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menting on the Hungarian-language broad- János Kádár earlier that year and of the By the time Rajnai “authenticated" casts of Radio Moscow no one heard, let character, composition, and objectives of the Nagy's handwriting in July or early August alone listened to. As one of his Muscovite democratic opposition. His visit confirmed of 1989, Nagy had received on 16 June colleagues would observe many years later, what he must have known: that the critics 1989—a ceremonial reburial at Budapest's even the leading émigrés "had nothing of both inside and outside the party were gain- Heroes Square in front of hundreds of thouconsequence to do but they behaved as if ing new adherents by using Imre Nagy's sands of people while millions watched the they had. They practiced assiduously some- execution in 1958 to discredit not only Kádár event live on Hungarian TV all day. Still, thing they referred to as politics, plotted one and his associates but to undermine the whole Rajnai clung to the hope that he could save another's downfall, and generally pranced post-1956 Hungarian political order. As in the regime in which he believed and his own and cantered and whinnied like superannu- 1955-56, Nagy—a man Kryuchkov knew skin, too, by publicizing damaging informaated parade horses at the knacker's gates."

while he was the Soviet Embassy's press tion about Nagy-by portraying him as a (Julius Hay, Born 1900: Memoirs (La Salle, attaché in Budapest—had once again be- false pretender, a deceiver who sold out his III.: Library Press, 1975), pp. 218-19.) Given come the flag for the gathering storm. friends and comrades, a Stalinist stooge. the atmosphere of suspicion prevailing in I do not know if it was Kryuchkov who Only in this way could Rajnai help the Moscow at the time, the Russian commis- then initiated the KGB's search for informa- hardliners in the HSWP, notably Károly sars did not trust information conveyed by tion on Nagy's past. Nor does it much Grósz, to defeat such critics as Imre Pozsgay foreign Communists.

matter. Both he and Grósz were anxious to who used Nagy's name to gain political Could Nagy, a nonentity among the discredit Nagy in order to deprive the Hun- ground. Not incidentally, only in this way nonentities, have been a petty mole, then? garian people—and the anti-Kádár, anti- could Rajnai justify his own past and clarify Yes. Could his reporting have contributed to Grósz reformers in the HSWP-of a symbol the meaning of his life. He told me as much the bloody purge of foreign, especially Hun- of courage and sacrifice, of a reformer who during the course of some 40 hours of congarian, Communists in the 1930s? Yes. broke ranks with Moscow. An astute versation over several months in 1991 and Could he have been directly responsible for Kremlinologist may also interpret their ef- '92. the arrest of 25 Hungarian Communist fort as an attempt to disparage Nagy in order As it happened, Rajnai forwarded the émigrés, of whom 12 were executed and the to undermine Mikhail S. Gorbachev's repu- “Volodya File" to Grósz; it was translated rest sent to prison or exile? No. One: The tation.

from Russian into Hungarian by Mrs. Soviet authorities were always both suspi- I do know, however, who went over to Thürmer. Grósz presented a verbal sumcious of and contemptuous toward all for- the headquarters of the KGB to authenticate mary, similar to Kryuchkov's, to the HSWP eign Communists; the NKVD surely did not Nagy's handwriting and pick up the newly Central Committee on 1 September 1989. In rely on one such informant's reports. Two: found "Volodya File.” Accompanied by his speech Grósz told the Central Committee As Kryuchkov put it, the 1989 release of the Gyula Thürmer-Grósz's special assistant of Nagy's direct responsibility for the arrest "Volodya File" to Károly Grósz, General for Soviet affairs who, married to a Russian


and sentencing of 25 leading Hungarian Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Work- woman, spoke excellent Russian—and pos- cadres in Moscow and the execution of 12 of ers Party (HSWP), was meant to be “expe- sibly by a “Third Man,” also from Budapest, them. But then Grósz declined to open the dient” and Grósz was to be advised “about the Hungarian in charge of the transaction floor for discussion or answer any questions. their possible use" (p. 36). Three: Given the was Sándor Rajnai, the Hungarian Ambassa- The Central Committee resolved to send the KGB's aptitude for falsifying documents, dor to Moscow. Unlike the young Thürmer“Volodya File" to the archives where it was

" the authenticity of anything emerging from and the “Third Man,” Rajnai had long known shelved. Oddly enough, even Grósz seemed its archives must be carefully scrutinized. Nagy and his handwriting very well indeed. doubtful of Volodya's political value at this

A few hitherto unknown details will For, in 1957-58, Lieutenant-Colonel Rajnai late date. “It is my conviction,” he declared, amplify the skepticism implicit in these of the Hungarian political police was respon- "that what you have just heard will not be reservations and supplement Professor sible for Nagy's arrest in and forced return decisive when it comes to making the ultiGranville's able account of the political from his involuntary exile in Romania; for mate judgment about Imre Nagy's whole circumstances of 1989.

Nagy's year-long interrogation in a Budapest life.” (The text of Grósz's speech was pubIn 1988, KGB Chief Vladimir jail where even his presence was top secret; lished on 15 June 1990—ten long months Kryuchkov flew to Budapest on a secret and for the preparation of Nagy's equally later—in the hardline Szabadság, a smallfact-finding mission. Long familiar with, secret trial whose scenario Rajnai had drafted. circulation Communist weekly edited by and reportedly very fond of, Hungary, he (Loyal, competent, sophisticated, and ad- Gyula Thürmer.) stayed for several days. He met a few party mired by his superiors and subordinates alike, In the end, Rajnai's hope of saving the leaders, the head of the political police, and this creative author of the last bloody Com- one-party Communist regime by publicizat least one mole the police had planted in munist purge was subsequently richly re- ing the “Volodya File” was dashed, and his the country's increasingly vocal democratic warded for a job well done. After a long fear of being held accountable for the phony opposition movement. Judging by the ques- tenure as head of Hungarian foreign intelli- charges he had concocted against Nagy in tions he asked and the people he met, he gence, he served as Ambassador to Romania 1957-58 turned out to be unwarranted. For, wanted to gain a first-hand impression of and then—the top prize—to the Soviet Union. while the Hungarian Supreme Court in 1989 the bitter struggle that engulfed the HSWP In the 1980s he became a member of the declared the trial of Imre Nagy and his leadership after the forced resignation of HSWP Central Committee as well.) associates null and void, it declined to charge




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those responsible for it. (Several Politburo If a decision to intervene had been taken the Bulletin on pp. 30-31. In para. 5 (on p. members deeply involved in the case, in- earlier, what was there to “reexamine in its 31) he cites an alleged conversation by a cluding Kádár's Minister of Internal Affairs, entirety”? Moreover, the Soviet public dec- KGB Hungarian source with some Ameriwere then—and are still alive and well. laration of October 30 advanced a liberal cans (named but not identified) who were However, the chief prosecutor committed interpretation of Warsaw Pact relationships, reported to have said that “if the uprising is suicide in the 1970s; János Kádár, the main and included an explicit promise to negoti- not liquidated in the shortest possible time, culprit, died minutes before the Court "re- ate a possible complete Soviet military with- the UN troops will move in at the proposal of tried" and rehabilitated his nemesis, and the drawal from Hungary. That may, of course, the USA and a second Korea will take place.” head of the kangaroo court that had sent have been intended only to deceive Hungar- Nagy had told Andropov on November 1 Nagy to the gallows in 1958, who remained ian, Western and world opinion. But if so, it

ian, Western and world opinion. But if so, it that Hungary was not only withdrawing from unrepentant to the end, died in 1991.) was a costly device—its brutal repudiation the Warsaw Pact immediately, but would

As for Rajnai, by the time we got ac- in practice a few days later was a serious seek UN and Big Four guarantees of its quainted in 1991 he had resigned his ambas- blow to the Soviet Union in the Western neutrality. Did the Soviet leaders on Octosadorship and retired. He was in semi- socialist world as well as in Eastern Europe. ber 30-November 1 fear a U.S. intervention, hiding, worried about retribution. A few I continue to believe what I first wrote in possible under UN auspices circumventing months after our last conversation in 1992, I a RAND paper (P-984) on November 28, their veto, if they withdrew? Perhaps new received a letter from him in which he asked 1956 (first published in Problems of Com- documents will clarify that issue. for my help in getting an American visa. I munism in January 1957, and later in my In closing, I would like also to correct have since heard that he died abroad, not in book Soviet Military Policy): while Soviet one small error in the translation of one of the United States, of natural causes. Perhaps contingent preparations for possible inter- the documents. A report by Deputy MVD so. But in his last years, the memory of Imre vention were no doubt underway, it was only Minister Perevertkin on 24 October 1956, is Nagy appeared to consume his mind and on October 30-31 that the final decision to cited (on p. 22 of the Bulletin) as saying that cripple his will to live. intervene was made.

the Soviet intervention force at that time

On October 31, when Mikoyan and numbered in all “128 rifle divisions and 39 Sincerely,

Suslov met with Imre Nagy and Zoltan Tildy, mechanized divisions”—which would have

the latter rejected an offer to withdraw im- meant almost the entire Soviet Army! The Charles Gati

mediately all Soviet troops that had not figures evidently refer to 128 rifle and 39 earlier been present in the country. More- mechanized companies, not divisions. As over, Tildy told Mikoyan that Hungary would correctly noted in the text of Mark Kramer's definitely repudiate the Warsaw Pact in any commentary (on p. 51), the Soviet force in

p) case—that is, even if the Soviet leaders Hungary on October 24 totaled some 31,500 22 November 1995

accepted their demand to withdraw all So- men drawn from five divisions in and near

viet forces immediately. (This was dis- Hungary. To the Editor:

closed in a monitored broadcast by (Hungar-
ian Defense Minister] General Pal Maleter Sincerely,

) The articles by Janos Rainer and Johanna

on November 1 or 2.) I believe that that was Granville in Issue 5 of the Bulletin make a

the final straw that tipped the decision to Raymond L. Garthoff major contribution to our understanding of

intervene. The new documents, while not the Hungarian revolution of 1956 and the

conclusive, are consistent with that interpreSoviet decisions relating to it. Both articles

tation. We can hope that other documents tend to conclude that the Soviet decision to

not yet discovered or published will clarify intervene decisively to suppress the Nagy this matter. government was probably made in the pe

I do not argue that the thesis I have riod October 26-30. The documents avail

outlined briefly above has been confirmed, able to date do not answer the question, but

but it has not been disconfirmed by the new I read them as consistent with a conclusion

evidence available, and in my view the new that the Soviet decision was not made until

material tends to substantiate it. I believe we October 30-31-after the Hungarians had

should continue to regard the question as an disclosed their intention to declare neutral

open one. ity and leave the Warsaw Pact. Mikoyan and

Other important developments were also Suslov, in their telegram of October 30, may

occurring, including the Anglo-French inhave been reporting on their assurances to tervention in Suez on October 30 (which, as Nagy as implementation of a deception plan, Vladislav Zubok has pointed out, the Soviet but why then would they say to their Polit

leaders initially interpreted as blessed by the buro colleagues “If the situation deteriorates

United States). Further attention should also further, then, of course, it will be necessary

be given to the intriguing comment in KGB to reexamine the whole issue in its entirety.” Chief Serov's report of October 28, cited in

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The Update section summarizes items in the War II Losses,” Moscow News (English] 16 66.)
popular and scholarly press containing new (28 April-4 May 1995), 7.)
information on Cold War history emanating

Inquiry into events surrounding Stalin's death from the former Communist realm. Readers Stalin's handling of Nuremberg trials as- and struggle to succeed him. (Y. Zhukov, are invited to alert CWIHP to relevant cita- sessed by historian Natalya Lebedeva. “Krelenskiie Laini: Stalin otetranili ot vlasti tions. Readers should consult references in (“Stalin and the Nuremberg Trial,” Moscow b 1951 godu?" [Kremlin Secrets: Did Stalin Bulletin articles for additional sources. News (English) 11 (24-30 March 1995), 12.) step down from power in 1951?),

Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 21 December 1994, Abbreviations:

Russian evidence on Soviet-Italian relations 3.)

and the Italian Communist Party, 1944-48. DA = Deutschland Archiv

(Elena Aga-Rossi and Victor Zaslavsky, Beria's letters from prison, 1953. (Istochnik FBIS =

Foreign Broadcast Information Ser- “L'URSS, il PCIel'Italia: 1944-1948,"Storia 4 (1994), 3-14.) vice

Contemporanea 25:6 (December 1994), 929NYT = New York Times 982.)

Party and state archives inform study of RFE/RL = Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Kremlin power struggles, 1945-62. (Y.N. VjZ= Vierteljahreshefte fuer Zeitgeschichte Problems of Post-Communism 42:5 (Sep- Zhukov, "The Struggle for Power in the

-WP = Washington Post

tember October 1995) spotlights new find- Soviet Leadership from 1945 to 1962," ZfG=Zeitschrift fuer Geschichtswissenschaft ings from Soviet archives: Vladislav M. Voprosi Istorii 1 (1996), 23-29.)

Zubok, "Soviet Activities in Europe After Russia/Former Soviet Union World War II,” pp. 3-8; Hope M. Harrison, Archival evidence yields new view on Beria's

“Soviet-East German Relations After World role in post-Stalin power struggle. (Boris Interview with Stalin granddaughter Galina War II,” pp. 9-17; Scott Parrish, “Soviet Starkov, “Koe-chto noven’koe o Berii" Iakovkevnoi Dzhugashvili. (Yuri Dmitriev Reaction to the Marshall Plan: Opportunity (Something New About Beria), Argumenty i and Samarii Gurarii, “Syn Stalina” (Stalin's or Threat?" pp. 18-24; and Kathryn Fakty 46 (November 1993), 6.) Son), Trud, 31 May 1994, 3.)

Weathersby, "New Russian Archival Mate

rials, Old American Debates, and the Korean Nina Vacil’evna Alekseeva on her relation1945 letter on postwar strategy from senior War,” pp. 25-32.

ship with L.P. Beria. (Irina Mastykina, “Ya Soviet diplomat I.M. Maisky to Stalin from

Byla Ne Liubovnitsei Berii, a Ego Zhertvoi” Foreign Ministry archives printed. (“The Report on persecution and isolation of Rus- [I Was Not Beria's Lover, I Was His VicFiftieth Anniversary of the Conference of sians who returned from WW II German tim), Komsomol'skaia Pravda, 25-28 March the Three Allied Powers in Yalta,” POW camps includes April 1956 recom- 1994, 8-9; 8-11 April 1994, 6-7.) Diplomaticheskii Vestnik 3-4 (February mendation from commission headed by De1995), 78-79.)

fense Minister Zhukov to relax measures. Ex-CPSU official L.N. Efremov discusses

(Vladimir Naumov and Alexander Korotkov, memories of Nikita Sergeevich. (Valery December 1945 documents from Russian “WWII POWs Condemned as Traitors,” Alekseev, “Takoi Raznoi Khrushchev” [The Foreign Ministry archives illuminate Moscow News (English) 17 (5-11 May 1995), Varied Khrushchev), Pravda, 16 April 1994, Moscow's refusal to join International Mon- 11.

4.) etary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (Harold Recounting of Soviet policy toward early Son of G.M. Malenkov on father's relationJames and Marzenna James, “The Origins Cold War flashpoint on basis of Communist ship with N.S. Khrushchev. (Andrei of the Cold War: Some New Documents,” Party and Foreign Ministry archives. (N.I. Malenkov, “Malenkov i Khrushchev,” The Historical Journal 37, 3 (1994), 615- Egorova, “'Iranskii Krisis' 1945-1946 gg. Gudok (Whistle), 16 April 1994, 4; 19 April 622.)

porassekrechennym arkhivym dokumentam 1994, 3; 20 April 1994, 3.)

[“The Iran Crisis” 1945-1946 on the Basis of Gen. Dmitrii Volkogonov announces (2 Declassified Archival Documents), Novaia i Recollections of Russo-Ukrainian relations December 1994) plans to revise estimate of Noveishaia Istoriia 3 (1994), 24-42.)

under Khrushchev. (Andrei Barkovskii, total Soviet deaths during World War II;

"Velikodushno, bez vsiakikh kolebanii" says 44 Soviet soldiers and officers remain Stalin's postwar policy in Eastern Europe (Magnanimous, Without Hesitation), MIA from the 1956 invasion of Hungary, assessed. (Vadim Tarlinskii, "Sudba Rabochaia Tribuna, 22 January 1994, 3.) 300 were still missing from the war in Af- federatsii" [Fate of the Federation), ghanistan, and a Col. Udanov, missing in Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 17 December 1993, Dissident perspective on 1956 Soviet invaEthiopia in 1978, was reported to be alive 4.)

sion of Hungary. (Viktor Trofimov, and working in a Somali stone quarry as late

“Neordinarnye otnosheniia" (Unusual relaas 1989. (RFE/RL Daily Report 229 (6 Cominform reassessed on basis of party ar- tions), Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 17 June 1994, December 1994).) Dispute over number of chives. (G.M. Adibekov, “An Attempt at the 4.) Soviet deaths in World War II reviewed. Cominternization' of the Cominform," (Boris Sokolov, "New Estimates of World Novaia i Noveishaia Istoriia 4-5 (1994), 51- Conversations recalled with Prime Minister

Kosygin. (Nikolai Sergeev, “Vyzval secret germ warfare plant for worst known and Nikolay N. Detinov, The Big Five: Arms Kosygin..." [Kosygin Called...), Trud, 17 outbreak of anthrax, near Sverdlovsk in Urals Control Decision-Making in the Soviet Union March 1994, 4.)

in 1979. (’79 Anthrax Traced to Soviet Mili- (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing,

tary," NYT, 18 November 1994, A 10.) 1995); A.M. Aleksandrov-Agentov, Ot Recollections of Soviet policy-making from

Kollontai do Gorbacheva: Vospominaniya 1950 on. (Oleg Grinevskii, “No Smolenskoi Story of search for rare German stamps to diplomata, sovetnika A.A. Gromyko, Ploshchadi V 1950-kh


give Brezhnev on 1979 trip to GDR. (Mikhail pomoshchnika L.I. Brezhneva, Yu. V. Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn' 11 (November Pogorelyi, “Tseppelin dlia Brezhneva"

Pogorelyi, “Tseppelin’dlia Brezhneva” Andropova, K.U. Chernenko i M.S. 1994), 120-126.)

[Zeppelin for Brezhnev], Krasnaia Zvezda, Gorbacheva (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye 7 May 1994, 6.)

otnosheniya, 1994); G.M. Kornienko, Previously unpublished 1963 interview with

Kholodnaia voina: svidetel’stvo ee Khrushchev from CPSU CC archives. Memoir of more than three decades in uchastnika [The Cold War: Testimony of a (“Vesloe ozhivelenie" (A Happy Revival), Soloviev Psychiatric Hospital. (Maiia Participant (Moscow: International RelaKomsomol'skaia Pravda, 27 November Mikhailovna Korol”, “Sudby zhen sovetskoi tions, 1995); Vojtiech Mastny, The Cold 1993, 3.)

elity” [The Fate of the Wives of the Soviet War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years,

Elites), Rosskiiskie Vesti, 20 May 1994, 5.) 1947-1953 (Oxford: Oxford University Account of Soviet officials' reaction to as

Press, forthcoming, 1996). sassination of John F. Kennedy. (Melor Diplomat recalls negotiations leading to 1975 Sturua, “22 Noiabria 1963 goda” (22 No- Helsinki Accords. (Yuri Dubinin, “The Nuclear Weapons Issues: vember 1963), Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 20 No- Thorny Path to Helsinki 1975," Novaia i vember 1993, 8.) Noveishaia Istoriia 4-5 (1994), 177-194.) Historian Zhores Medvedev on various as

pects of the Soviet atomic program, includDocuments on Khrushchev's 1964 meet- Excerpts from personal papers of late For- ing the roles of prison labor and the KGB. ings with Danish leaders. ("About a 1964 eign Ministry official, focusing on Soviet (Zhores Medvedev, “KGB i Sovetskaia Visit to Denmark on the Highest Level,” involvement in Afghanistan. (Anatoly Atomnaia Bomba” [The KGB and the SoDiplomaticheskii Vestnik 7-8 (April 1994), Adamoishin, “Evreiskii Anekdot” (Jewish viet Atomic Bomb], Smena (Change), 24 70-5.)

Anecdote), Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 15 Sep- August 1994, 4; Medvedev, “Bomba c tember 1994, 5.)

kleimom LON" (Bomb with the Mark of New CPSU CC documents on Soviet policy

LON (Camp of Special Significance)], toward 1968 Czech crisis. (R.G. Pikhoia, Memories of Chernenko from his niece. Rabochaia Tribuna, 30 September 1994, 5; “Czechoslovakia, 1968: The View from (Aleksandr Khinshtein, “Ne uspel nichego 1 October 1994, 3; Medvedev, “The KGB Moscow: According to Documents of the delat” [I Did Not Have Time to Do Any- and the Atomic Bomb,Rossiia, 31 January Central Committee of the Communist Party," thing], Moskovskaia Komsomolets, 25 De- 1995, 6.) Novaia i Noveishaia Istorija 6 (1994), 3 ff.) cember 1993, 8.) More Soviet documents on fall-out from

Assessment of role of espionage in Soviet Prague Spring. ("**Prague Spring 1968' ech- Police officer “S” recalls Soviet policy to- atom bomb. (Vladimir Skomorokhov, “From oes...," Istochnik 4 (1994), 95-99.)

ward Sakharov. (German Orekhov, Where Was It Born, Our Atom?" Delovoi

"Vospominania Sakharova" (Memories of mir [Business World), 22-23-25-28 June Eyewitness account of 1969 assassination Sakharov), Smena (Change), 14 December 1994.) Interview with Prof. Balentin attempt against Brezhnev. (Mikhail 1993, 4.)

Belokon' on debate over origins of Soviet Rudenko, “I broneboinaia pulia dala

atomic bomb. (Oleg Moroz, "Sovetskaia Arikoshet..."" (And the Armor-Piercing Bul- Behind the scenes in the Russian air trans- bomba: Sobstvennoe izobretenie ili plagiat" let Ricocheted...), Moskovskaia Pravda, 5 port authority in the late Soviet era. [The Soviet A-Bomb: Indpendent Invention October 1994, 4.

(Vozdushnyy Transport 4 (January 1995), 2- or Plagiarism), Literaturnaia Gazeta 26 (29

3, in FBIS-SOV-95-038-S (27 February June 1994), 10.) Several secret letters printed Khrushchev's interrogation upon Western 1995), 13-17.)

in commentary on book by ex-KGB officer publication of his memoirs in 1970. (Istochnik

Pavel Sudoplatov. (Aleksandr Minkin, 4 (1994), 64-75.)

Publications: Vladislav M. Zubok and "Bomba" (Bomb), Moskovskii

Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Komsomolets, 29 June 1994, 1.) Previously classified KGB reports on Rich- Cold War: Soviet Leaders from Stalin to ard Nixon's visits to Moscow in 1959 and Khrushchev(Cambridge, MA: Harvard Uni- Evidence from the archives of D.V. 1972. (Ludmilla Velichanskaia et al., “Ne versity Press, forthcoming, Spring 1996); Skobel'tsyn. (Mikhail Rebrov, “Mog li

. znaiushchi broda Richard Nikson” (Richard Michael Scammell, ed. and intro., The Sovetskii Soiuz pervym sdelat' atomnuiu Nixon, Who Didn't Know the Ford), Kuranty, Solzhenitsyn Files: Secret Soviet Documents

Solzhenitsyn Files: Secret Soviet Documents bombu?” [Could the Soviet Union Have 12 August 1994, 7.)

Reveal One Man's Fight Against the Mono- Been the First to Make an Atomic Bomb?]

lith (Chicago, Berlin, Tokyo, Moscow: edi- Krasnaia Zvezda, 30 April 1994, 5.) U.S.-Russian scientific team blames Soviet tion q, inc., 1995); Aleksandr' G. Savel'yev

Interview with Arkadii Brishch on his work pearance of several tons of uranium in 1989. on Soviet atom bomb. (Oleg Moroz, according to German report. (Berlin DDP/ Naval commander on Soviet atomic subma“Skopirovna byla ne bomba, a skhema ADN, 21 August 1994, in “Secret Nuclear rine progream. (Ivan Gulaev, “K-27: zariada” [It wasn't the Bomb that Was Cop- Depots Reported in FRG, East Europe, in Podvodnyi rekord 1964 goda" (K-27: The ied, It Was the Storage System), FBIS-WU-94-162 (22 August 1994), 12.) 1964 Underwater Record), Krasnaia Zvezda, Literaturnaia Gazeta 36 (7 September 1995),

25 June 1994, 6.) 10.)

Publications: Thomas B. Cochran, Robert S.

Norris, and Oleg A. Bukharin, Making the Investigation into 1970 fire aboard nuclear New data on atomic bomb project from Russian Bomb: From Stalin to Yeltsin (Boul- submarine “K-8.” (Vladimir Shigin, family archives of Lt.-Gen. Boris L’vovich der, CO: Westview Press, 1995).

“Tragedija v Biskaiskom Zalive" [Tragedy Bannikov. (Mikhail Rebrov, "Atomnaia

in the Bay of Biscay), Moskovskaia Pravda, bomba: Kak nachinalsia otchet vremeni” Military Issues:

12 April 1994, 9.) [The Atom Bomb: How the Countdown Began), Krasnaia Zvezda, 20 August 1994, Dmitrii Volkogonov interviewed on search New data on disaster aboard nuclear subma7.)

for missing U.S. military from World War II. rine PL-574 which claimed 89 lives. (“Taina

(Valerii Rudnev, “Rossiia prodolzhaet iskat" gibeli PL-574"[The Secret of the Disaster of Interview with I. Zavashin, director of [Russia Continues to Search), Izvestiia, 28

[Russia Continues to Search), Izvestiia, 28 PL-574), Komsomol'skaia Pravda, 30 De“Avangard” factory at Arzamas-16, formerly October 1993,6.) U.S.-Russian commission cember 1993, 7.) secret Soviet nuclear center. (Vladimir frustrated by lack of evidence behind claims Gubarev, “Yuri Zavashin: Pontiatie ‘nado' captured US pilots were held on USSR terri- Former vice-admiral recalls 1974 minemy vpitali s molokom materi" [Yuri tory. (“MIA's from the cold war,” Moscow sweeping operation in Gulf of Suez. Zavashin: The Concept of “Must" We Im- News [English] 23 (10-16 June 1994), 14.) (Aleksandr Apollonov, "6.000 chasov na

“ bibed with our Mother's Milk], Segodnia, On 15 September 1952, Russia returns body minnykh poliakh” [6,000 Hours on the 28 September 1994, 9.)

of U.S. Air Force captain whose RB-29 re- Minefields), Krasnaya Zvezda, 17 Septem

connaissance aircraft was downed over the ber 1994, 6.) Description of Soviet Air Force 1956 train- Kurile Islands on 7 October 1952. (Reuters ing maneuver for nuclear war, in which 272 cited in RFE/RL Daily Report 178 (19 Sep- Series on Pacific Ocean battles covered up troops were ordered to land at ground zero. tember 1994).) Revelations on plight of by Soviet regimes. (Nikolai Burbyga, (Aleksandr Kyrov, “Dernyi Desant” [Turf Americans shot down over USSR, Vietnam, “Zhertvi heob iavlennykh voin" (Victims of Landing), Rossiskaia Gazeta, 26 May 1994, including case of B-52 crewman Lt. Col. Unannounced Wars), Izvestia, 5 January 7.)

Robert Standervik. (Komsomolskaya Pravda, 1994, 6; 9 February 1994, 8.)

in FBIS-SOV-95-040 (1 March 1995).) Account of secret Soviet 1959 testing of

Reports on investigation of wreck of the atomic weapons in Pacific. (Mikhail Rebrov, Detailed account of postwar Soviet subma- Soviet atomic submarine “Komsomolets.” "Otriad osobnogo naznacheniia: Khronika rine building program. (I. Spasskiy and V. (Vladimir Svartsevich, "Poligon nashei neob ‘iavlennoi ekspeditsii”” [An Order of Semenov, “First Soviet Submarine With sovesti" [Proving-Ground of Our ConSpecial Significance: The Story of an Unre- Turbine Power Plant (Design Project 617),” science), Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 11 August ported Expedition), Krasnaia Zvezda, 7 May Morskoy Sbornik (Moscow) 7 (July 1994), 1994,5-6; Kirill Dybskii, “Mstislav Keldysh' 1994, 6.)

65-69, in JPRS-UMA-94-053 (15 December vernulsia ‘so shchitom?” [The “Mstislav 1994), 19-23.

Keldysh” Returns "with the Shield"], Hidden history and environmental costs of

Segodnia, 17 August 1994, 7.) Interview Soviet program of “peaceful nuclear explo- Report on early plans for development of with Tengiz Borisov, former KOPRON disions”(PNEs) from 1965-88 probed. (Judith Russian “PKO” defense system. (Anatolii rector, on new data concerning Perera, "Revealed: 23 Years of Soviet Nuk- Dokuchaev, “The Russians Weren't Shoot- “Komsomolets." (Eduard Lunev, "Poslednii ing,The Daily Telegraph (London), 8 Feb- ing American Satellites,Krasnaia Zvezda, parad ‘Komsomol'tsa”” [The Last Parade of ruary 1995, 16, in JPRS-TAC-95-001 (14 30 June 1994, 6.)

the “Komsomolets”), Rossiia 25 (6-12 June February 1995), 27-28.)

1994), 6.) Report on 1955 disaster aboard battleship Environmental impact of nuclear tests on Novorossisk. (Ol’ga Musafirora, New data on Soviet ballistic missile develTotskii proving grounds, and increased can- “Herazgadannyi vzryv” (Unsolved Explo- opment. (Krasnaia Zvezda, 18 June 1994, cer rates in city of Orenburzh, assessed by sion), Komsomol'skaia Pravda, 28 October 6.) Duma representative. (Tamara Zlotnikova, 1993, 3.) “Zabytyi genotsid" (Forgotten Genocide),

Sino-Soviet Relations: Nezavisimaia Gazeta, 14 September 1994, On 1962 Soviet naval campaign in Indone2.)

sia. (Andrei Zhdankin, “Do voiny ostavalos' Correspondence printed between Stalin and

tri chasa" (There Were Three Hours Left Mao from January 1949 reveals disagreeSoviet KGB head Kryuchkov noted disap- Until War), Rossiia, 1-7 June 1994, 1.) ment on tactics regarding potential media

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