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RUSSIAN & EAST GERMAN DOCUMENTS

ON THE HORN OF AFRICA, 1977-78

come.

of USA Embassy in Ethiopia of its partial reorganization in the end of ABBREVIATIONS USED

HERBERT MALIN

December (1976) with the aim of reinforcIN THE DOCUMENTS

ing “collective leadership” of the country, 2 February 1977

the opinion predominates in Addis Ababa APRF-Archive of the President of the

that the policy of the PMAC will acquire a Russian Federation

I met today with Malin in the USA "more moderate" character. However, to CC–Central Committee

Embassy by preliminary arangement. The judge by the declarations of Teferi Banti, CPSU—Communist Party of the Soviet following points of interest were discussed. that has not occurred. Union

Concerning the situation in Ethiopia, In sum, according to Malin's opinion, ELF-RC-Eritrean Liberation Front (Revo- Malin noted the tension of the situation circumstances in Ethiopia will continue to lutionary Command)

caused by the activation of forces opposed be complicated and tense for a long time to EPLF—Eritrean People's Liberation Front to the Derg, especially in the northwestern EPRP-Ethiopian People's Revolutionary region of the country which is siding with For his part, he noted that the deterioParty

the Sudan. He directed attention to the ration of existing circumstances in the counEDU—Ethiopian Democratic Union “harsh pronouncements” of the Chairman try is tied in significant part to the open inFTAI—French Territory of the Afars and of the PMAC, Teferi Banti, of January 29 terference in the internal affairs of Ethiopia Issas, i.e. Djibouti

and 30 of this year, addressed to the leaders by the community of Arab countries and MEISON-All-Ethiopia Socialist Move- of the Sudan and Somalia, who are pursu- other forces, who are aligned in hostility to ment

ing an anti-Ethiopian policy, as well as to the policy of the PMAC and are supporting MFA-Ministry of Foreign Affairs his call for a union of “all progressive and forces opposed to it. He noted further that, OAU-Organization of African Unity patriotic forces” for the defense of the revo- in the final analysis, what is at issue is not PDRY-People's Democratic Republic of lution and the fatherland,” in this connec- merely Ethiopia itself, but the situation in Yemen, i.e. South Yemen

tion not mentioning the anti-government the region as a whole, the efforts of certain PMAC-Provisional Military Administra- leftist organization "Ethiopian People's Arab circles to establish complete control tive Council (of Ethiopia); the Derg Revolutionary Party” (EPRP). However, over the Red Sea, which constitutes an imPRC-People's Republic of Chin

Malin feels that the EPRP will hardly agree portant international maritime route, and the SAPMO-BArchSA-Stiftung Archiv der to support the call of Teferi Banti, due to its possible eruption here of a completely tense Parteien und Massenorgan-isationen der disagreement with the policy of the Derg. situation and even armed conflict. In this SED" im Bundesarchiv, Berlin

At the same time, he continued, the connection the opinion of Malin on the conSDR—Somali Democratic Republic opposition forces are not united and their dition of American-Ethiopian relations and SED—Socialist Unity Party of East Ger- joint opposition to the existing regime has a prospective development of circumstances many

temporary and tactical character. Even if in the given region was of interest. SRSP-Somali Revolutionary Socialist the opposition forces should succeed in Malin said that until now the AmeriParty

overthrowing this regime, a struggle for can administration, owing to the presidenTsKhSD_Center for the Storage of Con- power will erupt between them, especially tial elections, had not had an opportunity to temporary Documentation, Moscow between the pro-monarchy "Ethiopian involve itself to the extent warranted in the UAR—United Arab Republic; Egypt Democratic Union” and the “Ethiopian development of its policy in this region. UN—United Nations

People's Revolutionary Party” and other Since the change of regime in Ethiopia in UNGA—United Nations General Assembly leftist groups. The PMAC, in his opinion, 1974, American-Ethiopian relations have

continues to be the only real common na- had a relatively complex and contentious Memorandum of Conversation between tional power in contemporary Ethiopia, al- character. The USA cannot ignore the periSoviet Counselor-Minister in Ethiopia though its policy does not enjoy support odic outbreaks of anti-American activity in S. Sinitsin with Political Counselor of among a significant portion of the popula- the country. Thus, on 27-28 January of this

the U.S. Embassy in Ethiopia tion. It is further undoubted that, despite year, in the course of anti-government demHerbert Malin, 2 February 1977 the declarations of the Sudanese and Soma- onstrations by young protesters in Addis

lis, present day Ethiopia does not harbor “ag- Ababa, glass was broken and gas bombs From the diary of SECRET, Copy No. 2 gressive designs” in relation to its neighbors, were hurled at the department of the USIS S.Y. Sinitsin

4 February 1977 and in any event lacks the opportunity for (United States Information Service) buildSer. No. 41 the same in view of its complex internal ing, in addition to which leaflets of the problems.

“Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party" NOTES OF CONFERENCE

Concerning circumstances in the Mili- were distributed. Similar bombs were with Advisor for Political Issues tary Council itself, after the implementation hurled at the building of the MAAG (American Military Advisory Group). In the course and is against the partition of Ethiopia. The in connection with the negative, as he unof a demonstration of by a group organized USA, it is understood, is interested in the derstands it, attitude of Somalia toward the by the Military Council on 3 January in guarantee of stability in that region and free- prospective development of Soviet-EthioAddis Ababa in connection with the above- dom of navigation in the Red Sea.

pian cooperation. noted pronouncements of Teferi Banti, anti- Responding to pertinent questions, he I told Malin that our traditionally American performances by an array of ora

said that the American-Ethiopian agreement friendly relations with Ethiopia have a tentors were also seen, along with anti-Ameri- of 1953 “on mutual security guarantees" dency to develop further, as evident from can placards and so forth, although official concerned the preferential supply of assis- the joint Soviet-Ethiopian communique of declarations, including those by Teferi Banti tance by the USA to the armed forces of 14 July 1976, resulting from the visit to himself, contained no such direct anti- Ethiopia and the guarantee of “certain Moscow of an Ethiopian state delegation; American missives.

American interests,” first and foremost of the growth of Soviet technical assistance to At the same time, Malin continued, the which was the operation of the "center of Ethiopia (teachers in the University, doctors, Ethiopian government displays an interest communications" in Asmara, which was of etc.); the work here during the second half in continuing to receive various forms of great importance at the time (that center has of last year by Soviet economic experts, and assistance from the USA, especially mili- now been curtailed in significant part); but, so forth. It was pointed out that the contary assistance, and frequently talks about as he understands it, [the agreement) does tinuation of contacts between the two counthe timetable for the delivery of military not call for the direct involvement of Ameri- tries at a high level would be the natural supplies and so forth. Prior to the change can armed forces in the defense of Ethiopia's procedure under such conditions, although, of regime in Ethiopia, American military security, for example, in the case of aggres- however, that question had not come up in assistance was at an annual level of 10-12 sion against it or a threat to its territorial in- respect to a concrete plan. I said further that million American dollars and was adminis- tegrity.

we are aware of the disagreements between tered preferentially on an uncompensated Concerning the present deterioration in Somalia and Ethiopia, and that our unwabasis (deliveries of arms, ammunition, spare Ethiopian-Somali relations, as far as Malin vering position in that connection is to serve parts, etc.). In recent years, owing to the new knows, the USA has not undertaken any dip- as a motivation for both countries to move policy of the USA in the area of military lomatic steps toward its normalization or towards a peaceful resolution of these discooperation with foreign governments, restraint of anti-Ethiopian actions by the agreements at the negotiating table, in orAmerican military assistance to Ethiopia has Arab countries, and in fact the Ethiopian der to prevent a deterioration of circumbeen granted preferentially on commercial government itself has not raised the issue stances in this region. This relates as well terms, and it includes several types of more with the USA.

to our position in connection with the curadvanced armaments, in connection with One of the potential sources for an rent complication in Sudanese-Ethiopian rewhich the value of the assistance has grown. eruption of a conflict in that region, in lations. As concerns the future of developThus, the signing of a multi-year contract Malin's opinion, is the independence of ments in Soviet-Ethiopian cooperation, it is in 1975 envisions the supply of armaments, Djibouti that has emerged this year, inas- understood that this cannot be directed spare parts and ammunition in the approxi- much as a serious disagreement exists be- against Somalia, with whom we are also mate sum of 250 million American dollars. tween Somalia and Ethiopia regarding the developing friendly relations, as the Somali Already in 1976 the USA supplied Ethiopia future policy of Djibouti. In recent months, leadership is well aware. with part of those arms, including several the Somalis have succeeded in reinforcing Malin asked, in my opinion, in what “Phantom” fighter planes. This year a sup- their political influence in Djibouti, and their spheres would the interests of the USA in ply of several additional fighter planes is ties with its present leaders, which has seri- Ethiopia not be counter to the interests of contemplated, as well as supplies for the ously worried the Ethiopians. It is evident, the Soviet Union. Ethiopian navy, and radar defenses. as well, that after its declaration of indepen- I replied, that in my view, these spheres

Malin noted further that the new Ethio- dence, Djibouti will enter the League of would first and foremost encompass the pian administration is pursuing a policy of Arab Nations, both in political and economic conduct of a policy of respect for the soverseeking methods of receiving military as- respects, inasmuch as the position of eignty and territorial integrity of Ethiopia; sistance from other sources as well, possi- Djibouti will be complicated following the noninterference in its internal affairs; a rebly on terms more advantages to it, includ- departure of the French. An array of Arab alistic approach to the social-economic and ing from the USSR (he is aware of the visit nations has already established consulates political transformations taking place in the by the Ethiopian military delegation to Mos- there. The USA also intends to do this prior country by the will of the people; the buildcow in December of 1976), as well as the to the declaration of independence, having ing of peace and security and a halt to the PRC [People's Republic of China), although requested appropriate permission from the growth of tensions and conflicts between the he doubts that the Chinese are capable of government of France.

countries of that region; and adherence to supplying Ethiopia with "serious arma- In the course of the discussion, Malin the principle of unrestricted navigation in ments.”

expressed interest in the state of Soviet- the Red Sea, in accordance with recognized The USA, Malin emphasized, does not Ethiopian relations, having come upon ru- standards of international law and the interoppose the “socialist choice" of new Ethio- mors concerning the upcoming visit to the ests of peaceful relations in general. pia and, as before, firmly supports the prin- USSR of First Deputy Chairman of the Thanking me for the conference, Malin cipal of respect for its territorial integrity, PMAC Mengistu Haile Mariam, and also expressed a desire for continuation of further contacts and exchanges of opinions re- dents broke out (in the regions of Washen, of Djibouti to quick and unconditional ingarding the questions discussed, as to which, Bongol, Dolo, and others) which were dependence, and also contained an appeal for his part, he stated his agreement. smoothed over by peaceful means.

to all states to "desist from any claims what

The tension in relations between Ethio- ever on that territory and declare null and COUNSELOR-MINISTER TO THE pia and Somalia many times attracted the void any actions in support of such claims." USSR EMBASSY IN ETHIOPIA attention of the Organization of African Both Ethiopia and Somalia voted for that /s/ S. SINITSIN

Unity. However, efforts to find a mutually resolution.

acceptable solution to the territorial argu- At the same time the government of (Source: TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 73, d. 1638, II. ment between Ethiopia and Somalia within the SDR does not hide its hopes that once 28-33; translated by Bruce McDonald.] the framework of the OAU so far have having become independent the population yielded no result.

of Djibouti will come out in favor of unifiThird African Department, Soviet

At the session of the OAU Assembly cation with Somalia. This was displayed, Foreign Ministry, Information Report which took place in Addis Ababa in Janu- in particular, at the XIII Assembly of the on Somali-Ethiopian Territorial ary 1976, two meetings took place, at Siad OAU (July 1976), where the Somali repreDisputes, 2 February 1977

Barre's initiative, between him and the chair- sentatives did not support the demand of

man of the PMAC of Ethiopia, during which Ethiopia for a joint declaration to repudiate SOMALIA'S TERRITORIAL the question of bilateral relations was raised. territorial claims, asserting that the soverDISAGREEMENTS WITH ETHIOPIA The leaders of both countries asserted that eignty of Djibouti should not depend on AND THE POSITION OF THE USSR the exchange of opinions was productive, “threats of police actions from the power(Brief Information Sheet)

and expressed the intention to continue the guarantors." In December 1976, President

dialogue. Practical steps in this direction, Siad, in a communication to the heads of Somalia claims a significant part of however, were not undertaken.

African states, declared even more precisely Ethiopian territory (the Ogaden region) on The Somali leaders, though they stress that “if the goal of these guarantees will the basis of the fact that a large number of that the issue must be resolved by peaceful force Somalia to reject our blood ties, the Somalis live there (around 1 million people). means, as in the past do not repudiate the common history and culture which tie us

Ethiopia totally rejects the territorial demand about the unification of the Ogaden with the people of Djibouti, then we declare, claims of the SDR, basing its position on with Somalia. According to available in- that is impossible.” the fact that the borders with Somalia were formation, the Somalis continue their activ- Nonetheless, Somalia, just like Ethioset by international agreements, particularly ity in the Ogaden, throwing their armed de- pia, voted for the resolution of the XXXI the Agreement on the demilitarization of the tachments in there under the command of session of the UN GA of 23 November Ethiopia-Somalia border, which was signed line officers.

1976, on Djibouti, which once again afin 1908 between Ethiopia and Italy. They The new Ethiopian leadership, refus- firmed the right of the people of that terrialso refer to the resolution of the OAU ing to discuss the territorial issue, expresses tory to independence. Representatives of which was accepted in Cairo in 1964, which readiness to conduct negotiations on the both countries to the UN declared that their says that all African states must recognize demilitarization of the existing border and governments will recognize, respect, and the borders which existed at the moment speaks out in favor of the development of observe the independence, sovereignty, and when they were granted independence. economic, cultural, and other relations with territorial integrity of Djibouti after it reThe tension in relations with Somalia the SDR.

ceives independence. led imperial Ethiopia to draw close to Kenya Relations between the two countries However, in the course of the discus(the Somalis did not decline either from are becoming more complex also because sion at the UN General Assembly session, demanding the unification with Somalia of of Djibouti - a French territory of Afars and the speeches of the Somalia and Ethiopia the Northern border region of Kenya, which Issa (FTAI), to which France intends to grant delegations showed that, as in the past, seis populated by Somalis) on an anti-Somali independence this year. For Ethiopia this rious disagreements remain between these basis. In 1963 there was a Treaty on joint territory represents a vital interest in view countries about the ways to resolve the defense signed between the two countries. of the fact that Djibouti is the terminus of Djibouti problem. They showed particularly

At the beginning of 1964 a direct mili- the railway from Addis Ababa, by way of on the issue of the return to the territory of tary confrontation broke out between Ethio- which the basic part of Ethiopia's foreign political refugees. The Ethiopians accused pia and Somalia, although the conflict was trade freight is carried. The Somalis, for the Somalis of intending to send to Djibouti soon settled through the mediation of the their part, consider the FTAI, or, as they call their own citizens, disguised as refugees, so OAU. The Soviet government also called that territory, “French Somalia," one of five as to ensure as a consequence its joining with on both sides with an appeal to quickly cease parts of “Greater Somalia," in view of the the SDR. fire and to resolve all disputed issues in a fact that its population to a significant ex- The position of the Somali leadership peaceful way.

tent consists of tribes which are related to regarding Eritrea also leaves a negative imDuring 1970-71 a series of Ethiopia- the Somalis.

print on Somalia-Ethiopia relations. ProSomalia negotiations were conducted which At the XXX session of the UN GA, a viding support to Eritrean separatists, Soended without result. At the end of 1972- resolution was accepted in which was as- malia, to all appearances, is counting on the beginning of 1973 a series of border inci- serted the unconditional right of the people fact that the separation of Eritrea from EthioThird African Department

MFA USSR

(Source: TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 73, d. 1632, II. 39-44; translated by Mark H. Doctoroff; note revisions to this document added in late May-early June, printed below.)

Memorandum of Conversation between

Soviet Ambassador in Ethiopia A.P. Ratanov and Cuban Ambassador in Ethiopia Jose Peres Novoa,

10 February 1977

TOP SECRET, Copy No. 2 From the diary of “30” March 1977 RATANOV, A.P.

Issue No. 129

RECORD OF CONVERSATION With the Ambassador of Cuba in Ethiopia

JOSE PERES NOVOA

10 February 1977

pia will lead to a split of the multinational eral relations. In this regard each of them is Ethiopian state, which will facilitate the uni- counting on the Soviet Union to support fication of the Ogaden territory with Soma- precisely their position, using for this its lia.

authority and friendly relations with the The Somali government recently has opposing side. activated its propaganda against Ethiopia In January 1976, Siad Barre informed and its activity in the international arena, the Soviet government of [Somalia's) intenwith the goal of enlisting support for its po- tion to enter into negotiations with the Ethiosition vis-a-vis the new Ethiopian regime, pian leadership about the creation of a Fedwhich, as it believes, is conducting in rela- eration of Somalia and Ethiopia. In this retion to Somalis the former imperial “colo- gard the President requested the Soviet side nial policy.” This point of view was ex- to join the negotiations as a mediator. Insopressed by the vice president of the SDR far as the goal and character of a federation, (Gen. Mohamed Ali] Samantar during his as well as the possible position of Ethiopia, visit last year to a number of European so- were not clear, it was decided to avoid decialist countries and to Cuba. However, in fining our attitude to this initiative and meno instance did it meet with understanding. diation on this issue. In November 1976 Somalia is also taking certain steps in Arab Siad Barre expressed the wish that the Socountries so as to receive support for its viet side would report to the Ethiopian leadclaims to Ogaden and Djibouti. In this re- ership about the wish of the SDR to begin a gard the Somalis point to the fact that the peaceful dialogue with Ethiopia on the disjoining of Djibouti to the “Arab world” puted issues which they have. This wish (SDR is a member of the Arab League) was brought to the attention of the Chairpromises it not insignificant benefits in re- man of the Committee of the PMAC for alizing plans to turn the Red Sea into an political and foreign affairs through the So“Arab lake."

viet Embassy in Addis Ababa. Arab reaction supports and heats up the At the end of 1976 the Cubans and aspirations of the Somalis, with the goal of South Yemenis came out with an initiative putting pressure on the progressive Ethio- to provide mediatory services towards a pian leadership. President of Somalia Siad settlement of Somalia-Ethiopia relations. intends in the beginning of 1977 to com- The Somali government, not rejecting this plete a trip to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the proposal, spoke out in favor of the Soviet United Arab Emirates, Sudan and several Union as well participating directly in the other Arab countries. As he left in January mediation. The Ethiopian side, regarding 1977 for Khartoum to prepare for this visit, the mediation initiative favorably, did not Member of the Politburo of the CC of the express an analogous wish. Cuba and the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party PDRY through diplomatic channels are tak[Ahmed] Suleiman (Abdullah) public ex- ing certain steps to organize meetings bepressed himself in vulgar anti-Ethiopian tween the leaders of Somalia and Ethiopia. thrusts. Suleiman openly spoke out in sup- The position of the Soviet Union on port of the Eritrean separatists, and also in the question of the Ethiopia-Somalia terrifavor of a proposal to move the headquar- torial dispute, which many times has been ters of the OAU from Addis Ababa to an- brought to the attention of the governments other capital, a proposal for which Sudan of both countries, is that Ethiopia and the and several African countries with a pro- SDR must take all possible measures to Western orientation recently expressed sup- settle their disagreements by means of neport.

gotiations and to find a way to lessen the Beginning in the 1960s, in almost ev- tension in Ethiopia-Somalia relations. ery instance of a serious aggravation of The friendly advice of the USSR govEthiopia-Somalia relations, Ethiopia and ernment, aimed at a settlement of EthiopiaSomalia have appealed to the Soviet gov- Somalia relations, has been favorably acernment with a request to assert influence cepted by the governments of both counon the government of the other country with tries. In responses to our appeals both Ethiothe goal of normalizing the situation. Re- pia and Somalia have announced their readicently, both Somalia and Ethiopia have re- ness to resolve all disputed issues by means peatedly called for more active participation of negotiations and not to allow the unleashby the Soviet Union in settling their bilat- ing of a new armed conflict.

During a conversation which took place in the Soviet Embassy, Jose Peres Novoa reported that on 8 February he had visited Mengistu Haile Mariam at the latter's request.

Mengistu requested that the Ambassador pass on to Fidel Castro a verbal message in which the PMAC requests Cuba to provide assistance to the Ethiopian People's Militia via deliveries of small arms. In this regard Mengistu declared that the Americans had already refused to provide spare parts for tanks, (and) had suspended deliveries of spare parts for all kinds of weapons, and that the PMAC expects the USA, after the events of 3 February to apply even harsher sanctions against Ethiopia. At the same time the USA is providing military assistance to Sudan, [and] Kenya, and is encouraging officials of the these and other countries to act against the Ethiopian regime.

The PMAC, reported Mengistu, intends to follow Cuba's example of creating in factories and agencies, and in villages, committees for defense of the revolution, which will act in close contact with detachments of the people's militia, which are formed under the supervision of urban and rural associations. However, the effectiveness of these measures will depend on whether the PMAC has available and at its disposal the necessary quantity of weapons. lutionary Socialist Party (SRSP). The del- pia and characterized the Ethiopian leaders USSR AMBASSADOR IN ETHIOPIA egation comprised: CC Member Kurt Tidke, as chauvinists, and as connected to Zionist /s/ A. RATANOV

Candidate-Member of the CC Eberhard forces. Progressive forces in Ethiopia, in

Heidrich, Deputy Chief of the CC Section cluding Marxist-Leninists, are persecuted (Source: TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 73, d. 1637, l. Freidel Trappen.

and destroyed. 85; translated by Mark H. Doctoroff.]

In accordance with its instructions, the In the course of further conversation,

delegation conveyed from the Secretary in particular after the statement setting forth Soviet Embassy in East Germany, General of the CC SED Erich Honecker to our position regarding the necessity of Report for CPSU CC Summarizing the Secretary General of the SRSP and to reaching agreement between progressive

Visit to Somalia on 31 January-1 the President of the Democratic Republic forces in Somalia and Ethiopia, and of the February 1977 by Delegation of the of Somalia, Mohammed Siad Barre, a mes- inadmissibility of any possibility that the GDR Socialist Unity Party (SED) CC, sage in response to the letter from Barre imperialists should profit from the discord 18 February 1977

dated 24 November 1976, and concluded an between the two states, Barre declared that

agreement on collaboration between the he was prepared to study seriously any USSR EMBASSY IN SED and the SRSP for 1977-78.

proposition of the Ethiopian leadership, in GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

The delegation received Mohammed particular, from Mengistu. (Attachment 1). SECRET, Copy no. 1 Siad Barre, with whom they engaged in a (not printed—ed.] (During the meeting be18 February 1977 detailed discussion.

tween members of the Somali party and state

Werner Lamberz conveyed greetings leadership and the delegation, at which amTO THE SECRETARY OF THE from the Secretary General of the CC SED bassadors of the socialist countries were also CC CPSU comrade B. N. PONOMAREV and Chairman of the State Council of the present, the Soviet ambassador to

GDR, Eric Honecker, and conveyed some Mogadishu informed me that at the end of We send to your attention according to explanations regarding his message. At the January (1977] comrade Brezhnev had likeclassified procedures this report concerning same time he stated the SED position with wise sent a message to Siad Barre, containthe trip to Somalia, Mozambique, and Ethio- regard to the progressive development in So- ing an urgent request that Barre reconsider pia (January 31 - February 11 of this year) malia and reported on the decisions of our the Somali position with regard to Ethiopia by a delegation from the German Demo- party leadership, which were made as a re- and that they avoid any exacerbation of the cratic Republic, headed by Politburo mem- sult of the discussions of comrade (GDR conflict.) ber, Secretary of the CC SED, comrade W. Vice President Willi] Stoph in Somalia with During the discussion of the project for Lamberz.

comrade Samantar in the GDR. It was de- a party agreement proposed by the SED, at

clared that the SED will now and in the fu- first clarity was achieved with regard to the ATTACHMENT: above-mentioned docu- ture, to the extent of its abilities, offer sup- notion that the central content of such an ment of 41 pages, secret.

port to the Republic of Somalia. At the same agreement should be cooperation in the po

time, particular attention was drawn to the litical-ideological area and that cooperation USSR AMBASSADOR TO concurrence of the party.

between our parties comprises the nucleus GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

Mohammed Siad Barre expressed his of all relations between our states and

thanks for the message from Eric Honecker peoples. However, the SRSP delegation, /s/ P. ABRASIMOV

and expressed his gratitude for the GDR's headed by Politburo Member Ahmed

manifestation of solidarity with the anti- Suleiman Abdullah, came forward with a [attachment]

imperialist liberation struggle. Somalia con- request which greatly exceeds the ability of

siders the help, which has been offered by the SED (to build five fully equipped reSECRET, Copy no. 1 the SSNM brigade in the preparation of spe- gional Party schools, to equip 82 regional Attachment to no. 122 cialists, to be particularly useful. Siad Barre Party committees with radio technology and

18 February 1977 in detail elucidated the internal situation in supply with typographical machines, to acTranslated from German Somalia and, at the same time, particularly cept an exceedingly large number of stu

underscored the difficulties in realizing the dents for study at SED institutes of higher REPORT party program.

education, etc.), with which it was not posconcerning a trip to the Democratic

In connection with the statement by sible to agree. In spite of these unrealistic Republic of Somali by a delegation from Werner Lamberz concerning relations be- requests, we succeeded in concluding an the CC SED from

tween the SDR and Ethiopia, Barre first and agreement which is realistic and which rep31 January-1 February 1977 foremost affirmed the necessity of reaching resents significant assistance and support for

a peaceful settlement of the problem with the Somali Party (Attachment II). [not From 31 January to 1 February a del- Ethiopia. However, at the same time, it was printed-ed.] egation from the CC SED, headed by Polit- notable that his position on this question was It was strikingly apparent that, both buro member, Secretary of the CC, Werner contradictory and not free of nationalist fea- during the time when our delegation toured Lamberz visited Mogadishu at the invita- tures. He expressed doubt about the revo- around the city and during the negotiations tion of the leadership of the Somali Revo- lutionary nature of development in Ethio- on a Party agreement, mention was made

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