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1960s because he believed weapons were

POLISH CRISIS

on Jaruzelski's own account, Stan wojenny: being wasted. (Reported in Xinwen ziyou

continued from page 277

dlaczego (published in Poland in 1992), and daobao (Press Freedom Guardian), 29 Sep-collapse of Communism. Although he added

his book often seems little more than a tember 1995, 3.)

some observations about events through the reprise of the memoir. Aside from reiterat

end of 1991, he decided to proceed with the ing Jaruzelski's arguments, Grishin's other Publications: Ilya V. Gaiduk, The Soviet publication of his book before he had con

main goal (as he declares without any subtlety Union and the Vietnam War (Chicago: Ivan sulted any newly opened archives. This

in his introduction) is to depict Solidarity in R. Dee, scheduled for publication Spring decision was unfortunate, but it was not

as negative a light as possible. For polemical 1996); Commission for Research on Party inexcusable for a scholar who had already purposes his book may have some value, but History, ed., Ho Chi Minh, 4th ed. (Hanoi: completed a manuscript and who would have

from a scholarly standpoint it is sorely defiThe Gioi Publishers, 1995); Ho Chi Minh, had to travel many thousands of miles to

cient. Prison Diary, 9th ed. (Hanoi: The Gioi work in the former East-bloc archives, per

It is a pity that neither of the books under Publishers, 1994); Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, haps delaying the appearance of his book for

review takes advantages of opportunities Dien Bien Phu, 5th ed. (Hanoi: The Gioi a considerable time. The delay would have

afforded by the post-Communist era. Publishers, 1994); Gen. Giap, Unforget- been worthwhile, but it was a judgment call

Zuzowski's analysis has much to recomtable Days, 3rd ed. (Hanoi: The Gioi Pub

for Zuzowski in 1992, and he obviously mend it, and even Grishin occasionally has lishers, 1994); Vien Su Hoc et al., Lich Su' believed believed he should press ahead.

interesting things to say, but an authoritative Viet Nam, 1954-1965 (Hanoi: Nha Xuat

In Grishin's case, the decision to forgo

reassessment of the Polish crisis will require Ban Khoa Học Xa Hoi, 1995); William J. archival research is far less explicable. His

detailed and critical archival research. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and the overview of the Polish crisis covers very Conflict in Indochina (Stanford, CA: familiar ground, and thus he should have

COLD WAR Stanford University Press, 1994); Xiangen done his best to adduce new documentary INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT Wang, Zhongguo mimi da fabing: Yuang evidence. Grishin did not complete his monoyue hang Mei shilu (China secretly dis- graph until early 1993, well after secret ma

The Cold War International History Project was

established at the Woodrow Wilson International Cenpatched many troops: The real record of terials in both Warsaw and Moscow had been

ter for Scholars in Washington, D.C., in 1991 with the supporting Vietnam to resist America] released and at the very time when sensitive help of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur (Jinan: Jinan, 1992); Yinhong Shi, Meiguo files on the 1980-81 events were still freely

Foundation. The project supports the full and prompt zai Yuenan de ganshe he zhanzheng, 1954

release of historical materials by governments on all available at the former CPSU Central Com1968 (American intervention and war in

sides of the Cold War, and seeks to disseminate new mittee archive in Moscow. (Severe restric

information and perspectives on Cold War history Vietnam, 1954-1968] (Beijing: World

tions were reimposed at the former Central emerging from previously inaccessible sources on Knowledge, 1993).

Committee archive in April 1983, but that "the other side"—the former Communist blocwas after Grishin's book was finished.) Al

through publications, fellowships, and scholarly meetCuba/Cuban Missile Crisis

ings and conferences. The project is overseen by an though Grishin is based at Kazan University

advisory committee chaired by Prof. William Taubman in Tatarstan, rather than in Moscow, he could (Amherst College) and consisting of Michael Piero Gleijeses, “Ships in the Night: The

have traveled to the Russian capital (and Beschloss; Dr. James Billington (Librarian of ConCIA, the White House and the Bay of Pigs,” | ideally to Warsaw, too) at relatively little

gress); Prof. Warren I. Cohen (University of MaryJournal of Latin American Studies 27:1

land-Baltimore); Prof. John Lewis Gaddis (Ohio Uniexpense to consult the archives. His decision

versity-Athens); Dr. Samuel F. Wells, Jr. (Deputy (February 1995), 1-42.

to rely exclusively on contemporaneous Director, Woodrow Wilson Center); and Prof. Sharon

newspaper articles and on a few recent first- Wolchik (George Washington University). Within Publications: Fabian Escalante, The Secret

the Wilson Center, CWIHP is under the Division of hand accounts largely negates whatever conWar: CIA covert operations against Cuba,

International Studies, headed by Amb. Robert tribution his book might have made.

Hutchings, and is directed by Dr. James G. Hershberg. 1959-1962 (Melbourne, Australia: Ocean

Perhaps if Grishin had pursued archival Readers are invited to submit articles, letters and Press, 1995); Claudia Furati, trans. Maxine

research, he would have been able to come Update items to the Bulletin. Publication of articles Shaw, ZR Rifle: The Plot to Kill Kennedy up with a more sophisticated presentation.

does not constitute CWIHP's endorsement of authors' and Castro: Cuba Opens Secret Files

views. Copies are available free upon request. To be sure, his book is a vast improvement

a (Melbourne, Australia: Ocean Press, 1994);

over the lurid Soviet-era publications on the Cold War International History Project Bulletin Carlos Lechuga, In the Eye of the Storm:

Polish crisis (e.g., Georgii Korchadnze's Issues 6-7 (Winter 1995/1996) Castro, Khrushchev, Kennedy and the Cu

Woodrow Wilson International Ctr. for Scholars Zagovor protiv Pol'shi), and Grishin's disban Missile Crisis: The inside story by cussion of Soviet policy toward Poland in

1000 Jefferson Drive, SW

Washington, D.C. 20560 Cuba's former UN ambassador(Melbourne, 1980-81 is often insightful. But his book is

Tel.: (202) 357-2967; fax: (202) 357-4439 Australia: Ocean Press, 1995); Mark White,

a far cry from the scholarly standards that e-mail: wwcem123@sivm.si.edu The Cuban Missile Crisis (London: most Western (and, increasingly, many Rus

Editor: James G. Hershberg Macmillan, and New York: New York Unisian) analysts would accept. Grishin is pri

Managing Editor: P.J. Simmons versity Press, January 1996). marily interested in showing why the Polish

Associate Editor: Bonnie Southwick leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, was justi- Researchers: Andrew Grauer, Mark Torok, fied in crushing Solidarity in December 1981.

Michelle King, Sara Kirchhoff, Anne Chiorazzi,

Helen Christakos
Grishin draws extensively and uncritically

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The Cold War in the Third World

and the Collapse of Détente in the 1970s

In January 1976, during several days of negotiations in Moscow secretive setting. This time, in the fall of 1981, at the height of with Kremlin leaders, U.S. Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger the public hostility between the Reagan Administration and pleaded for a Soviet gesture to ease the superpower confrontation in Fidel Castro's Cuba, Haig was clandestinely meeting the Angola, where the USSR's airlift of military equipment and Cuban Cuban Vice President, Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, in a Mexico troops had allowed the leftist government in Luanda to withstand an City suburb. And one key subject for debate was a review of assault by guerrilla forces backed by South Africa. The action could recent history: How had Cuba become involved in Africa, and do “irreparable damage" to detente, Kissinger warned, undermining why did U.S.-Cuban relations begin to "go very poorly” in supporters of that policy (above all Kissinger himself) in the United 1975-76 and continue to deteriorate thereafter? (The record of States. And that would be a “tragedy” since neither Moscow nor that meeting remains classified in U.S. and Cuban archives, Washington had any significant interests in Angola, and “Five years but the Cold War International History Project Bulletin in this from now it will make no difference.”

issue publishes a translated transcript obtained from the RusAccording to recently declassified transcripts of the talks, ob- sian archives.) tained under the Freedom of Information Act by the National While Haig, repeating charges made during the Carter Security Archive, Soviet Communist Party General Secretary Le- Administration, insisted that Cuba had acted as a Soviet proxy onid I. Brezhnev and Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko rebuffed or puppet by intervening in Angola and the Horn of Africa, the American's increasingly plaintive entreaties with the curt re- Rodriguez maintained just as stoutly that Havana had acted sponse that any complaints should be taken up with Havana, since independently, out of its own interests, albeit (especially in the the Cuban intervention was the result of decisions made between latter case) in coordination with Moscow; if anything, he two sovereign states, Angola and Cuba, and the USSR could not declared, far from Moscow pulling the strings, it had been speak for them. At a Friday morning session with Gromyko at the Castro, not Brezhnev, who had been the most ardent advocate Foreign Ministry's Tolstoi House, Kissinger finally gave up, wist- of sending military support to revolutionary leaders in Africa. fully calling it "a pity that this has come to pass when many “The outward geopolitical character of these events is opportunities existed for two great powers to settle this in a far- completely at odds with the essence of the true facts... History sighted way.”

will bring all of this to light,” Rodriguez is quoted as telling “It wouldn't be the first time in history," he rued, "that events Haig, adding: “One fine day, all of this will come to light. You that no one can explain afterwards give rise to consequences out of can believe me or not, but some day this will be common proportion to their intrinsic significance."

knowledge." Five years later, détente had indeed collapsed, in large measure That “fine day” has not quite arrived—much remains due to a series of superpower conflicts in the Third World—over classified or hidden in archives and memories on all sides of Angola, the Horn of Africa, Cuba, and Afghanistan, among other the events—but with this issue of the CWIHP Bulletin, it has locations—and another U.S. Secretary of State, Alexander M. Haig, come palpably closer. Jr., confronted another communist interlocutor in an even more

continued on page

4 *FOR IMPORTANT SUBSCRIBER ALSO IN THIS ISSUE:

* NEW EVIDENCE ON SOVIET INFORMATION, SEE INSIDE BACK * MORE NEW EVIDENCE

DECISION-MAKING AND THE 1956 COVER (P. 421) !!! ON THE COLD WAR IN ASIA

POLISH AND HUNGARIAN CRISES *VISIT THE CWIHP WEBSITE:

* MORE RUSSIAN DOCUMENTS * RESEARCH NOTES-SOVIET http://www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/cwihp ON THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS NUCLEAR HISTORY

The Cold War International History

Project

The Cold War International History Project was established at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., in 1991 with the help of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and receives major support from the MacArthur Foundation and the Smith Richardson Foundation. The Project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and seeks to disseminate new information and perspectives on Cold War history emerging from previously inaccessible sources on the other side"—the former Communist bloc—through publications, fellowships, and scholarly meetings and conferences. Within the Wilson Center, CWIHP is under the Division of International Studies, headed by Dr. Robert S. Litwak. The Outgoing Director of the Cold War International History Project and Outgoing Editor of the Bulletin is Dr. James G. Hershberg; the Incoming Director is Prof. David Wolff (Princeton University), and the Incoming Associate Director is Christian F. Ostermann. The project is overseen by an advisory committee chaired by Prof. William Taubman (Amherst College) and consisting of Michael Beschloss; Dr. James Billington (Librarian of Congress); Prof. Warren I. Cohen (University of Maryland-Baltimore); Prof. John Lewis Gaddis (Ohio University-Athens); Dr. Samuel F. Wells, Jr. (Deputy Director, Woodrow Wilson Center); and Prof. Sharon Wolchik (George Washington University). Readers are invited to submit articles, documents, letters, and Update items to the Bulletin. Publication of articles does not constitute CWIHP's endorsement of authors' views. Copies are available free upon request.

Cold War International History Project Bulletin
Issues 8-9 (Winter 1996/1997)
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
1000 Jefferson Drive, SW
Washington, D.C. 20560
Tel.: (202) 357-2967
Fax: (202) 357-4439

Editor for this Issue: James G. Hershberg
Assistant Editor: Christa Sheehan Matthew
Research Assistant: Andrew Grauer
Incoming Director: David Wolff
Incoming Associate Director: Christian F. Ostermann

Visit our Website! http://www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/cwihp

TABLE OF CONTENTS

New Evidence on the Cold War in the Third World and the Collapse of Detente in the 1970s

Editor's Introduction.........

... 1

New Evidence on the Cold War in Southern Africa

Havana's Policy in Africa, 1959-76: New Evidence from Cuban Archives, by Piero Gleijeses.......

.5

Fidel Castro's 1977 Southern Africa Tour: A Report to Honecker.........

8

Moscow and the Angolan Crisis: A New Pattern of Intervention, by Odd Arne Westad..........

.21

Soviet Documents on Angola and Southern Africa, 1975-1979....

32

Anatomy of a Third World Cold War Crisis: New East-bloc Evidence on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978

Introduction, by James G. Hershberg.........

38

The Horn, the Cold War, and New Documents from the Former East-bloc: An Ethiopian View, by Ermias Abebe...........

40

Moscow, Mengistu, and the Horn: Difficult Choices for the Kremlin, by Paul B. Henze..........

45

East Germany and the Horn Crisis: Documents on SED Afrikapolitik, by Christian F. Ostermann..

47

Russian and East German Documents on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978...

50

U.S.-Soviet Relations and the Turn Toward Confrontation, 1977-1980: New Russian & East German Documents

Introduction, by James G. Hershberg.....

103

Russian and East German Documents...

104

New Evidence on the Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan

Concerning the Situation in “A”: New Russian Evidence on the Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan, by Odd Arne Westad.................. 128

The Soviet Union and Afghanistan, 1978-1989: Documents from the Russian and East German Archives..........

133

U.S. -Cuban Relations and the Cold War, 1976-1981: New Evidence from Communist Archives

Introduction, by James G. Hershberg.

185

Russian and East German Documents....

186

Cuba as Superpower: Havana and Moscow, 1979, by Jorge I. Dominguez......

216

A “Moment of Rapprochement”: The Haig-Rodriguez Secret Talks, by Peter Kornblu..............

217

dinary group of people from around the world. Even more than the historical information it has gathered and disseminated, CWIHP's greatest achievement, I think, has been the creation of an international community of Cold War scholars, especially those who, on a daily and sometimes hourly basis, 24/7, constitute the CWIHP "network”: Tom Blanton, Malcolm Byrne, Vlad Zubok, Mark Kramer, Jim Blight/janet Lang, Odd Arne Westad, Chen Jian, David Wolff, Christian Ostermann, Kathryn Weathersby, Hope Harrison, John Gaddis, Bill Taubman, Warren Cohen, Aleksandr Chubarian, Mikhail Narinsky, and the "group" in Moscow, Bill Burr, Ilya Gaiduk, Leo Gluchowski, Csaba Bekes, Norman Naimark, Priscilla Roberts, Sven Holtsmark, Bob Brigham, Ray Garthoff, Vojtech Mastny, Kostia Pleshakov, Allen Greb, Maxim Korobochkin, Mark Doctoroff, Piero Gleijeses, Daniel Rozas, Peter Kornbluh, and many others who have made the last five-and-a-half years such fun that the exasperation paled by comparison. And above all, thanks to Annie for putting up with everything and coming along for the ride.

-Jim Hershberg

CONTINUED FROM FRONT COVER pp.) and a major conference organized by

CWIHP and hosted by Hong Kong UniverIn this issue, the Bulletin presents evi

sity in January 1996; dence from communist world archives

* More Russian Evidence on the CuRussian, East German, Cuban-on many of

ban Missile Crisis, providing another sethe same issues that so bedeviled U.S.-So

lection of declassified documents from the viet relations in the 1970s: Angola, the Horn

Russian Foreign Ministry archives and other of Africa, Afghanistan, Cuba, et al.

materials to supplement those printed in BulIn large measure, the evidence presented

letin 5 (Spring 1995); here stems from the labors of the “Carter

* New Evidence on Soviet DecisionBrezhnev Project”: a multi-year, multi-ar

Making on the 1956 Polish and Hungarchival, international academic effort to ex

ian Crises, featuring an authoritive translaplore the causes, consequences, and lega

tion and annotation of the so-called “Malin cies of the collapse of superpower detente

Notes” of key Kremlin meetings during the in the 1970s. The project was spearheaded

crises, along with an introductory essay, by by Drs. James G. Blight and janet Lang of

Mark Kramer of Harvard University—a rethe Thomas J. Watson Institute for Interna

markable window into how the Soviet leadtional Studies at Brown University (orga

ership responded to a challenge to the comnizer of similar conferences on the Cuban

munist empire that in many ways foreshadMissile Crisis), with the active participation

owed the terminal crisis of 1989; and finally of an informal consortium of scholarly part

* Research Reports on Soviet Nuclear ners, including the National Security

History: documents on the origins of the Archive, a non-governmental research in

USSR's atomic project and on Nikita stitute and declassified documents reposi

Khrushchev's 1960 troop cut. tory located at George Washington University; CWIHP; the Norwegian Nobel Institute; the Institute for Universal History, the This Bulletin marks my final issue as Foreign Ministry archives, and the Center Editor and as Director of the Cold War Infor the Storage of Contemporary Documen- ternational History Project; beginning in tation in Moscow. (A report on some of the January 1997 I took up a position as AssisProject's early findings, on U.S.-Soviet re- tant Professor of Diplomatic History and Inlations at the outset of the Carter Adminis- ternational Affairs at George Washington tration, appeared in CWIAP Bulletin 5 University. I am pleased to report that the (Spring 1995), 140-154.)

Project is passing into able, enthusiastic, Many of the documents in this Bulletin more linguistically-gifted, and perhaps more were obtained and translated by the Carter- organized hands: David Wolff, formerly of Brezhnev Project in preparation for a series Princeton University, the author of a major of conferences on the breakdown in U.S.- forthcoming study of Northeast Asian hisSoviet relations in the late 1970s, held in tory, and fluent in Russian, Chinese, JapaGeorgia in May 1994 (on the SALT II pro- nese, German, and French, becomes cess), in Ft. Lauderdale in March 1995 (on CWIHP's new Director; and Christian F. superpower rivalry in the Third World), and Ostermann, research fellow at the National in Lysebu, Norway in September 1995 (on Security Archive, a frequent contributor to the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan); the Bulletin of reports on new evidence from other translations, as well as accompanying the East German archives, and the author of articles and commentaries, were solicited by a forthcoming study on relations between the Bulletin. (All documents obtained by the German Democratic Republic and the the Carter-Brezhnev Project are available for United States, becomes Associate Director. research at the National Security Archive.) I am also glad to say that I plan to remain

Readers interested in these topics will closely associated with CWIHP, collaboratalso wish to obtain the first book to emerge ing with my successors on transitional acfrom the Carter-Brezhnev Project: Odd Arne tivities, contributing to future endeavors, Westad, ed., The Fall of Detente: Soviet- editing CWIHP's Book Series, and perhaps American Relations in the Carter Years (see even finding time after five years of adminbox), which contains interpretive essays by istration to do more of my own research and noted scholars as well as recently declassi- writing on Cold War history. So this is not fied U.S. and East-bloc materials; other vol- good-bye. umes are planned.

Nevertheless, I would like to express my This Bulletin double issue also contains gratitude to CWIHP's creators, supporters, several other major chunks of important new friends, and collaborators for the chance to evidence from communist archives: participate in the thrilling experience of

* More New Evidence on the Cold peering behind (and trying to rip down enWar in Asia, following up on the previous tirely) the curtain of the last half-century of Bulletin (no. 6-7, Winter 1995/1996, 294 world history, and to work with an extraor

THE FALL OF DETENTE: SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS

IN THE CARTER YEARS

a

Readers interested in the materials on the Cold War in the Third World and the Collapse of Detente in the 1970s should also consult a newly published volume which also emerges from the work of the Carter-Brezhnev Project: Odd Arne Westad, ed., The Fall of Detente: Soviet-American Relations in the Carter Years (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1997).

The volume includes interpretive essays as well as key U.S., Russian, East German and other documents on SALT and Bilateral Relations, Regional Conflicts, and Afghanistan and After. For ordering information within North America, contact the Scandinavian University Press North America, 875 Mass. Ave., Ste. 84, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; tel: 617/497-6515; toll-free: 800/498-2877; fax: 617/354-6875; e-mail: 75201.571 @compuserve.com; e-mail orders outside North America: books@scup.no

Essays in the book include: Odd Arne Westad, "The Fall of Detente and the Turning Tides of History"; Olav Njolstad, “Keys of Keys? SALT II and the Breakdown of Detente"; Carol R. Saivetz, “Superpower Competition in the Middle East and the Collapse of Detente"; Dan Caldwell, "The Demise of Detente and US Domestic Politics"; Odd Arne Westad, “The Road to Kabul: Soviet Policy on Afghanistan, 1978-1979"; John Lewis Gaddis, “Why Did the Cold War Last as Long as It Did?"

For additional information, contact Odd Arne Westad, Director of Research, Norwegian Nobel Institute, Drammensveien 19, 0255 Oslo, Norway; fax: 47-22 43 01 68.

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