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today's meeting pointed out that the Pravda opposed the current militant policy toward views of each of them. I am convinced, for article, while in fact criticizing the position India, but that leftist dogmatists-sectarians example, that Zhou Enlai does not approve of the Indian communists and India's rela- within the Chinese leadership, such as Liu the policy of the PRC regarding India, while tion to this question as a whole, did not ex- Shaoqi, supported it. They did so, Nehru Liu Shaoqi can approve it.” press any critical comments with regard to reportedly maintained, not because of the 3. “I am absolutely convinced that the the PRC and the Chinese comrades. border dispute, but to strike a blow against given events are not simply a border con

Nambudiripad reported that the secre- the general phenomenon of neutrality in flict, but something more. This is part of a tariat of the CPI after the discussion of the order to discredit Moscow's line of peace- general strategy of Chinese leftist dogmaPravda article today reached the conclusion ful coexistence and competition with the tists - sectarians who obviously now have that “this publication in all probability will West, and avoiding general nuclear war. In the upper hand in the leadership of the CCP inaugurate a new period of anti-Soviet hys- fact, Nehru was said to declare, the Chinese (Chinese Communist Party). This is the teria in India.” The campaign that is going threatened to embroil the entire world in mainspring of the events. These sectarian on everywhere against the PRC will, obvi- war, and had divided the globe into two new elements in the CCP are trying to prove their ously, be extended to the Soviet Union, and camps: not East and West, but one - for thesis that India, as a capitalist country, will then to all countries of the socialist the continuation of the human species, the surely join the bloc of western countries, that system....He expressed the opinion of the other (the Chinese sectarians) - against.") it cannot conduct a policy of nonalignment secretariat that in connection with this state

for any length of time. They regard Nehru ment of the Soviet press and in connection At a reception I met R.K. Nehru, who not as a nationalist leader but as a reactionwith the pressure on India from many neu- approached me and began a conversation. ary bourgeois. They are trying by their actral countries regarding a more rapid peace- He set forth in great detail his views on the tions to force India to reject the policy of ful settlement of this conflict, the Indian Indian-Chinese border conflict, noting that nonalignment, to draw it into the western government...can reach the conclusion that he had expressed them to the prime minis- bloc, to strike a blow at the entire policy of only western countries are our true friends... ter. R.K. Nehru said that the prime minister neutrality, nonalignment, peaceful coexist

“In this connection we very much gave him a letter to N.S. Khrushchev and ence. India, as the largest of the neutral would like to find out if Soviet leaders could spoke about his conversation with the So- countries of Asia, is their first and main tarhelp the CPI give an understanding to the viet ambassador. In his words, the prime get. Thus the issue is not this or that border Chinese comrades that it is extremely de- minister greatly appreciates the concern and or territory; the essence of the events is the sirable to give the possibility to Nehru to anxiety of the government of the USSR and attempts of the party sectarians of the CCP move toward peace negotiations and cease the general approach of N.S. Khrushchev to prove in practice their theoretical posimilitary actions without damage to the pres- to the problem of the Indian-Chinese confict. tion, an attempt to cross over to the offentige of India and of Nehru himself, - “At another time, noted R.K. Nehru, it is sive on the ideological front." Nambudiripad stated. The Secretariat has possible that the prime minister himself 4. “I am convinced that their actions unanimously reached the conclusion that would have spoken about this problem in are an extension of the CCP's ideological such a step by the PRC would have a huge detail, but now he is exceptionally busy, very disputes with the CPSU, and that the Chisignificance for the cause of world peace, tired and we must help him. Therefore I nese sectarians are directing the main blow for all progressive forces, for the anti-im- myself will tell you our views."

against the Soviet Union and its foreign perialist struggle..."

1. “After my return from China two policy principles-against peaceful coexist

years ago I personally did everything pos- ence, the possibility of avoiding war in our (Source: AVPRF, f. 090, op. 24, d. 6, p. 80, sible for the peaceful settlement of the bor- atomic age, the possibility of the victory of II. 134-139; document obtained by J. der dispute. No one else has played a more communism not through war but through Hershberg; translation by K. Weathersby.) important role in this matter than I. To some peaceful economic competition with the

degree I have weakened my authority by West. We value highly these principles of [This fourth excerpt is from a 2 November having taken the hardest line on resolving Soviet policy. I personally don't have any1962 entry from Benediktov's diary, describ- the conflict by means of negotiations. The thing against the establishment of commuing a conversation with Indian Foreign Min- foreign policy leaders of India tried to the nism in the entire world, if communism istry General-Secretary R.K. Nehru. Ap- best of their abilities to solve this dispute proves its superiority by means of economic, proaching the Soviet envoy at a social gath- and preserve friendly relations with the social, and cultural achievements, but not ering, the Indian official relayed an oral PRC. We did not cease to hope for a peace- by bombs." message to Khrushchev from Indian Prime ful settlement of the dispute and did not 5. “However, the Chinese fanatics, who Minister Nehru (whom he described as "ex- make any military preparations, completely apparently have gained strength recently, are ceptionally busy, very tired"), giving his not supposing that military actions on the conducting (and intend to conduct in the analysis of the underlying motives behind border were possible. The result is our future) a senseless course for achieving their China's actions in the border dispute. The present retreat."

goals by any means, including military acIndian leader assessed that Chinese Premier 2. “After many years in China, I know tions, which is dangerous for all peoples. Zhou Enlaiwith whom Nehru had coop- very well and am closely acquainted with They, unlike the USSR and even the USA, erated in championing the rise of the non- all the leaders of China and with all the main do not understand the danger of nuclear war. aligned movement only a few years earlier- party leaders. I (can) clearly present the The world is now divided not into East and West, but into two camps: one - for the con- viet Union. I set forth the opinion of N.S. We, of course, never will make an incurtinuation of the human species, the other (the Khrushchev on questions of the necessity sion into Chinese territory, but it is necesChinese sectarians) - against."

of activating in every way the struggle for sary to consider that the people insist on the 6. “We are on the leading edge of the peace and general disarmament, for carry- liberation of the territory that belongs to struggle against the realization in practice ing out the policy of peaceful coexistence India.” by these fanatics of their theoretical pro- and resolution of disputed international In answer to my statement about the gram, which is a threat to the entire world, questions through negotiations. I expressed necessity of a peaceful resolution of the to all peoples. Therefore, everyone must the wish of N.S. Khrushchev that the bor- problem and of explaining to the people the assist our struggle. Therefore we must not der conflict between India and the PRC also correctness of peaceful means, Nehru said: in any case retreat before them, not submit will be resolved through peaceful means, "We are trying to explain this necessity and to their threats, not agree to conditions which through negotiations.

will do this in the future.” He noted in this they dictate on the basis of force and sei- Nehru listened to all of this attentively regard that attempts at peaceful resolution zure of our territory. On the contrary, we and with great interest, taking notes in his of the dispute have not yet given results. must without fail defeat them, smash their notebook. He expressed great satisfaction “We would like to sit at the negotiating table first practical attempt to prove their thesis. with the friendly relations which exist be- with the Chinese. We are ready. But the Only their defeat and the preservation by tween the USSR and India, between the government has explained to them that for India of its policy of nonalignment can teach governments of both countries and also be- this it is necessary that the position on the them a lesson and force them to reconsider tween Comrade N.S. Khrushchev and him border that existed 3 months ago be restored their theoretical convictions."...

personally. He expressed also the convic- - the position on 8 September."

tion that these relations will not only be pre- Further J. Nehru in detail and confi(Source: AVPRF, f. 90, op. 24, d. 5, p. 44, II. served, but also will further develop in the dentially illuminated the question of the re120-124; document obtained by J. future.

lations of India with Pakistan... Hershberg; translation by K. Weathersby.) The prime minister stated further that

he “fully agrees with Mr. Khrushchev in (Source: AVPRF, f. 090, op. 24, d. 6, p. 80, [The fifth and final selection from Ambas- regard to the necessity of our general II. 197-203; document obtained by J. sador Benediktov's diary is from a 12 De- struggle for peace and disarmament.” He Hershberg: translation by K. Weathersby:] cember 1962 entry recording a conversa- gave us to understand that the USSR can tion with Indian Prime Minister Nehru. In count on the support of India in these ques- III. Record of Conversation (from East the excerpt presented here, Nehru expressed tions.

German archives) between Chinese Prea positive evaluation of Soviet-Indian rela- Concerning the question of the peace- mier Zhou Enlai and Mongolian leader tions, complimenting Khrushchev for his ful resolution of sharp international prob- J. Zedenbal, Beijing, 26 December 1962 role in resolving the Cuban crisis, but in re- lems, Nehru stated that “in this regard Mr. sponse to the Soviet envoy's emphasis that Khrushchev has given us all a great example 4 Copsies). the border crisis with China be settled during the incident with Cuba.”

II. peacefully he firmly defended India's stand Nehru then dwelt in detail on the posi- About the Meeting of Comrade Zhou that PRC forces must withdraw from re- tion of India in the Indian-Chinese border Enlai and Comrade J. Zedenbal cently-occupied positions (e.g., return to the dispute. He said that “all this began not from line held on September 8) before talks could our side, - it was thrust on us. We do not On 26 December the Premier of the start.]

want it to be prolonged, we do not want to State Council of the People's Republic of

carry out military actions. We would like it China (PRC; VRCh in German), Comrade In accordance with the commission of to be settled....”

Zhou Enlai, paid a return visit to the ChairComrade N.S. Khrushchev today I visited Nehru noted the truth of Khrushchev's man of the Council of Ministers of the Monprime minister of India J. Nehru. I

I gave him observation about the presence of reaction- golian People's Republic (MPR; MVR in warm greetings and best wishes from N.S. ary forces that are trying to push the gov- German), Comrade J. Zedenbal. Khrushchev and other members of the So- ernment to a resolution of the border dis- During this meeting, which took place viet government.

pute by military means. He stated in this in the residence of Comrade Zedenbal, a Nehru first of all inquired about the regard that the government knows about the conversation (took place) between the two health of N.S. Khrushchev...

activities of these forces, but does not con- [men), which lasted from 11 until 14 hours. I further set forth the substance of the sider this the main thing. In his words a Present during the conversation were: questions which I was commissioned by very important point is the fact that all the on the Mongolian side—the deputy ChairComrade N.S. Khrushchev to communicate people of India, simple peasants, workers man of the Council of Ministers of the MPR, to Nehru. I said to Nehru that the Soviet and employees, “all feel the harshest feel- Comrade Shagwaral, the deputy Foreign government appreciates the efforts of the ings toward China, toward what it did Minister Schagda[r]suren, the Ambassador Indian government and of Nehru personally against India. They, of course, do not want of the MPR in Peking (Beijing), Zewegmid, which are aimed at preserving the policy of war (no one wants it), but they demand the the Deputy of the Great People's Hural (Parnonalignment, at preserving and further de- withdrawal of Chinese from Indian territory, liament) of the MPR, S. Bata, the Head of veloping the friendly relations with the So- they demand the defense of our territory. the 1st Division of the Foreign Ministry of


the MPR, Comrade Tschimiddorsh; on the down the border line with these countries. lution of the Chinese-Pakistani border quesChinese side—the deputy Premier of the The border agreement between China tion and the settlement of the Chinese-InState Council and Foreign Minister of the and Mongolia will also contribute to the dia border question could hinder their agPRC, Comrade Tschen Ji [Chen Yi), the resolution of the border question with our gression. deputy Foreign Minister, Comrade Tschi other neighboring countries.

Recently the Americans have exerted Peng-fei, the Head of the 2nd Asian Divi- China recently started border negotia- increased pressure on India and Pakistan sion of the Foreign Ministry of the PRC, tions with Pakistan. We think that (we) will demanding a solution to the Kashmir quesComrade Zhou Tschu-je, the Chief of Pro- soon reach an agreement as our negotiations tion as soon as possible. It is expected that tocol of the Foreign Ministry of the PRC, with Pakistan are taking place in a good at- in the near-future negotiations on the borJui Pei-weng, the Extraordinary and mosphere. The border question with Paki- der question will begin between India and plenipotentary Ambassador of the PRC in stan is also linked to the Kashmir question, Pakistan on the ministerial level. the MPR, Se Fu-schen.

that is, with the question that concerns both The English are trying to influence Erdenebulag served as translator on the Pakistan and India directly. After the con- these matters either in the direction that Chinese side and Adja on the Mongolian clusion of the negotiations between China Kashmir belongs to both countries or that side.

and Pakistan, we will sign a provisional pro- Pakistan connects itself into Indian society After offering tea, fruit, and cigarettes tocol; the signing of an official treaty will (dass sich Pakistan der indischen to the guests, and after a short conversation follow if the Kashmir question between In- Gemeinschaft anschliesst). of a protocol nature, photographs were taken dia and Pakistan has been settled.

We are of the opinion that the border and the guests entered a special room where Anyway, the aforementioned border negotiations between India and Pakistan a three-hour conversation occurred.

treaty will reflect the real situation. We are cannot lead to positive results. Nehru is Hereafter follows a presentation of the not going to define officially the border be- searching for a way to subordinate India and contents of the conversation between the tween China and Pakistan today. That would Pakistan to American domination. Clearly, Premier of the State Council of the PRC, be to lead India into a dead end (Sackgasse). he has no other way out (Ausweg). If this and the Chairman of the Council of Minis- The border between India and Pakistan is occurs, the situation will become even more ters of the MPR, Zedenbal. still officially unresolved.

complicated, and it will become difficult to ZHOU ENLAI: We are very happy, When you visited India in (September explain this problem to the Indian people. Comrade Chairman Zedenbal, that you have 1959, Comrade Zedenbal, the border con- We have sent a letter to the countries come to our land, in order to sign a treaty flict between China and India had just of Asia and Africa explaining the Chineseconcerning the border between our coun- reached a climax. At that time, I informed Indian border question in detail. You have tries. This is a good thing, the meaning of you regarding the Chinese-India border also received this letter, Comrade Chairman which is to legally define the borders be- question, but during your stay in India you Zedenbal. tween our friendly lands.

tried to avoid this question. We are very Since 1961 India is conducting invaYesterday you said quite correctly, that interested in this matter.

sions into our border districts and has esthe signing of a border agreement would be The major border conflict between In- tablished 43 border posts there. The area in very meaningful for peace and friendship. dia and Pakistan is caused by the Kashmir question is mountainous, has a raw climate, A reasonable settlement of the border ques- question. At the western sector of our bor- and it snows a lot there. tion between China and Mongolia will be der with India, this [area] borders on the After the Chinese-Indian border conan example and an encouragement for bor- Aksai and on the Tibetan district of Ali. This flict broke out and India continued its invader negotiations with other countries. was a historically established traditional sion systematically, we were forced to re

Basically, we have reached an agree- border line. Pakistan's position on the bor- move the aforementioned 43 posts. Several ment concerning the border question with der question is correct. The border agree- of these were overrun and the entire district [North) Korea. But we are waiting still for ment between our countries will undoubt- cleansed. an answer from Korea and therefore have edly be signed, once the status

On 21 November (1962) our governnot yet made a public announcement to the [zugehorigkeit) of Kashmir is clarified. In- ment made the decision to cease fire and to press.

dia, however, is trying in every way to pre- withdraw the border units 20 kilometers into Since the Chinese-Mongolian and Chi- vent the conclusion of an agreement. But the hinterlands. We suggested the establishnese-Korean border issues are already these attempts lack any grounds.

ment of an unpopulated zone 20 kilometers settled, all that remains to be done, is to set The Western press—especially the deep (on each side--ed.). One must say that up joint Commissions on Demarcation of English papers—write, that the Chinese- in the past there were no Chinese troops inBorders according to the agreed-upon prin- Pakistani border question corresponds com- volved in the border conflict. There was ciples.

pletely to the norms of international rela- not a single border guard or (border]-post We are at present conducting negotia- tions. But this question only worries the there, rather, only a patrol (service). But, tions regarding border demarcation with American reactionaries. They think that if administratively, this district was subject to Burma and Nepal. We have the opportu- China, Pakistan, and India delineate their us (our authority). Since 1949, however, nity to resolve this question with the afore- borders, that would be a blow to the India began to threaten and attack this area. mentioned countries on a mutually-agreed agressive Asia policy of America and other Now, after this area is cleansed, we again basis. In this manner we will officially pin imperialist states. They assume that the so- have no border guard there. If India, under


these conditions, begins an invasion again, its so-called neutrality. Furthermore, there perity. this will be a true challenge and provoca- is a less important border question between J. ZEDENBAL: The states and nations tion.

China and Afghanistan. In short, we will will strengthen their independence and deIf India gives up Kashmir to Pakistan start negotiations. Experience shows that we velop their countries, consequently and defiand tries to annex our Aksai district again, can solve the border problems handed down nitely crossing over into a communist orthis will only be a proof that India is really to us by history through friendly negotia- der. This is the dialectic of development. working for and under the orders of the tions both with socialist countries and with ZHOU ENLAI: This is clearly a quesAmericans.

the new states of Asia. The treaty regarding tion of the distant future. India's attempts to give Pakistan the the Chinese-Mongolian border demonstrates J. ZEDENBAL: Of course. Our govrich, bounteous Kashmir and, in exchange, this. Both of our states are socialist coun- ernment and our people deeply regret that to occupy our unpopulated, poor district, tries and in a short period we have solved there was a border conflict between China only proves (India’s] aggressiveness. Un- the border question correctly, according to and India. They are convinced that this probder these conditions, we have ceased fire and principles of friendship, equality, mutual un- lem must be solved in a peaceful manner. withdrawn our troops.

derstanding and mutual concessions. Our That is our position. This conflict between The people of Asia and Africa, [and] countries' governmental delegations have two Asian great-powers and the disturbance all the peace-loving people of the Earth, sup- successfully concluded negotiations over the of the friendship between them is disadvanport our policy and our measures. We thank border question. This opens the way to the tageous both for the peoples of both counyou for the fact that your government wel- signature of a border agreement. Conse- tries and for the maintenance of peace in comed the explanation of the government quently, we will have to form a joint com- general. of the PRC.

mission that will undertake border demar- Our visit to India in 1959 coincided with Presently, India is in a difficult posi- cation on the spot.

the heightening (of tensions] on the Chinesetion. The countries of Asia and Africa are J. ZEDENBAL: Thank you, Premier Indian border. I remember, Comrade Presupporting our proposal, and that puts India Zhou Enlai both for the information regard- mier, that you informed us at that time rein an even more exit-less (ausweglosere] ing the course of negotiations you are con- garding the state of affairs, situation.

ducting with neighboring countries and for As soon as we were on Indian soil, the Not long ago, a meeting of leading the information about your government's correspondents fell upon us with questions statesmen from many countries took place position on this question.

regarding the border conflict. Our answer in Colombo (Ceylon; now Sri Lanka) con- The negotiations between our countries to the correspondents ran: we hope that the cerning the Sino-Indian border question. to define exactly and mark the borderline border question between these two great They decided to send the Ceylonese prime have been successfully concluded, and noth- powers can be settled in a peaceful manner. minister (Sirimavo Bandaranaike) to China ing more stands in the way of signing an At the meeting with Nehru, I said to him in order to inform us of the results of the agreement. Comrade Premier, you have cor- that the correspondents had turned to us with conference. It was confirmed that the rectly stated that our countries' governmen- this question; I assume that the border quesCeylonese Minister-president would arrive tal delegations negotiated successfully on tion between the two countries will be (in China] on 31 December. We have al- the basis of mutual understanding, mutual settled in a friendly manner. At that time the ready received a special plenipotentary in consideration of interests, mutual conces- question was, it seems to me, mainly about order to confer on this question. The afore- sions and mutual regard. I value this as much a border area of 90,000 square kilometers, mentioned countries are making efforts to as you do. Since socialist countries have a Nehru said that if it was a border disreconcile India and China and to initiate ne- common goal and ideology, we definitely agreement involving a few kilometers, one gotiations between our countries in order to must solve all questions that come up be- could make mutual concessions, but that in confirm our cease-fire. We are ready to re- tween us in the spirit of friendship. The bor- this case it was a matter of 90,000 square spond to these efforts. The most important der question between our countries was kilometers, whose inhabitants are Indian [thing] is that both sides do not allow any settled on just such a basis. The goal of the citizens, who elect representatives to the renewed clashes. That is our main goal. peoples who are building socialism and Indian parliament. Therefore, he said, this Many ask, why there is no settlement of the communism is to eliminate once and for all question is not so simply solved. Indian-Chinese border conflict, because the such problems as border drawing and the It seems to me that, in fact, it is not easy border question between China and Paki- like that divide nations from each other. to reach an agreement involving such a large stan is actively discussed[?] We think that But for the time being borders will re- area. A longer time is clearly necessary for Pakistan negotiates with us without submit- main. I only say this, because I am taking this. As it turned out, the outbreak of the ting itself to America and England, although our final goal, Communism, as my point of border conflict and the armed clashes have, it belongs to an aggressive bloc. India, how- departure.

in essence, complicated the situation. Now, ever, speaks the language of America, al- ZHOU ENLAI: There is a Chinese say- obviously, an even bigger area is involved though it maintains that it does not belong ing that says that in the end the world will than before. to any aggressive blocs.

be an unita whole, that there will be no We think that the Chinese government's J. ZEDENBAL: Do you consider In- exploitation of man by man. But before we unilateral ceasefire is a reasonable step, dia a neutral country?

join in one whole, we must establish the taken after full consideration of the circumZHOU ENLAI: India is diverging from borders and provide for our affairs and pros- stances. We hold the view that you are undertaking flexible measures towards settle- occurred, because there are no other woods ment of the Indian-Chinese border conflict nearby. But it can be solved on the basis of in a peaceful manner by negotiations. friendly, mutual understanding.

In general, life confirms daily the need Since the founding of the PRC it has befor flexible policies to solve international come a good tradition that during tempoproblems. We do not doubt that the Chinese- rary difficulties caused by drought and dry Indian border conflict can be settled peace- wind, the administrations of individual disfully.

tricts of our countries, in friendly contacts, By “speculating” on the Chinese-Indian have permitted the reciprocal use of pasture border conflict, the reactionary forces in land. We hope that it will also be possible India have strengthened their activity and in the future, in case of difficulties, to contheir offensive against the country's (India's] tinue this excellent tradition. Communist Party and democratic forces. I suppose that our Comrade “Land

We are convinced that the measures that owner” [“Gutsbesitzer”] Shagwaral, who is your government has taken towards a responsible for agricultural questions would ceasefire on the Indian-Chinese border, to- be very interested in this. ward the withdrawal of border troops and We thank you for the help that you have towards the future settlement of this prob- provided in difficult times to the cattlelem by negotiation will generate positive breeders in our Aimaks and Somons, esperesults. We are of the opinion that this would cially in winter and spring. We also express be, on the one hand a blow against reaction- further our satisfaction that the border quesary forces in India itself, and on the other tion between our countries will soon be hand a blow against the forces of imperial- settled. ism, with the USA at its head. We assume I would like to make use of this meeting, that such measures will strengthen India's Comrade Premier, to broach two aspects (of neutral stance and will prevent India from Sino-Mongolian relations). abandoning this position. This will advance We were and are grateful that for the conthe battle for peace in the whole world. The struction of our country the PRC has proAmerican imperialists are making efforts to vided us with financial and economic help derive advantages from this conflict. The as well as qualified workers. The appropripeaceful settlement would undoubtedly be ate authorities in our countries are already a serious (line illegible—trans.] for imperi- negotiating regarding the building of objects alism.

agreed upon earlier by our governments. I After the signing of the border agreement suppose that these negotiations will conbetween our countries, we will begin the tinue. demarcation of the borderline. As is well I would like to pose the following two known, during the negotiations our delega- questions to you: First, has railway freight tion raised the question of the village of traffic gone down considerably in the last Hurimt in the Balgan-Ulgiisk district in years? Maybe that is also an effect of your western Mongolia. Our inhabitants have drought. We hope that railway freight traferected several buildings there and begun fic will go up in the future. The full use of lumbering. Your delegation, however, re- the railway that will be built as a conseplied that this place cannot be recognized quence of a three-sided agreement between as Mongolia, because this would meet with us and the Soviet comrades is economically difficulties. At the same time, your delega- advantageous for our country, Comrade Pretion answered that the inhabitants on both mier. We are convinced that you will take sides have come to an agreement and can this factor into consideration. find a reasonable solution [to the problem Secondly, one of the forms of help that of] the use of the forest's riches. Therefore, you provide to us is the provision of workI do not want to insist that Hurimt should ers from appropriate professions. This lanecessarily belong inside Mongolian bor- bor is a great help in the building up of our ders. Of course, I think that this question country. Recently, it has nevertheless hapmust be decided by taking both sides inter- pened that a few less conscientious and inests into consideration. We are grateful that experienced people put down their work. I you have declared yourselves ready to make think you know about this. possible our use of our buildings as well as (segment of conversation not printed rethe forests in this district. This problem garding Chinese guest workers, particularly

those from Inner Mongolia (Zedenbal as-
sured Zhou that these are needed for lin-
guistic, not nationalistic reasons); resettle-
ment of Mongolians in China; Sino-
Mongolia trade relations-trans.)

ZHOU ENLAI: With regard to China's
economic help to Mongolia, we can discuss
this tomorrow afternoon, since we have too
little time today to negotiate concrete mat-
ters, such as workers, construction, trade and
railway freight traffic.

I do not understand the word “regrettable”, that you used regarding the ChineseIndian border conflict. If this refers to India, it is correct. If you said it in reference to China, in order to make us out to be the guilty (party), then that is false. On this question there are differences of opinion among the fraternal parties.

We have undertaken considerable work to inform and provide explanations to the appropriate states and countries. The Indian side put us in an intolerable position. We were forced to take measures. India began a new invasion and set off a conflict. We rebuffed them, since it was such a serious situation. We have taken measures to defuse the situation. We have ceased fire and pulled out troops back. These are unilateral steps. There is no guarantee that this problem is definitively solved. The cause is the aggressive policies of the ruling circles of the Indian government. The Nehru government is wavering and turning away from neutrality. India did indeed declare non-alignment to aggressive blocs, but became ever more dependent on American dollars. India received 640 million dollars from America for military purposes. Nehru's government is turning away from the policy of peace. We must understand imperialism's threat and danger. In India itself, the domestic forces of reaction are becoming ever more active. India is turning away from the policy of peace. Our country, however, ceased fire and took the initiative towards negotiations. The Indian government has not yet expressed itself regarding our proposals and the measures we took. Under these circumstances, I ask you to understand Indian-Chinese relations correctly.

The MPR, as is known, has entered the United Nations. Therefore, the circumstances must be understandable for you. India's representative in the UN is following the policy of the Western countries. India supports the Western powers' policy on

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