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that group

a

From the diary of

SECRET propaganda efforts prior to the establishment tionaries. Neto also included the FNLA in E.I. Afanasenko

Copy No. 2

of radio broadcasting facilities in the counSer. No. 181 try, broadcast of the radio program “Struggle The president of the MPLA said that 21 July 1975 of Angola” will be resumed in Brazzaville. the military conflict which took place last

The president of the MPLA stated that June demonstrated the strength of the Record of Conference with

one of the main points in the negotiations MPLA's military detachments. NotwithPresident of MPLA Agostinho NETO with the KPT was the issue of Cabinda. The standing the numerical superiority of the 4 July 1975

PRC made the decision not to support the FNLA's forces, the MPLA is no weaker than

demand of autonomy for Cabinda at the the FNLA in military terms. Neto declared We received a visit from President of OAU assembly which had been advanced that the MPLA commands great political inthe MPLA Agostinho Neto. I informed him by the Congo and Zaire last February. As fluence in the country which is continuing that the Central Committee of the CPSU was to the change of their position on the to grow. At the same time, he acknowledged closely following the development of cir- Cabinda question, the Congolese assured the that two northwest provinces of Angola have cumstances in Angola. The Soviet people MPLA delegation that they would terminate been controlled by the FNLA since last June. are interested in the victory of democratic assistance to the nationalist Cabindi orga- In addition, UNITA commands major influforces in Angola. In 1975, significant aid nization FLEC. Inasmuch as the parties had ence in Bie and the surrounding regions, has been provided to the MPLA. Pursuant reached an agreement on the Cabinda issue, where a large portion of the country's poputo instructions from the Central Committee the PRC allowed the MPLA to use its terri- lation lives. of the CPSU, we had a conference with the tory for the transport of arms, military equip

Neto characterized UNITA as an orgaPresident of the PRC [People's Republic of ment and other cargo supplied to the Move- nization representing the interests of white the Congo] M. Nguabi, in which the issue ment by the Soviet Union and other friendly farmers with reactionary leanings. Howof rendering aid to the MPLA was discussed. countries. In addition, the Congolese con- ever, UNITA does not command significant

Neto thanked the Central Committee firmed their decision to close their land bor- military forces and is attempting to play a of the CPSU for the rendering of assistance. der with Cabinda for the MPLA. In order role as an intermediary between the MPLA He stated that the leadership of the MPLA to export supplies to Angola, they allotted and the FNLA. The president of the MPLA had recently expanded its contacts with gov- the port and airfield at Pointe-Noire. Trans- spoke in favor of a tactical alliance with ernments of the African countries. In the portation of cargo is to be carried out by the UNITA. The desirability of such an allicourse of these discussions, the MPLA is land and sea forces of the MPLA. Neto was ance was advocated to the leadership of the attempting to increase the number of its sup- outspoken in his appraisal of the results of MPLA by numerous heads of African govporters in Africa. One of the immediate the negotiations with the Congolese. He ernments, first and foremost, by the PRC. objectives of the MPLA is to prevent the emphasized that the refusal of the Congo to The president of the MPLA expressed discussion of the issue of Cabinda at the up- support the Cabindi demand for autonomy doubts about fulfillment of all the agreecoming assembly concerned about the fact represented an important step forward in the ments signed in Nakuru (Kenya). One of the that this year (Ugandan leader] Idi Amin, normalization of relations between the reasons for the likely breakdown of those who collaborates closely with (Zairian MPLA and the KPT.

agreements is the aggression of the FNLA, leader] Mobutu (Sese Seko), will become The president of the MPLA proceeded which is unlikely to give up its armed provothe Chairman of the OAU [Organization of to characterize the domestic situation in cations. All of this, Neto emphasized, reAfrican Unity). We anticipate, said Neto, Angola. He pointed out that the existence quires the MPLA to continue the developthat the president of Uganda will come for- of three national liberation movements in ment of its armed forces. In this connection ward at the OAU assembly with a proposal the country was creating a favorable oppor- it is counting on aid from the Soviet Union. to discuss the issue of Cabinda. Our meet- tunity for reactionary forces in the country, The MPLA has decided to address the Cenings in Nigeria and our ongoing negotiations which in turn was leading to a further inten- tral Committee of the CPSU with a request in the Congo with president M. Nguabi, sification of political, social, and economic to furnish additional military and financial Member of the Politburo of the Central conflicts. Neto pointed to two groups of aid. At the end of this July, an MPLA delCommittee of the KPT (the Russian acro- reactionary forces acting against Angola. egation will be dispatched to the USSR, nym for the Congolese Workers' Party] A. The first group he attributed to domestic headed by member of the Politburo of the Lopez, member of the Central Committee Portuguese reactionaries. This group is fo- Central Committee of the MPLA Iko Kareira of the KPT Obami-Itu, and Foreign Minis- menting tensions in the country and provok- (commander in chief of the MPLA). ter (Charles-David] Ganao, said Neto, are ing a mass emigration of the white popula- Neto reported that last June, a delegadirected to this very question.

tion from Angola. The departure of large tion of the MPLA visited the PRC [People's Negotiations between the MPLA and numbers of technical specialists has resulted Republic of China) at the invitation of the the KPT are proceeding successfully. An in serious damage to the country's economy. Chinese government. Zambia, Tanzania, agreement has been reached to maintain The white reactionaries are capitalizing on and the PRC (People's Republic of the ongoing consultations between the MPLA the support of the present Supreme Com- Congo) also took part in the organization of and KPT with the aim of developing a com- missar of Angola and a large portion of the that trip. In the course of negotiations in mon policy and the conduct of joint efforts Portuguese officers. The second group of the PRC, the Chinese assured their delegain Africa and Angola. In order to enhance reactionary forces consists of foreign reac- tion that they would terminate all forms of military aid to all three Angolan national lib- share his thoughts in connection with the The president further stated that the eration movements until the granting of in- upcoming meeting and requested his assess- Politburo of the MPLA, by special dispendependence to Angola.

ment of conditions in the national liberation sation, had empowered Politburo member I thanked the president of the MPLA movement and of the position of other Afri- and Prime Minister Lopo do Nascimento, for the interesting information. I promised can countries. Neto reported that it had been with responsibility for all important issues to communicate to the Central Committee determined to hold the meeting of the five of foreign policy, to prepare additional proof the CPSU the request of the MPLA to presidents ahead of schedule (that is, not on posals on the issue over further development furnish additional military and financial aid. September 15 as referenced above), and that of contacts by the PRA with Sao Tome and

The conference was attended by mem- in just two hours he was flying to Dar-es- Principe. He requested the Soviet Ambasbers of the Politburo of the Central Com- Salaam. The principal theme of the meet- sador to provide him with detailed positions mittee of the MPLA Lucio Lara and Jose ing would be the meeting between (U.S. of the Soviet side on the issue over the situEduardo, member of the governing council Secretary of State Henry A.] Kissinger and ation in the South Atlantic and relations of of the MPLA Pedro Van-Dunen, as well as (South African Prime Minister John] Vorster Lopo do Nascimento with the ROZM and the first Secretary of the Soviet Embassy in and its implications for Africa. He, Neto, the DRSTP. the PRC Comrade B. G. Putilin.

still did not know exactly what position to Neto stated his desire for a continual

propose at the meeting, what policy to adopt. exchange of information between the PRA Ambassador of the USSR to the This being his first opportunity for partici- and the USSR on international questions, People's Republic of the Congo pation in this sort of a conference (Tanza- in particular those concerning the situation /s/ E. Afanasenko

nia, Zambia, Mozambique and Botswana in Africa and the South Atlantic. He stated

have already met repeatedly on these issues), that he intended to address these questions (Source: TskhSD, f. 5, op. 68, d. 1962, II. it is apparent that Neto needs to hear the in his conferences in Moscow. 157-159.7

opinions of his colleagues at the meeting,

and only after that will he be in a position to USSR AMBASSADOR TO THE Soviet Ambassador to the People's

formulate his position. For example, it is PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA Republic of Angola B.S. Vorobiev, not entirely clear to Neto why the participa

/s/ B. VOROBIEV Memorandum of Conversation with tion and assistance of Kissinger is necesPresident A. Neto, 4 September 1976 sary. He also does not understand the in- (Source: TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 65, d. 2513, II.

consistency of (Zambian] President (Ken- 100-101.) From the diary of

SECRET neth] Kaunda on the issue of the intermediB.S. VOROBIEV

Copy No. 1

ating role of Kissinger in contacts with Soviet Ambassador to Angola, Ser. No. 286 Vorster.

V.P. Loginov, Memorandum of Neto indicated further that, lacking a Conversation with candidate-member Record of Conversation with full understanding of the positions held by of the Politburo Secretary of the CC President of PRA A. NETO

Tanzania and the other participants in the MPLA-PT for international issues
conference, he is presently having difficulty

P. Luvualu, 27 June 1978
4 September 1976 articulating any concepts on these issues,
although after his return from the meeting, From the journal of

SECRET On 4 September 1976, I visited Presi- these issues will be clearer to him, and he V.P. Loginov Copy no. 2 re: no. 222 dent A. Neto at his invitation. expects to be able to inform us about them,

20 July 1978 Neto inquired as to whether any infor- so they can be communicated to Moscow. mation had been received from Moscow In the course of our discussion I in- RECORD OF CONVERSATION regarding the Soviet position on issues re- formed the president about the response re- with candidate-member of the Politburo lating to the national liberation movement ceived from Moscow regarding the attitude Secretary of the CC of the MPLA-PT for in southern Africa, and whether that infor- of the Angolan side toward the issue of the

international issues mation could be imparted to him, if possible, situation in the South Atlantic, conveyed

P. LUVUALU in connection with the upcoming meeting through the Soviet Ambassador by of the presidents from five countries [Angolan] Prime Minister Lopo do

27 June 1978 (Angola, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Nascimento. and Botswana), scheduled for September 15. President Neto expressed his apprecia- [I] visited candidate-member of the

I said to him in general that no infor- tion for the speedy response. He declared Politburo, Secretary of the CC of the MPLAmation had yet been received. Based on his full agreement with all of the positions PT [Popular Movement for the Liberation materials received from the center (Mos- held by the Soviet side and emphasized that, of Angola–Partido Trabajo] for internacow], I told him about the ongoing confer- in the recent past, new facts had emerged tional issues, P. Luvualu at his invitation. ence in Moscow of delegations from three indicating an increased interest by the USA P. Luvualu informed me that at the curnational liberation movements from south- in the ROZM (Republic of Cape Verde) and rent time the leadership of the People's Reern Africa.

by France in the DRSTP (Democratic Re- public of Angola has sent several delegaFor my part, I asked the president to public of Sao Tome and Principe).

tions to various African countries in order to explain the Angolan position with regard groups of Lunda nationality from Angola ciliation of the central Kinshasa authorities to Zaire and to gather information on the into Zaire and back, since the border be- with the Lunda nationality in order that forreal nature of the events in the Zairian prov- tween Angola and Zaire stretches out for eign monopolies might without resistance ince of Shaba. The delegations should once approximately two thousand kilometers. exploit the wealth of the province of Shaba. again underscore that neither Angola, nor P. Luvualu underscored that Mobutu, And, finally, the Western countries persist the Soviet Union, nor Cuba bear any rela- in every instance when an internal conflict in seeking the reconciliation of Zaire with tion to the events in the province of Shaba, arises, strives by using false pretexts, to in- Angola in order to renew the transport of and that these events are an internal Zairian ternationalize it. The Secretary of the CC natural resources from the province of Shaba problem.

MPLA-PT (referred to the interference of along the Benguela railroad. The Secretary of the CC MPLA-PT Western powers—the members of NATO in P. Luvualu remarked in this connection declared that there are objective factors the previous conflict in the province of that the president of the People's Republic which facilitate the continual occurrence of Shaba and their proposal to create an inter- of Angola, A. Neto, in his declaration of July conflicts and tension in this region. The African armed force which would be used 9, announced that the Zairian refugees will colonizers, when they drew the borders be- not only to resolve the current tasks of put- be led from the Zairian borders into the intween states, did not take into account the ting down the revolt of the Lunda national- terior of Angola, that Angola will disarm the ethnic make-up of the population. As a re- ity, [but also for the preservation of the detachments of the FNLC (Front for the sult, the significant nationality of the Lunda Mobutu regime, and the possibility for for- National Liberation of the Congo) which was broken up and in the current time lives eign monopolies to continue to exploit the retreat from the province of Shaba into in three countries — Zaire, Angola and Zam- resources of the province of Shaba.

Angola, and that the Angolan government bia. Moreover, at the current time there are The fact, declared P. Luvualu, that the proposes that Zaire, in turn, draw off the over 250,000 Zairian refugees in Angola, Republic of South Africa has expressed a UNITA, FNLA, and FLEC bases away from who are mainly of the Lunda nationality and desire to take part in the inter-African forces the Angolan border. The President of the among them from 20,000 to 30,000 are confirms our evaluation of the neo-colonial People's Republic of Angola in this anformer soldiers, the so-called Katanga gen- nature of these forces. This evaluation is nouncement also underscored that the refudarmes. After the war of independence, the also confirmed by the fact that China has gees may live in any country according to central authorities in Zaire began to perse- sent military instructors to Zaire and has of- their choice. This position, said P. Luvualu, cute members of the Lunda nationality who fered equipment for arming the inter-Afri- is in complete accordance with the charter lived in the province of Shaba. Unlawful can forces.

of the Organization of African Unity and arrests took place as well as the execution In the estimation of P. Luvualu, this international law. of Zairian soldiers of the Lunda nationality. issue concerns armed forces of international Then the Secretary of the CC MPLA

It is necessary to take into account the imperialism which are being created by PT raised the problem of Namibia. He infact that the province of Shaba is the richest NATO with the aim of supporting reaction- formed us that, in appraising the aggression of all Zairian provinces and provides a sig- ary, unpopular regimes in Africa as well as of the Republic of South Africa toward nificant part of the hard-currency goods supporting the struggle against progressive

supporting the struggle against progressive Angola at Cassinga, immediately following which enter the country, and that some of African countries and national liberation the important victory of SWAPO (Southwest the largest foreign monopolies have invested movements.

African People's Organization) in the UN, capital in the exploitation of the natural re- The long term goals of the Western the Angolan leadership came to the conclusources of the province.

countries consist of strengthening the posi- sion that the aggressive actions of the ReThe catastrophic condition of the tion of NATO in the central part of Africa in public of South Africa were made in purZairian economy, the dizzying rise of prices, order to break through to the Indian Ocean, suit of the following goals: to weaken the corruption which has enveloped the i.e. for the neo-colonial conquest of Africa. SWAPO and force it to accept the plan of whole machinery of state, including the The Secretary of the CC MPLA-PT the 5 Western powers for Namibia; to gain army, the unbearably serious condition of declared that the evaluation by the Angolan time, in order to create in Namibia a puppet the population, particularly of national mi- leadership of the events in Zaire is con- political force which would be able to norities and the greater part of the military, firmed likewise by the resolution of the counter SWAPO; to scare the People's Reaggravates the conflict between the Western countries to offer Kinshasa eco- public of Angola and weaken Angolan supKinshasa government and the Lunda nation- nomic assistance. The Western countries, port for SWAPO. ality, and lead to the revolts which occur as is well known, as a condition for grant- P. Luvualu remarked that events had from time to time among the soldiers of ing such assistance demanded, first, a re- fully confirmed the correctness of this apLunda nationality in the Zairian army. Dur- form of the management of the Zairian praisal of the Angolan leadership. For exing moments of acute conflict the Lunda

economy and finances according to which ample, in the present time in Namibia, the refugees in Angola seek to assist their fel- representatives of the USA, France, Bel- Republic of South Africa has created the solow-tribesmen in the province of Shaba. gium, and the Federal Republic of Germany called democratic party with the help of the Moreover, all of the refugees in Angola, it would have full control over the economy, renegade (Andrea] Chipanga and the sogoes without saying, would like to return to finances, and the actions of the administra- called National Front of Namibia. Vorster their homeland in Zaire. It is practically tive apparatus from top to bottom. Secondly, feverishly attempts to prepare elections, impossible to control the movement of they put forward a demand for the recon- which are falsified from the very beginning, and to achieve an internal settlement on the the leadership of the People's Republic of we had received from our embassies in a model of the internal settlement of Rhode- Angola. He likewise expressed his gratitude number of African countries is of a subjecsia with the aid of puppets like Chipanga. for the gift of the CC CPSU.

tive nature. In this connection I (Valdes The Secretary of the CC MPLA-PT In the course of our exchange of opin- Vivo) was given the task of becoming acdeclared that the People's Republic of ions on international problems P. Luvualu quainted with the situation on location, to Angola will continue to support SWAPO. asked that I give information about the situ- have discussions with the leaders of Angola, The Angolan leadership, he said, considers ation in South Yemen after the unsuccess- Ethiopia, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Nithat for the peaceful resolution of the ful government coup.

geria, and likewise with the Soviet ambasNamibian problem the Republic of South Embassy advisor S. S. Romanov was sadors in these countries, in order to receive Africa should: officially define a deadline present during this discussion.

more complete and more objective informafor the transfer of Walvis Bay to the authori

tion about the state of affairs in southern ties of Namibia, after declaring the indepen- USSR AMBASSADOR TO THE Africa. dence of that country; for a period of transi- PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA

I was tasked, he said, to convey to tion draw off its troops, which are now con

/s/ V. LOGINOV

J[oshua). Nk [leader of the Zimbabwe centrated on the border with Angola, to bases

African Political Union, ZAPU) and R. in the South of Namibia; immediately lib- (Source: TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 75, d. 1148, II. Mugabe (leader of the Zimbabwe African erate all political prisoners in Namibia. P. 71-75: translated by Sally Kux; copy on file National Union, ZANU), that Cuba is unLuvualu likewise remarked that Angola con- at National Security Archive.)

able to satisfy their request to send pilots curs with the proposed role of the UN in the

for the repulsion of air attacks on the traintransitional period in Namibia.

Memorandum of Conversation between ing camps for the Patriotic Front armed In conclusion P. Luvualu underscored Minister-counselor of the Soviet forces; to clarify the possibility of unified that the maneuvers of Western countries Embassy in Havana M. Manasov and action between ZAPU and ZANU; to lay around Angola will not succeed in forcing Cuban Communist Party CC member out before their leaders and the leadership the MPLA-PT to turn from the path it has Raul Valdes Vivo, 7 May 1979 of the front-line governments the Cuban chosen. We, he declared, have made a firm

plan for the creation of a provisional govand final choice of friends. This is the So- From the journal of

SECRET ernment in Zimbabwe. viet Union, Cuba, and other socialist coun- M.A. Manasov

copy no. 3

R.V. Vivo meanwhile remarked that in tries. With the assistance and support of

re: no 265

Angola at first there had not been clear cosocialist states, and first and foremost of the

“24” May 1979 operation between Cuba and the USSR, Soviet Union and Cuba, Angola will follow

whereas in Ethiopia our countries have its chosen path.

RECORD OF DISCUSSION

achieved the full coordination of our joint [I] thanked the Secretary of the CC

with member of the CC

actions. The policy of Cuba and the Soviet MPLA-PT for this information. From my

Com[munist]Party of Cuba

Union with regard to southern Africa should side I handed him the text of the Declara

comr. Raul Valdes Vivo

likewise be coordinated, he underscored. tion of the Soviet Government on Africa (in

My interlocutor laid out the essence of Portuguese). I underscored that this is an

7 May 1979 the Cuban plan, which is summarized as important political action in defense of the

follows. The declaration of a provisional independence of African governments, in I met with R.V. Vivo in the CC of the government in Zimbabwe is realized not in the solidarity of the USSR in the struggle of Party and, referring to the instructions of the exile, but in a part of the liberated territory the peoples of the continent against the im- Soviet ambassador, informed him of the dis- of the country; J. Nkomo is proposed for perialist interference in their affairs. I noted cussion in the International Section of the the post of president of the country, R. that the appraisal contained in it of the situ- CC CPSU with the members of the Execu- Mugabe for prime minister; the program ation in Africa coincides with the position tive Committee of the Jamaican People's platform of the provisional government proof the People's Republic of Angola. Then I National Party (PNP).

vides for the realization of a series of sogave him a translation into Portuguese of R.V. Vivo, having thanked me for the cial-economic transformations, secures the the Pravda article regarding the external information, noted the significance of this interests of those countries which recognize policies ofthe USA.

meeting, which will enable the development its government; the rights of the white part I handed (him) a film on the first con- of the connection between the CPSU and of the population are guaranteed, elections gress of the MPLA-PT and the sojourn in the PNP and, first and foremost, opens the are planned for the legislative organs of the the People's Republic of Angola of the So- possibility for the preparation of PNP cad- country; constitutional guarantees are proviet party delegation headed by Comrade res in the Soviet Union.

claimed, etc. A.P. Kirilenko.

Then, in the course of the discussion, According to the words of R.V. Vivo, P. Luvualu expressed his gratitude to R.V. Vivo spoke about his recent trip to sev- J. Nkomo and R. Mugabe have agreed with the Soviet government for its unflagging eral African countries, which was carried out this plan, as have the leaders of the frontsupport of progressive forces in Africa. He on the orders of F. Castro. This trip was line states. The provisional government, in said that he would immediately bring the undertaken, continued my interlocutor, be- the estimation of the Cuban side, would text of the Declaration to the attention of cause of the fact that the information which possibly be recognized at first by 30 coun

[blocks in formation]

tries.

The active interference of England in the affairs of Zambia may ensure the victory of the puppet government, which would possibly lead to a conflict between ZANU and ZAPU if the unity of their actions are not achieved, noted my interlocutor.

He reported that the armed forces of the ZANU and the ZAPU include in total 24 thousand people (12 thousand in each organization), but unfortunately, these forces are as yet inactive. In the ranks of mercenaries there are 3 thousand blacks and 2 thousand whites.

R.V. Vivo briefly set forth the content of his discussion with the Soviet ambassador in Mozambique. According to his words, during the discussion of the situation in southern Africa, our ambassador noted that according to the theory of Marxism-Leninism, it is impossible to accelerate events in a country where there is not a revolutionary situation and where there is not civilization. “To that I responded in jest to the Soviet ambassador,” said R.V. Vivo, "that if comrades L.I. Brezhnev and F. Castro decide that our countries will take part in the operations in Rhodesia, then we will participate in them."

By my request R.V. Vivo briefly informed me about the work of the last plenum of the CC Comparty of Cuba. He reported that the plenum summed up the fulfillment of the resolutions of the First Party Congress, revealed the deficiencies in the development of the national economy of the country, and set its course to overcome them. In view of the fact that the project for the resolution of the plenum on the given question did not reflect all aspects of the economic situation, the corresponding section of the CC of the Party was tasked with its reworking and with its publication.

With regard to the resolution of the plenum of the CC concerning the appointment of Lionel Soto (Prieto) as a member of the Secretariat of the CC of the Party, R. V. Vivo spoke very highly of him (“He is no Garcia Pelaes,” he said) and reported, that L. Soto will be occupied with the issues of the party leadership of the country's economy; along the party line he is tasked with responsibility for Khuseplan, the National Bank, GKES [State Committee for Economic Cooperation), and other central organs of the national economy.

Transcript of CPSU CC Politburo

The Cold War International History Meeting, 18 October 1979 (excerpt) Project congratulates Vladislav M.

Zubok and Constantine M. Pleshakov, [...]

two Russian historians who have been 9. Telegram from Havana Special]. # associated with the Project since its in741 and 744

ception, for receiving the 1996 Lionel

Gelber Prize for their book, Inside the SUSLOV. Comrades, you have read Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to these telegrams. In one of them a question Khrushchev, published by Harvard Uniis raised that in a conversation with our am

versity Press. Zubok is currently based bassador, Raul Castro told about difficul

at the National Security Archive, a nonties that had emerged with regard to replace-governmental research institute and ment of the Cuban troops in Ethiopia. In

declassified documents repository lothe second conversation Raul Castro said the

cated at George Washington University; Angolans in all probability would appeal

Pleshakov lives in Moscow, where he (probably to us] with a request to take over

until recently worked as a researcher at

the USA/Canada Institute of the Rusthe maintainance (i.e., costs—trans.] of the

sian Academy of Sciences. Cuban troops in Angola. Secondly, he said

Established in 1989, the $50,000 that the Angolans treat the Cuban represen

Lionel Gelber Prize, given by a Fountatives rather tactlessly.

dation named for the late Canadian dipThe next question concerned the assis

lomat, historian, and writer, is awarded tance with arms to SWAPO. He remarked,

annually to the winning author of a nonthat Soviet comrades assist SWAPO with

fiction book in the field of foreign relaarms but the SWAPO men absolutely do not

tions. It was presented to Zubok and fight and do not want to fight. Then one Pleshakov in Toronto on 7 October wonders, why we should help them with 1996. The jury citation read: weapons[?] In one word, there are a number of very important principled questions "Zubok and Pleshakov, two members which we should consider. I think that we of the young generation of Russian hisshould order the Defense Ministry and the torians, have mined recently available International Department of the CC to con- documents to provide new insights into sider these questions advanced in these tele- the inner workings of the Kremlin durgrams, taking into account the exchange of ing the critical postwar period. Theirs opinions that took place at the meeting of

is a significant contribution to the litthe Politburo, [and] the proposals will be

erature: a fresh and superbly researched introduced to the CC.

appraisal of the ideological, strategic ALL. Agreed.

and human foundations of the Cold War, from the Soviet side. This is a praise

worthy book in the best traditions of (Source: TsKhSD, f. 89, per. 25, dok. 6, II.

what Lionel Gelber sought to encour1-1; copy obtained by David Wolff; trans

age on behalf of readers everywhere: lation by Vladislav M. Zubok.)

impressive without being intimidating; learned without being impenetrable; engaging without being superficial.”

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