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their reading and checking. Everything is ready on the

KHRUSHCHEV'S NUCLEAR PROMISE year later, in the autumn of 1959. Xiamen front. Our order (for the shelling) has already

continued from page 219 been issued (to the front separately by telephone and in writing which was signed by (Huang) Kecheng. The

Chinese leadership developing their own order limits shelling to fortifications, defense works, and beachhead boats on the Jinmen islands. No shellschool of brinkmanship that threatened to

From the CC CPSU's letter to the ing of civilian villages, garris camps, and command draw the USSR into a conflict with the United

Central Committee of the CPC About headquarters is allowed, particularly no shelling of any States. Yet, there is no reason to believe that

the USSR's Readiness to Provide American ships. Our air and naval forces will make no

Khrushchev, the real authority behind the movement at this time. The Defense Ministry's order

Assistance to the PRC in the Event of will be broadcast at 3:00 (p.m.) in Chinese and foreign Soviet letter, was dismayed by the Chinese

an Attack on It From the side of the languages at the same time. As soon as the reading of position (though he may well have been

USA or Japan, 27 September 1958 the order is finished, (our batteries) will open fire.” miffed that Mao failed to tip him off during (Source: Jiangguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, 7:466

his summit in Beijing only a few weeks 467.)

... Comrade Gromyko informed us about before the PRC opened the crisis by shelling his conversation with Comrade Zhou Enlai 58. The italics are Mao's. 59. Mao Zedong drafted this message for broadcast. the offshore islands on August 23).

which took place in Peking on 7 September. 60. Huan Xiang was Chinese chargé d'affaires in Khrushchev, it appears, actually supported Comrade Zhou Enlai said that in the considBritain. On 18 November 1958, he wrote a report to the

nuclear brinkmanship as a means of achievChinese foreign ministry. Mao Zedong entitled the

eration of the situation in the Taiwan region report "Huang Xiang on the Division within the Westing China's reunification, provided that the

the Politburo of the Central Committee of ern World.” The main points of the report were as policy was fully coordinated with the Krem

the Communist Party of China proceeded follows: The two-year long British-French negotiation lin.5 He therefore took the Chinese position,

from the fact that should the USA start a war to establish a free trade zone in Western Europe had

reported to him in an urgent cable from recently failed, and a trade war between imperialist

against the People's Republic of China and countries had started. The British plans to divide West Gromyko, as an indication that the Chinese

in this event uses tactical nuclear weapons, Germany and France, neutralize Belgium and Holland, leaders had begun to put their national inter

then the Soviet Union will make a stern and sabotage the European Common Market had failed.

ests above the common interests of the “enIn an economic sense, this was not a big failure for

warning to the USA but will not take part in Britain. In a diplomatic sense, however, this was the tire Socialist camp." This effective unilat

the war. Only in the event that the United first serious failure Britain had suffered in its diploeral Chinese revision of the Treaty signified

States uses large yield nuclear weapons, and macy toward West Europe. Now Britain faced two an implicit challenge to the unity of the

in this way risks widening the war, will the important choices: it could take retaliatory measures communist bloc under Kremlin leadership Soviet Union make a retaliatory strike with and thus destroy the political and economic coopera

and was therefore anathema to Soviet leaders tions between European countries, or it could return to

nuclear weapons. negotiations, searching for the basis of a temporary on both political and ideological grounds.

We carefully considered this issue and compromise. It seemed that only one choice was fea

Hence the letter decries the peril of disunity decided to express to you our opinion... We sible for Britain, that is, to make a continuous effort to

the strongest terms possible: "...a crime find ways to compromise with France and Germany,

cannot allow the illusion to be created among before the world working class ... a retreat and to seek the support of the United States. This failure

our enemies that if an attack will be launched on the part of Britain reflected the fact that Britain's from the holy of holies of the Communists

against the PRC by the USA or Japan—and position as the “second power” in the capitalist world from the teaching of Marxism-Leninism.”

these are the most likely adversaries, or by had been weakened further, and that the postwar Brit- Khrushchev evidently dictated his letter ish hegemony in Western Europe had been thoroughly

any other state, that the Soviet Union will to Eisenhower immediately after he received shaken. The balance of power in continental Western

stand on the sidelines as a passive observer. Europe now tilted toward France and West Germany, the warning from Gromyko. It took him 20

Should the adversary even presume this, and against Britain. As far as the triangular relations more days to address the Chinese leadership

a very dangerous situation would be created. between Britain, France, and Germany were concerned, through party channels. It is still unclear it seemed that Britain would continue to attempt to take

It would be a great calamity for the entire what happened inside the Kremlin in the advantage of French-West German contradictions in

Socialist camp, for the Communist working order to divide the two countries, making them check interim. In effect, in turn, Mao took about the

class movement, if, when atomic bombs each other. This balance of power policy would cer- same time to respond to the CC CPSU's

have begun to fall on the Chinese People's tainly last a long time. The balance of power among letter. In a personal letter to Khrushchev, he imperialist countries in West Europe was changing,

Republic and China has begun to pay with thanked him "heartily" for his stand and and the contradictions between the imperialists over

the life of its sons and daughters, the Soviet West European problems had never been so sharp. wrote that the Chinese leadership had been

Union, possessing terrible weapons which (Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, 7:582- “deeply moved by your boundless loyalty to

could not only stop but could also devastate 5823.) the principles of Marxism-Leninism and in

our common enemy, would allow itself not ternationalism.”6

to come to your assistance. This would be a

In sum, this episode testifies to the amLi Xiaobing is Assistant Professor of History,

crime before the world working class, it biguous nature of the Soviet-Chinese relaUniversity of Central Oklahoma; Chen Jian is

would be a retreat from the holy of holies of Associate Professor of History, Southern Illinois tionship: for the majority of the leadership on

the Communists—from the teaching of University at Carbondale, and author of China's both sides, it continued the grim comedy of

Marxism-Leninism. Road to the Korean War: The Making of the misunderstandings; only Khrushchev began

Thank you for your nobility, that you Sino-Soviet Confrontation (New York: Colum- to suspect what was occurring in faraway are ready to absorb a strike, not involving the bia University Press, 1994); David L. Wilson is Beijing. Behind the facade of proletarian

Beijing. Behind the facade of proletarian Soviet Union. However, we believe, and are Associate Professor of History, Southern Illinois internationalism the Sino-Soviet rift was

convinced, that you also agree that the main University at Carbondale. deepening and would erupt in earnest only a

thing now consists of the fact that everyone has seen—both our friends and, especially, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990), 129our enemies—that we are firm and united in

142; Shu Guang Zhang, Deterrence and Strategic Cul

ture: Chinese-American Confrontations, 1949-1958 our understanding of the tasks, which flow

(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992), 225-267; from Marxist-Leninist teaching, to defend Qiang Zhai, The Dragon, the Lion, and the Eagle: the camp of Socialism, that the unity of all Chinese-British-American Relations, 1949-1959 (Kent, brother Communist parties is unshakeable,

OH: Kent State University Press, 1994), 178-207; and

documents translated, annotated, and introduced by that we will visit a joint, decisive rebuff to

Xiao-bing Li, Chen Jian, and David Wilson printed in the aggressor in the event of an attack on any this issue of the Cold War International History Project Socialist state. This is necessary so that no

Bulletin.

2. Khrushchev Remembers, ed. Strobe Talbott (Boston: hopes will arise in our enemies that they will

Little, Brown, and Co., 1970), 469-470; Khrushchev be able to separate us, so that no cracks will

Remembers: The Glasnost Tapes, ed. Jerrold L. Schecter be created which the enemy could be able to with Vyacheslav V. Luchkov (Boston: Little, Brown, use to break the connection between the and Co., 1990), 147-150; “Memuari Nikiti Sergeevicha Socialist countries.

Khrushcheva," Voprosi istorii (Questions of History] 2

(1993), 90-91; Andrei A. Gromyko, Memoirs (New ... It is necessary that neither our friends

York: Knopf, 1989), 251-252; see also Philip Taubman, nor our enemies have any doubts that an “Gromyko Says Mao Wanted Soviet A-Bomb Used on attack on the Chinese People's Republic is a G.I.'s," New York Times, 22 February 1988, 1, 6-7. war with the entire Socialist camp. For

3. Shu Guang Zhang, Deterrence and Strategic Cul

ture, 255; Qiang Zhai, The Dragon, the Lion, and the ourselves we can say that an attack on China

Eagle, 198. is an attack on the Soviet Union. We are also

4. Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assisconvinced that in the event of an attack on tance Between the People's Republic of China and the the Soviet Union the Chinese People's Re

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 14 February 1950,

reprinted in English translation as an appendix to Sergei public would fulfill its brotherly revolution

N. Goncharov, John W. Lewis, and Xue Litai, Uncerary duty. If we in this way will build our

tain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War policy on the bases of Marxism-Leninism, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993), 260. depending on the unity of our goals, on the

5. Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: Soviet Leaders from

Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Unimight of our states, on our joint efforts, the

versity Press, forthcoming, March 1996), 226-227. uniting of which is favored by the geo- 6. “We are deeply moved by your boundless loyalty to graphical disposition of our countries, then the principles of Marxism-Leninism and internationalthis will be an invincible shield against our

ism. In the name of all my comrades-members of the

Communist Party of China, I express to you my heartenemies....

felt gratitude.” Sbornik dokumentov SSSR-KNR(1949

1983) (USSR-PRC Relations (1949-83)], Documents (Source: Information and Documentation and Materials, Part I (1949-1963) (Moscow: Ministry Administration, First Far Eastern Depart

of Foreign Affairs, 1985; internal use only, copy no.

148), 231-33. ment, USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sbornik dokumentov SSSR-KNR (19491983) (USSR-PRC Relations (1949-83)], Vladislav M. Zubok, a scholar based at the Documents and Materials, Part I (1949-1963) National Security Archive, contributes fre(Moscow: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1985; quently to the Bulletin. His book, Inside the internal use only, copy no. 148), 231-33. Kremlin's Cold War: Soviet Leaders from The letter appears in a formerly classified Stalin to Khrushchev, co-authored with Soviet Foreign Ministry documentary col- Constantine Pleshakov, will be published in lection on the history of Sino-Soviet rela- March 1996 by Harvard University Press. tions, originally prepared, for internal use only, by an editorial collegium consisting of Kapitsa, M.S. (Chairman); Meliksetov, A.V.; Rogachev, I.A.; and Sevostianov, P.P. (Deputy Chairman). During his research in the Foreign Ministry archives in Moscow, Vladislav M. Zubok, a senior researcher at the National Security Archive, took notes from the collection, and provided them to CWIHP; translation by Mark H. Doctoroff National Security Archive.)

1. See Gordon H. Chang, Friends and Enemies: The United States, China, and the Soviet Union, 1948-1972

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MAO ZEDONG AND DULLES'S the expense of individuals. Despite these taking effect in the Soviet Union, given

"PEACEFUL EVOLUTION” drawbacks, Bo's memoirs contain many valu- Khrushchev's fascination with peaceful coSTRATEGY: REVELATIONS FROM able new facts, anecdotes, and insights. Es- existence with the capitalist West. Mao BO YIBO'S MEMOIRS

pecially notable are Bo's references to Mao's wanted to prevent that from happening in

statements unavailable elsewhere. Since Bo China. Here lie the roots of China's subseIntroduction, translation, and played a major role in Chinese economic quent exchange of polemics with the Soviet annotation by Qiang Zhai decision-making during the period, his mem- Union and Mao's decision to restructure the

oirs are especially strong on this topic. He Chinese state and society in order to prevent

sheds new light on such domestic events as a revisionist "change of color” of China, Born in 1905, Bo Yibo joined the Chi

the Three-Anti and Five-Anti Campaigns, culminating in the launching of the Cultural nese Communist Party (CCP) in 1925.

the Gao Gang-Rao Shushi Affair, the Anti- Revolution in 1966. Mao’s frantic response During the Anti-Japanese War, he was a

Rightist Campaign, the Criticism of Opposi- to Dulles's speeches constitutes a clear case leading member of the CCP-led resistance force in Shanxi Province. In 1945, he was

of how international events contributed to tion to Rush Advance, the Great Leap For

ward, the Lushan Conference of 1959, ecoelected a member of the CCP Central Com

China's domestic developments. It also nomic rectification in 1961-1962, and the demonstrates the effects of Dulles's stratmittee at the Party's Seventh Congress.

Socialist Education Campaign. Although egy of driving a wedge between China and During the Chinese Civil War in 1946

international relations in general does not the Soviet Union. 1949, he was First Secretary of the CCP

receive much attention, the volumes do inNorth China Bureau and Vice Chairman of

clude illuminating chapters on some key the CCP-led North China People's Government. After the establishment of the People's

foreign policy decisions.2

The translation below is taken from Republic of China (PRC) in October 1949, Chapter 39 of the second volume (pp. 1138

To Prevent “Peaceful Evolution” and

Train Successors to the Revolutionary he became Finance Minister. As a revolu1146). This section is very revealing about

Cause tionary veteran who survived the Cultural

Mao's perception of and reaction to John
Revolution, Bo Yibo is considered one of
Foster Dulles's policy toward China in 1958-

by Bo Yibo the most powerful figures in China today.

1959. The CCP leader took seriously stateBetween 1991 and 1993, Bo published two volumes of his memoirs, Ruogan ments by the U.S. Secretary of State about According to the general law of social

ist revolution, only through the leadership of zhongda juece yu shijian de huigu [Recol- encouraging a peaceful change of the Com

munist system. In November 1959, accord- aproletarian political party directed by Marxlections of Certain Major Decisions and Events] (Beijing: Zhonggong zhongyang ing to Bo, Lin Ke, Mao's secretary, prepared ism, reliance on the working class and other

for Mao translations of three speeches by laboring masses, and waging of an armed dangxiao chubanshe, 1991, 1993). The first

Dulles concerning the promotion of peaceful struggle in this or that form can a revolution volume covers the period 1949-1956 and

evolution within the Communist world. Afthe second volume 1957-1966. In the pref

obtain state power. International hostile ter reading the documents, Mao commented forces to the newly born people's governace and postscript of his volumes, Bo notes

on them before having them circulated among ment would always attempt to strangle it in that in preparing his memoirs he has consulted documents in the CCP Central Ar

a small group of Party leaders for discussion. the cradle through armed aggression, inter

Thus Bo's memoirs not only provide fresh vention, and economic blockade. After the chives and received the cooperation of Party

texts of what Mao said, but also an important victory of the October Revolution, the Sohistory researchers. Bo's reminiscences

window into what he read. As a result, the viet Union experienced an armed intervenrepresent the most important memoirs of a

interactive nature of Mao's activities—with tion by fourteen countries. In the wake of high-ranking CCP leader for the 1949-1966

his top colleagues and his secretary-is open World War II, imperialism launched a properiod.

to examination. A sense of the policy-mak- tracted "Cold War" and economic containAs a still active senior leader, Bo is not a disinterested writer. His arguments and

ing process, as well as Mao's opinions, ment of socialist countries. Immediately emerges from Bo's memoirs.

after the triumph of the revolution in China conclusions are completely in line with the

The years 1958-1959 were a crucial and the Democratic People's Republic of 1981 Resolution on Party History. Memoirs in China usually have a didactic pur

period in Mao's psychological evolution. Korea, U.S. imperialists invaded Korea,

He began to show increasing concern with blockaded the Taiwan Strait, and implepose that encourages the creation of edify

the problem of succession and worried about mented an all-out embargo against China. ing stereotypes. Bo's memoirs conform to

All of this shows that it will take a sharp a tradition in the writing of memoirs in the

his impending death. He feared that the PRC: didacticism. Arranged topically, Bo's political system that he had spent his life struggle with external hostile forces through

creating would betray his beliefs and values an armed conflict or other forms of contest memoirs are dry and wooden. There is little

and slip out of his control. His apprehension before a newly born socialist country can description of the character and personali

about the future development of China was consolidate its power. ties of his colleagues. In this respect, Bo's

closely related to his analysis of the degen- History suggests that although the armed volumes follow another memoirs-writing eration of the Soviet system. Mao believed aggression, intervention, and economic tradition in the PRC, which tends to empha

that Dulles's idea of inducing peaceful evo- blockade launched by Western imperialists size the role of groups and societal forces at

lution within the socialist world was already against socialist countries can create enor

-

mous problems for socialist countries, they a joint fleet with China in order to control In 1959, Sino-Soviet relations were even have great difficulty in realizing their goal of China militarily; he also openly opposed our more strained and Sino-Soviet differences overthrowing socialist states. Therefore, Party's “Three Red Flags"4 and objected to even greater. In January, the Soviet Union imperialist countries are inclined to adopt a our just action of “shelling Jinmen).” (Chair- officially notified China that it would scrap "soft" method in addition to employing man Mao once said that whether we bom- unilaterally the agreement to help China “hard” policies. In January 1953, U.S. Sec- barded Jinmen or suspended our bombard- build nuclear industry and produce nuclear retary of States Dulles emphasized the strat- ment, our main purpose was to support the bombs. In September when the Sino-Indian egy of peaceful evolution." He pointed out Taiwan people and the Taiwan regime to Border Incident occurred, the Soviet Union that “the enslaved people” of socialist coun- keep Taiwan [from being] invaded and an- announced neutrality, but in actuality it suptries should be “liberated,” and become “free nexed by foreign countries.—Bo's note). ported India. It openly criticized China after people," and that “liberation can be achieved The above events alerted Chairman Mao. the incident. At the Soviet-American Camp through means other than war,” and “the In the meantime, the United States ac- David Talks during the same month, means ought to be and can be peaceful." He tively practiced its strategy of promoting a Khrushchev sought to improve relations with displayed satisfaction with the “liberaliza- "peaceful evolution" of socialist countries. the United States on the one hand and vehetion-demanding forces” which had emerged In 1957, the Eisenhower administration in- mently attacked China's domestic and forin some socialist countries and placed his troduced the “strategy of peacefulconquest,” eign policies on the other.8 All these events hope on the third and fourth generations aiming to facilitate "changes inside the So- convinced Chairman Mao that the Soviet within socialist countries, contending that if viet world,” through a “peaceful evolution.” leadership had degenerated and that the leader of a socialist regime "continues On October 24, 1958, in an interview with a Khrushchev had betrayed Marxism and the wanting to have children and these children BBC correspondent, Dulles asserted that proletarian revolutionary cause and had will produce their children, then the leader's communism "will gradually give way to a turned revisionist. At the Lushan Conferoffsprings will obtain freedom." He also

system that pays more attention to the wel- ence held during July-August that year, when claimed that "Chinese communism is in fare of the state and people,” and that at the Peng Dehuaio criticized the “Three Red fatal danger,” and “represents a fading phe- moment, “Russian and Chinese Commu- Flags,”Chairman Mao erroneously believed nomena," and that the obligation of the United nists are not working for the welfare of their that this reflected the combined attack on the States and its allies was “to make every people,” and “this kind of communism will Party by internal and external enemies. Faceffort to facilitate the disappearance of that change.”

ing such a complex situation, Chairman Mao phenomena,” and “to bring about freedom in Considering the situation in both the felt deeply the danger of a “peaceful evoluall of China by all peaceful means.'

"3

Soviet Union and at home, Chairman Mao tion.” Accordingly, he unequivocally raised Chairman Mao paid full attention to took very seriously Dulles's remarks. In a the issue at the end of that year. these statements by Dulles and watched care- speech to the directors of the cooperation In November 1959, Chairman Mao confully the changes in strategies and tactics regions on November 30, 1958, Chairman vened a small-scale meeting in Hangzhou used by imperialists against socialist coun- Mao noted that Dulles was a man of schemes attended by Premier Zhou [Enlai], Peng tries. That was the time when the War to Aid and that he controlled the helm in the United Zhen, 10 Wang Jiaxiang, 11 Hu Qiaomu, 12 Korea and Resist America had just achieved States. Dulles was very thoughtful. One had among others, to discuss and examine the victory, when the United States was con- to read his speeches word by word with the international situation at the time. Before the tinuing its blockade of the Taiwan Straits help of an English dictionary. Dulles was opening of the meeting, Chairman Mao asked and its embargo, and when our domestic really taking the helm.

really taking the helm. Provincial Party his secretary, Lin Ke, to find Dulles's situation was stable, “the First Five-Year Committees should assign special cadres to speeches concerning “peaceful evolution” Plan” was fully under way, economic con- read Cankao ziliao.7 Chairman Mao has for him to read. Comrade Lin Ke selected struction was developing rapidly, and ev- always insisted that Party leaders at all lev- three such speeches: Dulles's address titled erywhere was the picture of prosperity and els, especially high-ranking cadres, should “Policy for the Far East” delivered before vitality. At that moment, Chairman Mao did closely follow international events and the the California Chamber of Commerce on not immediately bring up the issue of pre- development of social contradictions on the December 4, 1958, Dulles's testimony made venting a "peaceful evolution." The reason world scene in order to be well informed and before the House Foreign Affairs Commitfor his later raising the question has to do prepared for sudden incidents. It is very tee on January 28, 1959, and Dulles's speech with developments in international and do- necessary for Mao to make that demand. titled “The Role of Law in Peace" made mestic situations.

Chairman Mao read Cankao ziliao every before the New York State Bar Association In 1956, at the 20th Congress of the day. For us leading cadres, we should con- on January 31, 1959. Chairman Mao had Soviet Communist Party, Khrushchev at- sider not only the whole picture of domestic read these three speeches before. After retacked Stalin, causing an anti-Communist politics but also the whole situation of inter- reading them, he told Comrade Lin Ke of his and anti-Socialist wave in the world and national politics. Thus we can keep clear- opinions about them and asked him to write triggering incidents in Poland and Hungary. headed, deal with any challenges confidently, commentaries based on his views and insert In 1957, a tiny minority of bourgeois Right- and “sit tight in the fishing boat despite the them at the beginning of each of Dulles's ists seized the opportunity of Party reform to rising winds and waves.” This is a very statements. After Comrade Lin Ke had attack the Party. In 1958, Khrushchev pro- important political lesson and a leadership completed the commentaries, Mao instructed posed to create a long-wave radio station and style.

him to distribute Dulles's speeches, along with the commentaries, to the members attending the meeting.

The three speeches by Dulles all contained the theme of promoting a “peaceful evolution” inside socialist countries. The three commentaries based on Chairman Mao's talks highlighted the key points in Dulles's remarks and warned of the danger of the American “peaceful evolution" strategy. The first commentary pointed out: “The United States not only has no intention to give up its policy of force, but also wants, as an addition to its policy of force, to pursue a 'peaceful conquest strategy' of infiltration and subversion in order to avoid the prospect of its being surrounded.' The U.S. desires to achieve the ambition of preserving itself (capitalism) and gradually defeating the enemy (socialism)." After noting the main theme of Dulles's testimony, the second commentary contended: Dulles's words “demonstrate that U.S. imperialists are attempting to restore capitalism in the Soviet Union by the method of corrupting it so as to realize their aggressive goal, which they have failed to achieve through war." The third commentary first took note of Dulles's insistence on “the substitution of justice and law for force" and his contention that the abandonment of force did not mean the “maintenance of the status quo,” but meant a peaceful“change.” Then it went on to argue that “Dulles's words showed that because of the growing strength of the socialist force throughout the world and because of the increasing isolation and difficulties of the international imperialist force, the United States does not dare to start a world war at the moment. Therefore, the United States has adopted a more deceptive tactic to pursue its aggression and expansion. While advocating peace, the United States is at the same time speeding up the implementation of its plots of infiltration, corruption, and subversion in order to reverse the decline of imperialism and to fulfill its objective of aggression.”

At the meeting on November 12, Chairman Mao further analyzed and elaborated on Dulles's speeches and the commentaries. He said:

couraging a "peaceful evolution"

plication. We will only expose the inside socialist countries. For ex

American deception and lay bare ample, at his testimony before the

the nature of the so-called “peace” House Foreign Affairs Committee

by the United States.
on January 28 Dulles remarked that
basically the U.S. hoped to encour-

This is the first time that Chairman Mao age changes within the Soviet world. clearly raised and insightfully elaborated on By the Soviet world, Dulles did not the issue of preventing a "peaceful evolumean just the Soviet Union. He was tion.” From that time on, he would pay more referring to the whole socialist camp. and more attention to the matter. In a series He was hoping to see changes in our of meetings that followed, he would repeatcamp so that the Soviet world would edly alert the whole party on the issue and no longer be a threat to freedom on gradually unfold the struggle against the sothe globe and would mind its own called revisionism both at home and abroad. business instead of thinking about

From 1960 forward, differences between realizing the goal and ambition of the Chinese and Soviet Parties increased. communizing the world....

On April 22, an editorial titled “Long Live

Leninism” published by the journal Hongqil3 In commenting on Dulles's statement of denounced Comrade Tito of Yugoslavia by January 31, 1959, Chairman Mao asserted: name and criticized Khrushchev of the So

viet Union without mentioning his name. Dulles said that justice and law On internal occasions, we unequivocally should replace violence and that war pointed out that the Soviet Union had beshould be abandoned, and law and come revisionist and that we should learn the justice should be emphasized. Dulles Soviet lesson. We also felt that “revisionalso argued that the abandonment of ists" already existed in China and that Peng force under the circumstances did Dehuai and some other comrades were exnot mean the “maintenance of the amples. We warned against the emergence status quo,” but meant a peaceful

of revisionism in order to prevent a "peace"change." (laughter) Change whom ful evolution.” In his meeting with peacefully? Dulles wants to change Jespersen,14 Chairman of the Danish Comcountries like ours. He wants to sub- munist Party, on May 28, 1960, Chairman vert and change us to follow his Mao said: “There are also revisionists in our ideas.... Therefore, the United States country. Led by Peng Dehuai, a Politburo is attempting to carry out its aggres- member, they launched an attack on the sion and expansion with a much more Party last summer. We condemned and deceptive tactic.... In other words, it defeated him. Seven full and alternate memwants to keep its order and change bers of our Central Committee followed our system. It wants to corrupt us by Peng. Including Peng, there are eight revia peaceful evolution.

sionists. The total number of full and alter

nate members in our Central Committee is Chairman Mao believed that 192. Eight people are merely a minority." Khrushchev's speeches reflected the peace- At the “Seven Thousand Cadres Conful evolution” advocated by Dulles and that ference”15 held in January 1962, Comrade our principle should be:

[Liu] Shaoqi delivered a "written report" on

behalf of the Party Central Committee. He Under the existing complex interna- made a special reference to the question of tional conditions, our policy is to opposing contemporary revisionism. In his resist the pressures head-on-pres- remarks concerning the issue of practicing sures from two directions, democratic centralism, Chairman Mao Khrushchev and Eisenhower. We stated: “Without a highly developed democwill resist for five to ten years. To- racy, there cannot be a high level of centralward the United States, we should ism. Without a high level of centralism, we do our best to expose it with facts cannot establish a socialist economy. What and we should do so persuasively. will happen then to our country if we cannot We will not criticize Khrushchev, create a socialist economy? China will benor will we attack him through im- come a revisionist country, a bourgeois coun

Comrade Lin Ke has prepared for me three documents—three speeches by Dulles during 19581959. All three documents have to de with Dulles's talks about en

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