aggressors put off their withdrawal. Thereby our Red Army was re-organized into the because it will benefit the people of the the people will yell at the aggressors every- Eighth Route Army under the Nationalist world. So, can we say that it must be harmful day: why do you not leave (our country]? Revolution Army, we received 400,000 yuan for us whenever there is a tense situation? I The fifth question is whether it is a good of fabi every month. After we were paid the

a do not think it necessarily so. A tense thing or bad thing to have (Charles) de money, we became dependent on it. In 1940, situation is not necessarily harmful for us in Gaulle in power. At present, the French however, the anti-Communist movement every circumstance; it has an advantageous Communist Party and the French people reached its peak, and the payment stopped. side. Why do I think this way? It is because should firmly oppose de Gaulle coming to No more money was paid [to us). We had to besides its disadvantageous side, a tense power, and veto his constitution. Mean- find out our own means [to support oursituation can mobilize the population, can while, they should also be prepared for the selves) from then on. What did we find out? particularly mobilize the backward people, struggle after he takes office in case they We issued an order that as there was no more can mobilize the people in the middle, and cannot stop him. Once in power, de Gaulle fabi, each regiment had to find out its own can therefore promote the Great Leap For- will oppress the French Communist Party way of self-support. Thereafter, all (of our] ward in economic construction. Afraid of and the French people. His taking office, base areas launched a production movefighting a nuclear war? You have to think it however, may also have advantageous ef- ment. The value yielded from the producover. Look, we have fired a few shells on fects in both domestic and foreign affairs. tion reached not 400,000, not 4 million, even Jinmen and Mazu, and I did not expect that Internationally, this person likes to make not 40 million yuan, but about 100 or possithe entire world would be so deeply shocked, trouble for Britain and America. He likes to bly 200 million yuan, if we combined the and the smoke and mist is shading the sky. argue. He had some miserable experiences production of all the base areas together. We This is because people are afraid of war. in the past. In his memoirs, de Gaulle have since relied on our own efforts. Who is They are afraid that the Americans will blamed Britain and America all the time, but today's He Yingqin? It is Dulles, a different make trouble everywhere in the world. Ex- said some nice words about the Soviet Union. name. Currently, they are carrying out an cept for Syngman Rhee, no second country It seems to me that he will make trouble embargo. We are going own way. We have supports America among so many countries again. It is advantageous when France has initiated the Great Leap Forward, throwing away dependence and breaking down blind universe, I do not see any reason to be pessi- have talked about before. About the noose faith. The result is good.

mistic about the future. I had a debate with issue we discussed at the last meeting, did The seventh is the non-recognition is- Premier [Jawarharlal] Nehru34 over this is- we not? Now I want to say that we need to sue. Is (imperialist countries') recognition sue. He said that (as the result of a nuclear place nooses on Dulles, Eisenhower, and (of the PRC) or non-recognition relatively war] no government could remain and every other warmongers. There are many places more advantageous to us? Same as on the thing would be destroyed. Even though

thing would be destroyed. Even though where the nooses can be used on the Ameriembargo issue, imperialist countries' non- someone might want to seek peace, no gov- cans. In my opinion, wherever an (Amerirecognition of us is more advantageous to us ernment would be there. I told him that it can) military base is located, [America) is than their recognition of us. So far there are would never be like that. If your government tied up by a noose. (This happens), for exabout forty some countries which refuse to would be eliminated by atomic bombs, the ample, in the East, in South Korea, Japan, recognize us. The main reason lies in people would form another one which could the Philippines, and Taiwan; in the West, in America. For instance, France intends to work out a peace. If you fail to think about West Germany, France, Italy, and Britain; in recognize China, but it does not dare to do it things in such extreme terms, how can you the Middle East, in Turkey and Iran; and in because of America's opposition. Many ever sleep? This is no more than a matter of Africa, in Morocco and other places. In each other countries in Central and South people being killed, and [what is reflected of these countries, America has many miliAmerica, Asia, Africa, and Europe, and here) is the fear of fighting a war. But if the tary bases. For instance, in Turkey there are Canada, dare not to recognize us because of imperialists definitely want to fight a war more than twenty American military bases, America. There are only nineteen capitalist and attack us first, using atomic bombs, it and it is said that in Japan there are about countries which recognize us now, plus an- does not matter whether you fear fighting a 800. In some other countries, although there other eleven countries in the socialist camp, war or not; in any case they will attack you. is no [American] military base, they are plus Yugoslavia, totaling thirty-one coun- If that were the case, what should be our occupied by the troops (of the imperialists). tries. It seems to me that we can live with attitude? Is it better to fear or not to fear? It For example, American troops in Lebanon this small number. Non-recognition (of us), is extremely dangerous (for us to fear this and British troops in Jordan. in my opinion, is not a bad thing. Rather, it and fear that every day, which will make our Here I am focusing on two of these is relatively good. Let us produce more cadres and people feel discouraged. So I nooses: one is Lebanon, the other is Taiwan. steel. When we can produce 600 or 700 believe that (we) should be case-hardened Taiwan is an old noose since America has million tons of steel, they will recognize us toward fighting a war. We will fight it if we occupied it for several years. Who ties at last. They may still refuse to recognize us have to. We will rebuild our country after the America there? The People's Republic of by then, but who cares?

war. Therefore, we are now mobilizing the China ties it there. 600 million Chinese have The last issue is about preparations for militias. All people's communes should a noose in their hands. This is a steel noose an anti-aggression war. I said in my first organize their militias. Everyone in our and it ties America's neck. Who tied point that as both sides are afraid of war, war country is a soldier. We should arm the America? The noose was made by America should not break out. Everything in the people. We can distribute several million itself and tied by itself, and it throws the world, however, needs a safety factor. Since guns at the beginning. Later on we will other end of the noose to mainland China, there exists a monopoly-capitalist class in distribute several dozen million guns among letting us grasp it. (America] was tied in the world, I am afraid that it will make the people. All provinces should be able to Lebanon only recently, but the noose was trouble recklessly and abruptly. We must construct light weapons, including rifles, also made by America itself, tied by itself, therefore be prepared to fight a war. This machine guns, hand grenades, small mortars, and the other end of the noose was thrown point needs to be explained clearly to our and light mortars. Each people's commune into the hands of Arab nations. Not only so, cadres. First, we do not want a war, and we should have a military office to supervise America also throws the [other end of the) oppose any war. So does the Soviet Union. [combat) training. Some of our participants noose into the hands of the majority of the If war comes, it will be started by the other here today are intellectuals. You need to people in the world. Everyone condemns side and we will be forced to enter the make a call for holding a pen in one hand and America, and no one gives it any sympathy. fighting. Second, however, we do not fear gripping a gun in the other. You cannot only The noose is held by the people and governfighting a war. We must fight it if we have have pens in your hands. You should be ments in many countries. In the Middle to. We have only grenades and potatoes in culturalized as well as militarized.

East, for example, the UN held meetings (on our hands right now. A war of atomic and These eight points are my opinions. I the Lebanon issue), but (America's] main hydrogen bombs is of course terrible since offer them to you for your observation of the problem is that it has been tied by the Arab many people will die. That is why we international situation.

people and cannot escape. At present, oppose a war. Unfortunately, the decision

America is caught in a dilemma—is it better will not be made by us. If the imperialists 6. Speech, Mao Zedong at the Fifteenth to withdraw earlier or later? If an early decide to fight a war, we have to be prepared Meeting of the Supreme State Council, 8 withdrawal, why did it come in the first for everything. We must fight a war if we September 1958 (Excerpt)

place? If a late withdrawal, [the noose) will have to. I am saying that it is not so terrify. Source: Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan, 348- be getting tighter and tighter, and will being even if half of our population perishes. 352

come an encased knot. How can this be This is certainly talk in extreme terms.

handled? Lebanon is different from Taiwan Thinking about the history of the entire I am going to discuss something we with which America has signed a treaty. The

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