ePub 版

Postwar American Historiography of China,positions well-documented picture of those events it is hard to to the lure of the experts with "inside" information. 1 (Fall 1993), 486-525. For a helpful evaluation of the imagine measuring with any confidence the accuracy of 22. These points are treated more fully by Jürgen literature on imperialism accompanied by suggestions contemporary readings.

Osterhammel, “CCP Foreign Policy as International on fruitful modes of inquiry, see Jürgen Osterhammel, 17. This point is developed in chapters 5 and 6 of Hunt, History: Mapping the Field,” and by Odd Arne Westad, “Semi-Colonialism and Informal Empire in Twentieth- The Genesis of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy. “The Foreign Policies of Revolutionary Parties: The Century China: Towards a Framework of Analysis,” in 18. Zhonghua renmin gongheguo waijiaobu and CCP in Comparative Perspective,” both in Toward a Imperialism and After: Continuities and Discontinuities, Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, comps., Zhou History of the Chinese Communist Foreign Relations, ed. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Osterhammel (London: Enlai waijiao wenxuan [Selected diplomatic writings 1920s-1960s: Personalities and Interpretive ApAllen and Unwin, 1986), 290-314.

of Zhou Enlai] (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1990), proaches, ed. Michael H. Hunt and Niu Jun (Washing12. See e.g., Susan Naquin and Evelyn S. Rawski, 25-27;comments by Chai Chengwen on Pu Shouchang's ton: Asia Program, Woodrow Wilson International Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century (New Ha- role as Zhou's translator on this occasion, in Renwu 5 Center for Scholars, n.d.). ven: Yale University Press, 1987), which begins by (1992), 18. [Ed. note: For an English translation, see 23. See on some of the recent trends, Lynn Hunt, ed., stressing the importance of relating the actions of the Sergei N. Goncharov, John Lewis, and Xue Litai, The New Cultural History (Berkeley: University of state to the lives of even ordinary citizens” (xi). Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War California Press, 1989); John E. Toews, “Intellectual 13. Bin Yu, “The Study of Chinese Foreign Policy: (Stanford, CA: University Press, 1993), 276-278.] For History after the Linguistic Turn: The Autonomy of Problems and Prospect,” World Politics 46 (January the understandably perplexed reaction of China-watch- Meaning and Irreducibility of Experience,” American 1994), 235-61, offers a detailed, critical appraisal of ers, see U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of Historical Review 92 (October 1987), 879-907; and this large body of writing. See also Friedrich W. Wu, the United States, vol. 7 (Washington: U.S. Govern- Bryan D. Palmer, Descent into Discourse: The “Explanatory Approaches to Chinese Foreign Policy: ment Printing Office, 1976), 906, 912-13.

Reification of Language and the Writing of Social A Critique of the Western Literature," Studies in Com- 19. The oft-cited authority is Andrew Nathan, “A Fac- History (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990). parative Communism 13 (Spring 1980), 41-62; and tionalism Model for CCP Politics,” China Quarterly 53 24. Levine, Anvil of Victory; John W. Garver's ChiSamuel S. Kim, “China and the World in Theory and (January-March 1973), 34-66.

nese-Soviet Relations, 1937-1945: The Diplomacy of Practice,” in China and the World: Chinese Foreign 20. A glance at the literature on the CCP will reveal Chinese Nationalism (New York: Oxford University Relations in the Post-Cold War Era, ed. Kim (3rd rev. numerous instances of works stressing factional struggle Press, 1988); Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolued.; Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994), 3-41. Both Kim, on the basis of highly circumstantial evidence. Derek J. tion: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the China and the World, and Thomas W. Robinson and Waller, The Kiangsi Soviet: Mao and the National Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia David Shambaugh, eds., Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory Congresses of 1931 and 1934 (Berkeley: University of University Press, 1993). and Practice (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, California Center for Chinese Studies, 1973), sees a 25. For good examples of this notable interpretive 1994), offer a sampling of the kinds of work now being clear split between Maoists and Russian Returned Stu- proclivity among Chinese scholars, see Hao Yufan and done by political scientists. Harry Harding, “The Evo- dents in the early 1930s, with the latter increasingly Guocang Huan, eds., The Chinese View of the World lution of American Scholarship on Contemporary dominant over the former in the factional struggles. (New York: Pantheon, 1989); Hao Yufan and Zhai China,” in American Studies of Contemporary China, Richard C. Thornton, The Comintern and the Chinese Zhihai, "China's Decision to Enter the Korean War: ed. David Shambaugh (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Communists, 1928-1931 (Seattle: University of Wash- History Revisited,” China Quarterly 121 (March 1990), 1993), 14-40, helps put this particular body of political ington Press, 1969), interprets the Li Lisan period in 94-115; He Di, “The Evolution of the People's Repubscience work in the broader context of the general social strong factional terms with leaders of each faction lic of China's Policy toward the Offshore Islands," in science literature on China.

driven by a quest for personal power. James Reardon- The Great Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960, ed. Warren 14. Wu's 1980 survey, “Explanatory Approaches,” tied Anderson, Yenan and the Great Powers: The Origins of I. Cohen and Akira Iriye (New York: Columbia Univerprogress in the field to better theory and methodology, Chinese Communist Foreign Policy, 1944-1946 (New sity Press, 1990), 222-45; and Chen Xiaolu's, “China's as did Michael Ng-Quinn's “The Analytical Study of York: Columbia University Press, 1980), and Steven I. Policy Toward the United States, 1949-1955,” Jia Chinese Foreign Policy,” International Studies Quar- Levine, Anvil of Victory: The Communist Revolution in Qingguo, “Searching for Peaceful Coexistence and terly 27 (June 1983), 203-24. More recently James N. Manchuria, 1945-1948 (New York: Columbia Univer- Territorial Integrity,” and Wang Jisi, “An Appraisal of Rosenau, “China in a Bifurcated World: Competing sity Press, 1987), see factions defining the policy alter- U.S. Policy toward China, 1945-1955, and Its AfterTheoretical Perspectives,” in Chinese Foreign Policy, natives for the CCP in 1945-1946. Reardon-Anderson math," all in Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955: A eds. Robinson and Shambaugh, 524-51, has offered a argues for a Mao-Zhou bloc favoring negotiations with Joint Reassessment of a Critical Decade, ed. Harry somewhat defensive presentation along the same lines. the Nationalists, while the ultimately victorious mili- Harding and Yuan Ming (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Bin Yu, “The Study of Chinese Foreign Policy,” 256- tary leaders wanted a resort to force. For his part, Resources, 1989), 184-97, 267-86, 289-310. For a 59, is considerably more reserved about the prospects Levine sees differences in strategy in the northeast base discussion of the impact of U.S. international-relations for the theoretical enterprise.

area in factional terms. Donald S. Zagoria, “Choices in approaches on Chinese scholars, marked by this single, 15. For an early, vigorous argument for putting Mao at the Postwar World (2): Containment and China," in signal success, see Wang Jisi, “International Relations the center of the policy process, see Michel Oksenberg, Caging the Bear: Containment and the Cold War, ed. Theory and the Study of Chinese Foreign Policy: A “Policy Making under Mao, 1948-68: An Overview,” Charles Gati (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974), 109- Chinese Perspective,” in Chinese Foreign Policy, eds. in China: Management of a Revolutionary Society, ed. 27, puts Mao and Zhou at the head of a nationalist Robinson and Shambaugh, 481-505. John M. H. Lindbeck (Seattle: University of Washing- group, while Liu emerges as the leader of the interna- 26. For perhaps the best known example, see Alexander ton Press, 1971), 79-115. Frederick C. Teiwes, “Mao tionalists. The tendency to find factions persists in the L. George and Richard Smoke, Deterrence in American and His Lieutenants,” Australian Journal of Chinese studies of the post-1949 period. See for example Uri Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (New York: CoAffairs 19-20 (January-July 1988), 1-80, and Roderick Ra'anan's and Donald Zagoria's treatments of Beijing's lumbia University Press, 1974), chap. 7. MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution response to the Vietnam War in 1965-1966 in China in 27. I have developed this point in more detail in “Beijing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), with Crisis, vol. 2, ed. Tang Tsou (Chicago: University of and the Korean Crisis, June 1950-June 1951," Political their stress on personality and sensitivity to sources, are Chicago Press, 1968), 23-71 and 237-68, as well as Science Quarterly 107 (Fall 1992), 475-78. good examples of the application of this approach. Both Michael Yahuda's response, “Kremlinology and the 28. For a helpful discussion of the rationality model,” are concerned mainly with domestic politics, but their Chinese Strategic Debate, 1965-66,” China Quarterly see Kenneth Lieberthal and Michel Oksenberg, Policy findings have considerable import for foreign policy. 149 (January-March 1972), especially 74-75. Yahuda Making in China: Leaders, Structures, and Processes 16. One distinguished China-watcher has proposed rejects easy factional explanations, while stressing the (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 11-14. careful examination of past forecasting as a way of interaction between “foreign and domestic politics." 29. W.R. Connor, “Why Were We Surprised?Amerihighlighting possible future interpretive problems as 21. For a thoughtful critique of this approach, now can Scholar 60 (Spring 1991), 175-84. Moshe Lewin, well as identifying past successes. Allen S. Whiting, much in vogue, see Bin Yu, “The Study of Chinese The Gorbachev Phenomenon: A Historical Interpreta“Forecasting Chinese Foreign Policy: IR Theory vs. the Foreign Policy,” 244-56. Warren I. Cohen, “Conversa- tion (rev. ed.; Berkeley: University of California Press, Fortune Cookie,” in Chinese Foreign Policy, eds. tions with Chinese Friends: Zhou Enlai's Associates 1991); Lewin, “Russia/USSR in Historical Motion: An Robinson and Shambaugh, 506-23. This proposal Reflect on Chinese-American Relations in the 1940s Essay in Interpretation,Russian Review 50 (July 1991), tellingly omits historical reconstruction of the very and the Korean War," Diplomatic History 11 (Summer 249-66; and Stephen F. Cohen, Rethinking the Soviet events analysts were trying to read. Without a fresh, 1987), 283-89, suggests that historians are not immune Experience: Politics and History since 1917 (New


York: Oxford University Press, 1985), are notable CCP FOREIGN RELATIONS temporary revolutionary history] (Beijing: efforts at moving Soviet history beyond a thin, simple,

continued from page 129

Zhonggong dangshi ziliao, 1987), is broadly and strongly judgmental “totalitarian” model associated with the Cold War. An elaborated, well-grounded have had their major writings published. The

cast but omits limited circulation source alternative appears to await the completion of a new Mao collection (discussed below) is the best

materials and journals. A draft version of the generation of historical research.

known, but the list extends to those who Zhang volume containing more citations to 30. Paul A. Cohen, “The Post-Mao Reforms in Historical Perspective,Journal of Asian Studies 47 (August played a prominent role briefly in the mid- restricted (“internal circulation”) materials 1988), 518-40, highlights the dangers of a heavy reli- and late 1920s (such as Qu Qiubai and Peng appeared in Dangshi ziliao zhengji tongxun ance on an abstract Leninist party model to the neglect Shuzhi), the group that accompanied Mao to

7-12 (1985). A partial English translation, of long-term historical patterns.

the top (such as Liu Shaoqi, Wang Jiaxiang, prepared by Timothy Cheek and Tony Saich, 31. For an effort at teasing out an informal foreignpolicy ideology that might be applicable to China, see Deng Xiaoping, Peng Dehuai, and Chen Yun),

has appeared in Chinese Studies in History my own Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Ha- party intellectuals (such as Chen Hansheng 23 (Summer 1990), 3-94, and Chinese Studven: Yale University Press, 1987) and my follow-up and Ai Siqi), notable public supporters (such

ies in Sociology and Anthropology 22 essay, “Ideology,” in “A Roundtable: Explaining the

as Song Qingling), and even that party black (Spring-Summer 1990), 3-158. Zhang Jingru History of American Foreign Relations,” Journal of American History 77 (June 1990), 108-115. Clifford sheep, Wang Ming. These volumes appear and Tang Manzhen, eds., Zhonggong Geertz's “Ideology as a Cultural System,” in Ideology variously as wenji (collected works), wenxuan

dangshixue shi [A history of CCP historical and Discontent, ed. David E. Apter (London: Free (selected works), xuanji (selections), and in

studies] (Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue, Press, 1964), 47-76, is a classic still worth reading.

several cases
junshi wenxuan (selected works

1990), traces the field's development, in32. George Lakoff, Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind (Chi- on military affairs). Generally these collec- cluding notably its opening up in the 1980s. cago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 92-93. tions, especially the ones published in the

Party history journals are a treasure 33. For an extended argument for the importance of early decades of the PRC, are less revealing

trove, offering fresh documentation, revealinternal categories and outlooks to the understanding on foreign affairs than the more recent mate

ing articles, and news of conferences and of Chinese values, see Thomas A. Metzger, Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China's

rials. The collected works for a few of the pending publications. A number of the chief Evolving Political Culture (New York: Columbia Uni- best known party figures can be found in journals underwent a confusing set of title versity Press, 1977). Andrew J. Nathan makes a translation.

changes in the late 1980s, and most are contrary case in favor of what he calls "evaluative

For an early introduction to these vari

restricted in their circulation. They are as a universalism,” those externally based judgments that not only are legitimate but also can stimulate better ous materials, see Michael H. Hunt and Odd

result difficult for researchers outside of understanding. Nathan, “The Place of Values in Cross- Arne Westad, “The Chinese Communist Party

China to keep straight and use systematiCultural Studies: The Example of Democracy and and International Affairs: A Field Report on

cally. Of these journals Dangde wenxian China,” in Ideas Across Cultures: Essays on Chinese New Historical Sources and Old Research

[Literature on the party] (published by Thought in Honor of Benjamin Schwartz, ed. Paul A. Cohen and Merle Goldman (Cambridge: Harvard Uni

Problems,China Quarterly 122 (Summer Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi and versity Council on East Asian Studies, 1990), 293-314. 1990), 258-72. Steven M. Goldstein and He

1990), 258-72. Steven M. Goldstein and He Zhongyang dang’anguan, 1988- ; “internal For instructive exercises in paying serious attention to Di offer an update in “New Chinese Sources

circulation") and its earlier incarnation, language in the Chinese context, see Michael on the History of the Cold War,” Cold War

Wenxian he yanjiu [Documents and research] Schoenhals, Doing Things with Words in Chinese Politics (Berkeley: University of California Institute of International History Project Bulletin 1

(published by Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, East Asian Studies, 1992), and Frank Dikötter, The (Spring 1992), 4-6. Fernando Orlandi,

1982-87;“internal circulation”), deserve sinDiscourse of Race in Modern China (London: Hurst,

“Nuove fonti e opportunità di ricerca sulla gling out for their fresh documentation as 1992). storia della Cina contemporanea, del

well as helpful articles. 34. The approach is thoughtfully discussed in James Farr, “Understanding Conceptual Change Politically,”

movimento comunista internazionale e della in Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, ed. guerra fredda” (Rome: working paper, Centro

Rise of an International Affairs Terrence Ball et al. (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge Gino Germani di Studi Comparati sulla

Orthodoxy (1921-1934)
University Press, 1989), 24-49, and is applied in Daniel

Modernizzazione e lo Sviluppo, 1994), of-
T. Rodgers, Contested Truths: Keywords in American
Politics Since Independence (New York: Basic Books,
fers the most recent, wide ranging survey of

CCP views on foreign affairs emerged 1987); and in Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vo- the new literature. Susanne Weigelin- during the late Qing and early Republic out cabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford Schwiedrzik, “Party Historiography in the

of a complex intellectual setting. This backUniversity Press, 1976). People's Republic of China,” Australian ground is nicely suggested by a large body of

literature: Charlotte Furth, ed., The Limits of Michael H. Hunt is Everett H. Emerson Profes- Journal of Chinese Affairs 17 (January 1987), sor of History at the University of North Caro- 78-113, stresses the highly political nature of Change: Essays on Conservatives Alternalina at Chapel Hill. This essay was adapted from the party history establishment. CCP Re- tives in Republican China (Cambridge: a chapter of his forthcoming book, The Genesis search Newsletter, edited by Timothy Cheek,

Harvard University Press, 1976); Hao Chang, of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy (New and the twice-monthly Zhonggong dangshi

Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for York: Columbia University Press, 1996), and tongxun [CCP history newsletter] are both Order and Meaning (1890-1911) (Berkealso appeared, in slightly different form, in

essential for keeping current with new pub- ley: University of California Press, 1987); Michael H. Hunt and Niu Jun, eds., Toward a lications and research projects.

Don C. Price, Russia and the Roots of the History of Chinese Communist Foreign Rela

There are in Chinese several major guides

Chinese Revolution, 1896-1911(Cambridge: tions, 1920s-1960s: Personalities and Interpreto party history literature. Zhang Zhuhong,

Harvard University Press, 1974); James tive Approaches (Washington, DC: Asia Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Zhongguo xiandai gemingshi shiliaoxue [A Pusey, China and Charles Darwin (CamScholars, [1993]). study of historical materials on China's con

bridge: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies, 1983); Mary B. Rankin, Early Origins of Chinese Communism (New York: perialism and the Left Guomindang,” ModChinese Revolutionaries: Radical Intellec- Oxford University Press, 1989); Lawrence ern China 11 (January 1985), 39-76; and P. tuals in Shanghai and Chekiang, 1902-1911 Sullivan and Richard H. Solomon, “The Cavendish, “Anti-imperialism in the (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Formation of Chinese Communist Ideology Kuomintang 1923-8,” in Studies in the So1971); Benjamin I. Schwartz, In Search of in the May Fourth Era: A Content Analysis cial History of China and South-east Asia, Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West of Hsin ch’ing nien,in Ideology and Poli- ed. Jerome Ch'en and Nicholas Tarling (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, tics in Contemporary China, ed. Chalmers (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University 1964); Harold Z. Schiffrin, Sun Yat-sen and Johnson (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970), 23-56. the Origins of the Chinese Revolution (Ber- Press, 1973); Hans J. van de Ven, From To form a more precise impression of keley: University of California Press, 1970); Friends to Comrades: The Founding of the CCP views on imperialism, turn to contem Li Yu-ning, The Introduction of Socialism Chinese Communist Party, 1920-1927(Ber- porary materials, notably prominent party into China (New York: Columbia Univer- keley: University of California Press, 1991); journals such as Xiangdao zhoubao [The sity East Asian Institute, 1971); Martin Michael Y. L. Luk, The Origins of Chinese guide weekly](1922-27) and the collections

) Bernal, Chinese Socialism to 1907 (Ithaca: Bolshevism: An Ideology in the Making, of Central Committee documents (noted Cornell University Press, 1976); Arif Dirlik, 1921-1928 (Hong Kong: Oxford University above). Evidence on the general attractiveAnarchism in the Chinese Revolution (Ber- Press, 1989); Marilyn A. Levine, The Found ness of anti-imperialism as a tool of political keley: University of California Press, 1991); Generation: Chinese Communists in Eu- mobilization can be found in Wusa yundong Peter Zarrow, Anarchism and Chinese Po- rope during the Twenties (Seattle: Univer- shiliao [Historical materials on the May 30 litical Culture (New York: Columbia Uni- sity of Washington Press, 1993); and Ben- (1925) movement), comp. Shanghai shehui versity Press, 1990); Chow Tse-tsung, The jamin Yang, From Revolution to Politics:

jamin Yang, From Revolution to Politics: kexueyuan lishi yanjiusuo, vol. 1 (Shanghai: May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revo- Chinese Communists on the Long March Shanghai renmin, 1981); Sanyiba yundong lution in Modern China (Cambridge: Harvard (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990). Benjamin ziliao [Materials on the March 18 (1926) University Press, 1964); Lin Yü-sheng, The I. Schwartz, Chinese Communism and the movement), comp. Sun Dunheng and Wen Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Rise of Mao (originally published 1951; Hai (Beijing: Renmin, 1984); and Sanyiba Antitraditionalism in the May Fourth Era Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966), can’an ziliao huibian (Materials on the March (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, is a classic that still commands attention. 18 (1926) massacre), comp. Jiang Changren 1979); Vera Schwarcz, The Chinese En- There is good material on early party (Beijing: Beijing, 1985).

) lightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of leaders. See in particular Maurice Meisner, The CCP's relationship to the Commuthe May Fourth Movement of 1919 (Berke- Li Dazhao and the Origins of Chinese Marx- nist International (Comintern) in the 1920s ley: University of California Press, 1986); ism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, and early 1930s is, despite limited, fragmenand Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections 1967); Huang Sung-k’ang, Li Ta-chao and tary evidence, the subject of a good range of on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium the Impact of Marxism on Modern Chinese

the Impact of Marxism on Modern Chinese studies. The central work is C. Martin Wilbur (Cambridge: Harvard University East Asian Thinking (The Hague: Mouton, 1965); Li and Julie Lien-ying How, Missionaries of Research Center, 1972).

Dazhao wenji (Collected works of Li Revolution: Soviet Advisers and Nationalist Writings from the People's Republic of Dazhao), comp. Yuan Qian et al. (2 vols.; China, 1920-1927 (Cambridge: Harvard China offer such a constricted treatment of Beijing: Renmin, 1984); Lee Feigon, Chen University Press, 1989), a much expanded the CCP's May Fourth background that they Duxiu: Founder of the Chinese Communist version of C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lienare of only limited use. Broader perspec- Party (Princeton: Princeton University Press, ying How, eds., Documents on Communism,

, tives are available in documentary collec- 1983); Duxiu wencun [A collection of writ- Nationalism, and Soviet Advisers in China, tions such as Wusi aiguo yundong [the May ings by (Chen) Duxiu] (originally published 1918-1927: Papers Seized in the 1927 Pefourth patriotic movement], comp. Zhongguo 1922; 2 vols.; Jiulong: Yuandong, 1965); king Raid (New York: Columbia University shehui kexueyuan jindaishi yanjiusuo jindai and Zhang Guotao, The Rise of the Chinese Press, 1956). The following are more speziliao bianjizu (2 vols., Beijing: Zhongguo Communist Party: The Autobiography of cialized but no less important: Tony Saich,

( shehui kexue, 1979); and Shehui zhuyi Chang Kuo-t'ao (2 vols.; Lawrence: Uni- The Origins of the First United Front in sixiang zai Zhongguo de chuanbo [The versity of Kansas Press, 1971-72).

China: The Role of Sneevliet (Alias Maring) propagation of socialist thought in China] (3 The variant views on imperialism in the (2 vols.; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1991); Jane L. vols.; Beijing: Zhonggong zhongyang 1920s emerge from A. James Gregor and Price, Cadres, Commanders, and Commisdangxiao keyan bangongshi, 1985). The Maria Hsia Chang, “Marxism, Sun Yat-sen, sars: The Training of the Chinese Commulatter is but one of a number of documentary and the Concept of 'Imperialism”,” Pacific nist Leadership, 1920-1945 (Boulder, Colo.: collections that have been compiled in China Affairs 55 (Spring 1982), 54-79; Herman Westview Press, 1976); M. F. Yuriev and A. over the last decade on ideological transmis- Mast III, “Tai Chi-t’ao, Sunism and Marx- V.Pantsov, “Comintern, CPSU(B) and Ideosion and formation around the time of May ism During the May Fourth Movement in

ism During the May Fourth Movement in logical and Organizational Evolution of the Fourth.

Shanghai,” Modern Asian Studies 5 (July Communist Party of China,” in RevolutionAn accumulation of research spanning 1971), 227-49; Edmund S. K. Fung, “The ary Democracy and Communists in the East, several decades offers good insight on the Chinese Nationalists and the Unequal Trea- ed. R. Ulyanovsky (Moscow: Progress Pubfounding of the CCP and subsequent party- ties 1924-1931,” Modern Asian Studies 21 lishers, 1984); and Alexander Pantsov, “From building. See in particular Arif Dirlik, The (October 1987), 793-819; Fung, “Anti-Im- Students to Dissidents: The Chinese Trotskyists in Soviet Russia,” trans. John Leninist Theory and Strategy (Princeton: the Myth of the 'Lost Chance', 1948-1950,” Sexton, Issues and Studies (Taibei), vol. 30, Princeton University Press, 1984), chaps. 4, Modern Asian Studies 28 (1994), 475-502; pt. 1 (March 1994), 97-126, pt. 2 (April 8-10; Frank S.T. Hsiao and Lawrence R. and Chen Jian, “The Ward Case and the 1994), 56-73, and pt. 3 (May 1994), 77-109. Sullivan, “A Political History of the Taiwan- Emergence of Sino-American ConfrontaOnce standard accounts still deserving at- ese Communist Party, 1928-1931,Journal tion, 1948-1950,” Australian Journal of tention include Allen Whiting, Soviet Poli- of Asian Studies 42 (February 1983), 269-89; Chinese Affairs 30 (July 1993), 149-70. cies in China, 1917-1924 (New York: Co- and Hsiao and Sullivan, “The Chinese Com- A number of studies prepared without lumbia University Press, 1954); and Dan N. munist Party and the Status of Taiwan, 1928- benefit of the recently released documentaJacobs, Borodin: Stalin's Man in China 1943,” Pacific Affairs 52 (Fall 1979), 446- tion are still worth attention. James Reardon(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 67.

Anderson, Yenan and the Great Powers: 1981).

The Origins of Chinese Communist Foreign There are some revealing memoirs on The Emergence of a Foreign Policy Policy, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia the early CCP-Soviet relationship. Yueh


University Press, 1980), stirred up debate by Sheng, Sun Yat-sen University in Moscow

minimizing ideological constraints on CCP and the Chinese Revolution: A Personal The CCP's handling of the United States policy and by arguing for a “lost chance” at Account ([Lawrence]: University of Kansas and the Soviet Union during the Pacific War the end of the Pacific War when the CCP was Center for East Asian Studies, 1971); and and into the early Cold War period has been frustrated in its attempt to avert Sino-AmeriWang Fan-hsi, Chinese Revolutionary: the subject of roughly three decades of seri- can hostility and to minimize dependence on Memoirs, 1919-1949, trans. Gregor Benton ous scholarship. The appearance of new docu- the Soviet Union. (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, mentation has rendered much of that litera- This interpretative challenge was 1980), are notable for their treatment of ture obsolete and compromised interpreta- quickly taken up by several contributors to study in Moscow and its personal impact. tions advanced as recently as the late 1980s. Uncertain Years: Chinese-American RelaOtto Braun, A Comintern Agent in China, Several major works drawing on the fresh tions, 1947-1950, ed. Dorothy Borg and 1932-1939, trans. Jeanne Moore (Stanford: source materials have already appeared. John Waldo Heinrichs (New York: Columbia Stanford University Press, 1982), is colored W. Garver's Chinese-Soviet Relations, 1937- University Press, 1980), 181-278, 293-303. by a strong anti-Mao animus.

1945: The Diplomacy of Chinese National- See in particular my own “Mao Tse-tung and Among a substantial collection of gen- ism (New York: Oxford University Press, the Issue of Accommodation with the United eral surveys in Chinese on the CCP and the 1988) stresses the CCP's policy of maneuver States, 1948-1950,” Steven M. Goldstein's Comintern, the standouts are Xiang Qing, and places Mao alongside Jiang Jieshi response, “Chinese Communist Policy ToGongchan guoji he Zhongguo geming guanxi [Chiang Kai-shek] as a nationalist whose ward the United States: Opportunities and shigao [Draft history of the relations be- outlook drove him into “rebellion” (274) Constraints, 1944-1950," and Steven I. tween the Comintern and the Chinese revo- against Moscow. Odd Arne Westad's Cold Levine's two commentaries. Goldstein relution] (Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1988); Yang War and Revolution: Soviet-American Ri- visited the debate in “Sino-American RelaYunruo and Yang Kuisong, Gongchan guoji valry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil tions, 1948-1950: Lost Chance or No he Zhongguo geming [The Comintern and War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia Uni- Chance?” in Sino-American Relations, 1945the Chinese revolution] (Shanghai: Shang- versity Press, 1993), sets Mao's policy in an 1955: A Joint Reassessment of a Critical hai renmin, 1988); and Yang Kuisong, impressively international context and pic- Decade, ed. Harry Harding and Yuan Ming Zhongjian didai de geming: Zhongguo tures as largely abortive his efforts to make (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, geming de celüe zai guoji beijing xia de the great powers serve his party's cause in 1989), 119-42. yanbian [Revolution in the intermediate the immediate aftermath of World War II. These Goldstein accounts emphasize zone: The development of China's revolu- Also drawing on new material are shorter policy constraints imposed by formal party tionary strategy against an international studies: John W. Garver, “The Origins of the ideology. They as well as his “The Chinese background] (Beijing: Zhonggong Second United Front: The Comintern and the Revolution and the Colonial Areas: The zhongyang dangxiao, 1992), the freshest Chinese Communist Party,China Quar- View from Yenan, 1937-41,China Quarand most detailed treatment. All three ac- terly 113 (March 1988), 29-59; Garver, “The terly 75 (September 1978), 594-622, and his

“ counts carry the story into the 1940s-down Soviet Union and the Xi'an Incident,” Aus- “The CCP's Foreign Policy of Opposition, to the dissolution of the Comintern and tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 26 (July 1937-1945,” in China's Bitter Victory: The beyond.

1991), 147-75; Michael M. Sheng, “Mao, War with Japan, 1937-1945, ed. James C. Treatment of the CCP approach to na- Stalin, and the Formation of the Anti-Japa- Hsiung and Steven I. Levine (Armonk, N.Y.:

, tional minorities and its support for foreign nese United Front, 1935-37,China Quar- M.E. Sharpe, 1992), 107-134, draw from his liberation movements, an important issue as terly 129 (March 1992), 149-70; Sheng, “Chinese Communist Perspectives on Interearly as the 1920s, can be found in June T. “America's Lost Chance in China? A Reap- national Affairs, 1937-1941” (Ph.D. thesis, Dreyer, China's Forty Millions: Minority praisal of Chinese Communist Policy To- Columbia University, 1972), a pioneering Nationalities and National Integration in ward the United States Before 1945,” Aus- effort at systematic treatment based largely the People's Republic of China (Cambridge: tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 29 (Janu- on party press and other public pronounceHarvard University Press, 1976); Walker ary 1993), 135-57; Sheng, “Chinese Com- ments available to researchers at the time. Connor, The National Question in Marxist- munist Policy Toward the United States and Levine's own major statement, Anvil of

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Victory: The Communist Revolution in Man- tious account to date is Niu Jun's Cong and Jiefangjun, 1984): Wu Xiuquan, Wode churia, 1945-1948 (New York: Columbia Yanan zouxiang shijie: Zhongguo licheng [My course] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, University Press, 1987), also joined the is- gongchandang duiwai guanxi de qiyuan

gongchandang duiwai guanxi de qiyuan 1984); Peter Vladimirov, The Vladimirov sue by looking at revolutionary mobilization [Moving from Yanan toward the world: the Diary, Yenan, China: 1942-1945 (Garden in a strategically pivotal and internationally origins of Chinese Communist foreign rela

origins of Chinese Communist foreign rela City, N.Y., 1975), a translation that is not as sensitive region. It elaborates themes antici- tions] (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1992). Niu

tions] (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1992). Niu complete as the Russian original, and in any pated in his “A New Look at American locates the origins of the CCP's independent case betrays a tendentious quality that inMediation in the Chinese Civil War: The foreign policy in the Yanan years, and per


vites some suspicion; and Ivan V. Kovalev Marshall Mission and Manchuria,Diplo- haps better than any other account—in En- and Sergei N. Goncharov, “Stalin's Diamatic History 3 (Fall 1979), 349-75, and his glish or Chinese—provides the supporting

glish or Chinese—provides the supporting logue with Mao Zedong,” trans. Craig essay, “Soviet-American Rivalry in Man- evidence. He builds here on his earlier work Seibert, Journal of Northeast Asian Studies churia and the Cold War,” in Dimensions of on the CCP's handling of the Hurley and 10 (Winter 1991-92), 45-76. Chen Jian has Chinese Foreign Policy, ed. Chün-tu Hsüeh Marshall missions, Cong He'erli dao translated the portions of the Shi Zhe mem(New York: Praeger, 1977), 10-43.

Maxie'er: Meiguo tiaochu guogong maodun oir dealing with the 1949 missions by Other early accounts grappling with shimo [From Hurley to Marshall: a full ac- Mikoyan and Liu Shaoqi in Chinese HistoCCP foreign policy ideology include Okabe count of the U.S. mediation of the contradic- rians 5 (Spring 1992), 35-46; and 6 (Spring Tatsumi, “The Cold War and China,” in The tions between the Nationalists and the Com- 1993), 67-90. Origins of the Cold War in Asia, ed. munists] (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1988). Yonosuke Nagai and Akira Iriye (New York: Chinese specialists have published ex

Mao Zedong Columbia University Press, 1977), 224-51; tensively in Chinese journals on various key and Warren I. Cohen, “The Development of aspects of CCP policy in this period. A Anyone interested in tracing Mao's Chinese Communist Policy toward the portion of that work has appeared in transla

portion of that work has appeared in transla- evolving outlook on international affairs and United States,Orbis 11 (Spring and Sum- tion. See especially Zhang Baijia, “Chinese his central policy role from the mid-1930s mer 1967), 219-37 and 551-69.

Policies toward the United States, 1937- has an embarrassment of documentary riches A growing body of scholarship helps 1945," and He Di, “The Evolution of the to contend with. Indeed, a wide variety of situate CCP external relations in the broader Chinese Communist Party's Policy toward materials have accumulated layer upon layer context of base building, revolutionary war- the United States, 1944-1949,” in Sino- so that systematic research requires considfare, peasant mobilization, and united front American Relations, 1945-1955, 14-28 and erable patience. Those who press on will policy in the 1930s and 1940s. Key items 31-50 respectively; and Yang Kuisong, “The find as their reward Mao emerging from include Odoric Y. K. Wou, Mobilizing the Soviet Factor and the CCP's Policy Toward these materials a more complex and more Masses: Building Revolution in Henan the United States in the 1940s,” Chinese interesting figure than previously guessed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994); Historians 5 (Spring 1992), 17-34.

Most notable among the English-lanGregor Benton, Mountain Fires: The Red Key sources for this period, aside from

guage treatments of Mao's career is the body Army's Three-Year War in South China, the central party documents mentioned of writing by Stuart R. Schram. See in par1934-1938 (Berkeley: University of Cali- above, are Zhongyang tongzhanbu and ticular Schram's classic life-and-times bifornia Press, 1992); Kui-Kwong Shum, The Zhongyang dang'anguan, comps., ography, Mao Tse-tung (Harmondsworth, Chinese Communists' Road to Power: The Zhonggong zhongyang kangRi minzu tongyi

Zhonggong zhongyang kangRi minzu tongyi Eng.: Penguin, 1966); the update to it in Mao Anti-Japanese National United Front, 1935- zhanxian wenjian xuanbian (A selection of Zedong: A Preliminary Reassessment (New 1945 (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, documents on the CCP Central Committee's York and Hong Kong: St. Martin's Press and 1988); Levine, Anvil of Victory(cited above); national anti-Japanese united front] (3 vols.; Chinese University Press, 1983); and finally Chen Yung-fa, Making Revolution: The Beijing: Dang’an, 1984-86; “internal circu- his The Thought of Mao Tse-tung (CamCommunist Movement in Eastern and Cen- lation”); and Zhongyang tongzhanbu and bridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, tral China, 1937-1945 (Berkeley: Univer- Zhongyang dang’anguan, comps., 1989), consisting of two essays that first sity of California Press, 1986); and Suzanne Zhonggong zhongyang jiefang zhanzheng

Zhonggong zhongyang jiefang zhanzheng appeared in The Cambridge History of China, Pepper, Civil War in China: The Political shiqi tongyi zhanxian wenjian xuanbian [A vols. 13 and 15. See also Frederick C. Struggle, 1945-1949 (Berkeley: University selection of documents on the CCP Central Teiwes, “Mao and His Lieutenants,” Ausof California Press, 1978). Some of the Committee's united front during the period tralian Journal of Chinese Affairs 19-20 issues raised by this literature are discussed of liberation struggle] (Beijing: Dang’an, (January-July 1988), 1-80; Jerome Ch'en, in Kathleen J. Hartford and Steven M. 1988; “internal circulation”).

Mao and the Chinese Revolution (London: Goldstein, “Perspectives on the Chinese Personal accounts are useful in supple- Oxford University Press, 1965); Frederic Communist Revolution,” in Single Sparks: menting the primary collections. See Shi Wakeman, Jr., History and Will: PhilosophiChina's Rural Revolutions, ed. Goldstein Zhe with Li Haiwen, Zai lishi juren shenbian: cal Perspectives of Mao Tse-tung's Thought and Hartford (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Shi Zhe huiyilu [Alongside the giants of

Shi Zhe huiyilu [Alongside the giants of (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 3-33.

history: Shi Zhe's memoir] (Beijing: 1973); Dick Wilson, ed., Mao Tse-tung in PRC historians have led the way in Zhongyang wenxian, 1991); Nie Rongzhen, the Scales of History (Cambridge, Eng.: filling out the picture of CCP policy from the Nie Rongzhen huiyilu [The memoirs of Nie Cambridge University Press, 1977); Robert late 1930s down to 1949. The most ambi- Rongzhen] (3 vols.; Beijing: Janshi, 1983, A. Scalapino, “The Evolution of a Young

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