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Revolutionary—Mao Zedong in 1919- indicated, 1975).
a new series on Mao the military strategist: 1921,” Journal of Asian Studies 42 (No- The officially sanctioned and most fre- Junshi kexue chubanshe and Zhongyang vember 1982), 29-61; He Di, “The Most quently cited collection of Mao's writings, wenxian chubanshe, comps., Mao Zedong Respected Enemy: Mao Zedong's Percep- post- as well as pre-1949, is Mao Zedong junshi wenji [A collection of Mao Zedong tion of the United States,” China Quarterly xuanji [Selected works of Mao Zedong] (5 works on military affairs] (6 vols., Beijing: 137 (March 1994), 144-58; and Benjamin I. vols.; Beijing: Renmin, 1952-77). It has long publisher same as compiler, 1993), which Schwartz, “The Maoist Image of the World been available in translation: Selected Works expands on Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun Order,” Journal of International Affairs 21 of Mao Tse-tung (5 vols.; Beijing: Foreign junshi kexueyuan, comp.,Mao Zedong junshi (1967), 92-102. The Schwartz article is Languages Press, 1961-77).
wenxuan (A selection of Mao Zedong works notable as a pioneering effort to inject more Aware that Selected Works is highly on military affairs] (Beijing: Zhongguo sophistication and subtlety into the study of selective and politically edited, scholars out- renmin jiefangjun zhanshi, 1981; "internal Mao's guiding ideas by placing earlier for- side China have subjected the Mao corpus to circulation”; Tokyo reprint: Sososha, 1985). eign relations practices and experience as critical analysis, sought to supplement it with A second is the detailed and authoritative well as twentieth-century nationalism along- fresh materials, and prepared translations account of Mao's emergence and triumph as side Marxist-Leninist sources.
based on the most authentic originals avail- a revolutionary leader in Zhonggong There is a good body of writings on able. The effort began in earnest with Stuart Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi (under the Mao's early years. The starting point has Schram's 1963 compilation and translation direction of Pang Xianzhi), Mao Zedong long been Mao’sown recital in Edgar Snow's of key documents, The Political Thought of nianpu, 1893-1949 [A chronological biogRed Star Over China (originally published Mao Tse-tung (rev. ed.; Harmondsworth, raphy of Mao Zedong, 1893-1949) (3 vols.; 1938; New York: Grove Press, 1961). The Eng.: Penguin, 1969). The major nonofficial Beijing: Renmin and Zhongyang wenxian, first to add to the picture was Xiao San (Emi collection, launched in Japan under the su- 1993). A third is Zhonggong zhongyang Hsiao), Mao Zedong tongzhi de pervision of Takeuchi Minoru, provided a wenxian yanjiushi, comp.,Mao Zedong wenji qingshaonian shidai [Comrade Mao reliable and considerably fuller body of Mao [Collected works of Mao Zedong] (2 vols. to Zedong's boyhood and youth] (originally materials at least down to 1949. The first date; Beijing: Renmin, 1983-), which stands published 1948; rev. and exp. ed., series appeared as Mao Zedong ji [Collected as a supplement to the well known xuanji Guangzhou: Xinhua, 1950). A translation is writings of Mao Zedong] (10 vols.; Tokyo: (selected works) but which is largely silent available as Mao Tse-tung: His Childhood Hokubosha, 1971-72); it was followed by a on international issues. A fourth anniverand Youth (Bombay: People's Publishing second, supplementary series, Mao Zedong sary collection on Mao's diplomacy has also House, 1953). Li Rui followed with Mao ji bujuan [Supplements to the collected writ- appeared: Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan Zedong tongzhi de chuqi geming huodong ings of Mao Zedong] (9 vols.; Tokyo: [Selected Diplomatic Papers of Mao Zedong] [Comrade Mao Zedong's initial revolution- Sososha, 1983-85). A parallel project to
Sososha, 1983-85). A parallel project to (Beijing: The Central Press of Historical ary activities] (Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian, provide a full English-language collection, Documents, 1994). Helpful in putting Mao's 1957). The translation prepared by An- Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writ- role in the revolution in context are collecthony W. Sariti and James C. Hsiung ap- ings, 1912-1949, is now underway. The tions of central party documents and the pears as The Early Revolutionary Activities PreMarxist Period, 1912-1920, ed. Stuart R. documents on overall united front policy of Mao Tse-tung (White Plains, N.Y.: M. E. Schram (Armonk, N.Y.:M.E. Sharpe, 1992), from 1935-1948 (both cited above). Sharpe, 1977). Li Rui has since offered a is the first volume to appear.
For the post-1949 Mao turn to the clasrevised and expanded version of the biogra- Collections compiled by the party his- sified series compiled by Zhonggong phy: Mao Zedong de zaoqi geming huodong tory establishment in China over the last zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, Jianguo yilai [Mao Zedong's early revolutionary activ- decade have added significant, fresh light on Mao Zedong wengao [Mao Zedong manuity] (Changsha: Hunan renmin, 1980). The Mao's general outlook and his emergence as scripts for the period following the estabrecollections by Siao Yu (Xiao Yü; Xiao a maker of foreign policy. These collections lishment of the country] (8 vols. to date; Zisheng), Mao Tse-tung and I Were Beg- include Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1987- ; “ingars (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University yanjiushi, comp., Mao Zedong shuxin xuanji ternal circulation”). This series sheds new Press, 1959), sound a somewhat sour tone. [A selection of Mao Zedong correspondence] light on Mao and world affairs down to the Recently a full collection of early writings (Beijing: Renmin, 1983); Zhonggong late 1950s, and taken together with the outhas been published in China: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi and Xinhua pouring of Mao material during the Cultural zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi and tongxunshe, comps., Mao Zedong xinwen
tongxunshe, comps., Mao Zedong xinwen Revolution, gives us the basis for beginning Zhonggong Hunan shengwei “Mao Zedong gongzuo wenxuan [A selection of Mao to understand Mao's PRC years. The formizaoqi wengao” bianjizu, comps., Mao Zedong works on journalism] (Beijing: dable task of collecting, collating, and veri
: Zedong zaoqi wengao, 1912.6-1920.11 Xinhua, 1983); and Zhonggong zhongyang fying these materials has only begun. For a [Mao Zedong manuscripts from the early tongyi zhanxian gongzuobu yanjiushi et al., good recent guide, see Timothy Cheek, “Texperiod, June 1912-November 1920] comps., Mao Zedong lun tongyi zhanxian tually Speaking: An Assessment of Newly (Changsha: Hunan, 1990; “internal circula- [Mao Zedong on the united front] (Beijing:
[Mao Zedong on the united front] (Beijing: Available Mao Texts,” in The Secret tion”). M. Henri Day offers translations of Zhongguo wenshi, 1988).
Speeches of Chairman Mao: From the Hunsome early writings in Mao Zedong, 1917- The hundredth anniversary of Mao's dred Flowers to the Great Leap Forward, 1927: Documents (Stockholm: publisher not birth gave rise to new compilations. One was ed. Roderick MacFarquhar et al. (Cambridge:
Harvard Council on East Asian Studies, wenxian yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai shuxin There are several good overviews that 1989), 78-81; and Cheek, “The 'Genius' xuanji [A selection of Zhou Enlai letters] must serve for the moment. The Cambridge Mao: A Treasure Trove of 23 Newly Avail- (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1988); History of China, vols. 14 and 15, covers able Volumes of Post-1949 Mao Zedong Zhonggong zhongyang tongyi zhanxian PRC foreign policy in chapters by Nakajima Texts,” Australian Journal of Chinese Af- gongzuobu and Zhonggong zhongyang Mineo, Allen S. Whiting, Thomas Robinson, fairs 19-20 (January-July 1988), 337-44. wenxian yanjiushi, comps., Zhou Enlai and Jonathan D. Pollack, while also offering
To make the post-1949 Mao materials tongyi zhanxian wenxuan [A selection of helpful source essays. Samuel S. Kim, ed., available in English, Michael Y. M. Kau and Zhou Enlai writings on the united front] China and the World: Chinese Foreign ReJohn K. Leung launched a translation series (Beijing: Renmin, 1984); and Zhonghua lations in the Post-Cold War Era (3rd rev. in 1986. Two volumes of their The Writings renmin gongheguo waijiaobu and ed.; Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994), pulls of Mao Zedong, 1949-1976 (Armonk, N.Y.: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, together a good range of up-to-date accounts.
M. E. Sharpe, 1986- ) have appeared to date comps., Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan [Se- John W. Garver, Foreign Relations of the covering the period down to December 1957. lected diplomatic writings of Zhou Enlai] People's Republic of China (Englewood
] Their formidable task has been complicated (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, 1990). These Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993), provides a by the continuing flow of new materials out materials go well beyond the limited docu- thematic treatment with some attention to of China. Translated fragments are avail- mentation in Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian the pre-1949 background. Among older able elsewhere—in a variety of publications bianji weiyuanhui, comp., Zhou Enlai xuanji surveys Wang Gungwu's terse China and
, by U.S. Joint Publications Research Service [Selected works of Zhou Enlai] (2 vols.; the World Since 1949: The Impact of Inde(better known as JPRS); in Stuart Schram, Beijing: Renmin, 1980, 1984), which is avail
Beijing: Renmin, 1980, 1984), which is avail- pendence, Modernity, and Revolution (New Chairman Mao Talks to the People: Talks able in translation as Selected Works of Zhou York: St. Martin's Press, 1977), still deand Letters, 1956-1971 (New York: Pan- Enlai (2 vols.; Beijing: Foreign Languages serves attention for its commendable stress theon, 1975); and in MacFarquhar et al., The Press, 1981-89).
on setting CCP foreign relations in a broad Secret Speeches (cited above).
For an introduction to recent work in domestic context.
China on Zhou's diplomatic career and think- The PRC's exercise of control over borZhou Enlai
ing, see Zhou Enlai yanjiu xueshu taolunhui der regions is still only poorly understood.
lunwenji (Collected academic conference For the moment the best places to start are Zhou deserves special attention as Mao's research papers on Zhou Enlai] (Beijing: Dreyer, China's Forty Millions (cited above);
( chief lieutenant in foreign affairs. For the Zhongyang wenxian, 1988); Zhonghua A. Tom Grunfeld, The Making of Modern moment the place to start is the archivally renmin gongheguo waijiaobu waijiaoshi Tibet (London: Zed, and Armonk, N.Y.: M. based biography, Zhonggong zhongyang bianjishi (under the direction of Pei E. Sharpe, 1987), chaps. 5-11; and Donald wenxian yanjiushi (under the direction of Jin Jianzhang), ed., Yanjiu Zhou Enlai-waijiao H. McMillen, Chinese Communist Power Chongji), Zhou Enlai zhuan, 1898-1949 sixiang yu shiyan [Studying Zhou Enlai and Policy in Xinjiang, 1949-1977 (Boul[Biography of Zhou Enlai, 1898-1949] diplomatic thought and practice] (Beijing: der, Colo.: Westview, 1979). (Beijing: Renmin and Zhongyang wenxian, Shijie zhishi, 1989); Zhongguo geming The general secondary accounts in Chi1989). This biography should be used in bowuguan et al., comps., Zhou Enlai he tade nese on post-1949 policy increasingly reconjunction with Zhonggong zhongyang shiye: yanjiu xuancui [Zhou Enlai and his flect the new openness in the PRC but still wenxian yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai enterprises: a sampling of studies] (Beijing: stick close to the official line. Han Nianlong, nianpu, 1898-1949 [A chronicle of Zhou Zhonggong dangshi, 1991); and Zhonghua chief comp., Dangdai Zhongguo waijiao Enlai’s life, 1898-1949] (Beijing: Zhongyang renmin gongheguo waijiaobu waijiaoshi [Chinese foreign affairs in recent times ] wenxian and Renmin, 1989). Zhou's early yanjiushi, comp., Zhou Enlai waijiao (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan, 1987) years abroad are richly documented in Huai huodong dashiji, 1949-1975 [A record of is the best known of these. That volume has En, comp., Zhou zongli qingshaonian shidai Zhou Enlai's diplomatic activities, 1949- been translated as Diplomacy of Contemposhiwenshuxinji [A collection of writings from 1975] (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1993). rary China (Hong Kong: New Horizon, Premier Zhou's youth] (2 vols., Chengdu:
1990) by Qiu Ke’an. It appears as a part of Sichuan renmin, 1979-80); and Zhongguo The Foreign Policy of the PRC the series “Dangdai Zhongguo” (Contemgeming bowuguan, comp. Zhou Enlai ,
porary China), which includes studies on the tongzhi lüouwenji xubian [A supplement to The new sources and studies that have armed forces also germane to foreign policy. the collected works from the time of com- refashioned our understanding of early CCP Zhongguo waijiaoshi: Zhonghua renmin rade Zhou Enlai's residence in Europe] attitudes and policies are just beginning to gongheguo shiqi, 1949-1979 [A diplomatic (Beijing: Wenwu, 1982). These materials have an impact on the post-1949 period. history of China: The PRC period, 1949largely supercede the treatment in Kai-yu Until more documentary publications ap- 1979] (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin, 1988) is Hsu, Chou En-lai: China's Grey Eminence pear and are digested, it is likely that our a major survey produced by Xie Yixian, who (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968), and understanding of PRC foreign policy will served in the foreign service before taking Dick Wilson, Zhou Enlai: A Biography (New remain thin and fragmentary, and the writ- up teaching duties in the Foreign Ministry's York: Viking, 1984).
ings in English on the topic will for the most Foreign Affairs College. Helpful documentation on Zhou's policy part hold to the well-established political These accounts should be supplemented role can be found in Zhonggong zhongyang science approaches.
by such memoirs as Bo Yibo, Ruogan
zhongda juece yu shijian de huigu [Reflec- framework: Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian Mark A. Ryan, Chinese Attitudes Toward tions on some major decisions and inci- yanjiushi, comp., Jianguo yilai zhongyao Nuclear Weapons: China and the United dents] (2 vols.; Beijing: Zhonggong wenxian xuanbian (Beijing: Zhongyang States During the Korean War (Armonk, zhongyang dangxiao, 1991-93); Li wenxian, 1992-); and Zhonggong zhongyang N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1989); Hao Yufan and Shengzhi, YaFei huiyi riji [A diary of the wenxian yanjiushi and Zhongyang Zhai Zhihai, “China's Decision to Enter the Asian-African conference] (Beijing: pub- dang’anguan “Dangde wenxian” bianjibu, Korean War: History Revisited,” China lisher not indicated, 1986); Liu Xiao, Chushi comps., Gongheguo zouguodelu: jianguo Quarterly 121 (March 1990), 94-115, which Sulian banian [Eight years as ambassador to yilai zhongyao wenxian zhuanti xuanji (1949- were in turn overtaken by Chen Jian, “The the Soviet Union] (Beijing: Zhonggong 1952) [The path travelled by the republic: a Sino-Soviet Alliance and China's Entry into dangshi ziliao, 1986); Wang Bingnan, selection of important documents on special the Korean War” (Washington, D.C.: ZhongMei huitan jiunian huigu [Looking topics since the founding of the country Woodrow Wilson Center Cold War Internaback on nine years of Sino-American talks] (1949-1952)](Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, tional History Project, 1992); Chen Jian, (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1985); and Wu 1991).
“China's Changing Aims during the Korean Xiuquan, Zai waijiaobu banian de jingli, For the Korean War, Allen S. Whiting's War, 1950-1951,” The Journal of Ameri1950.1-1958.10 [Eight years' experience in China Crosses the Yalu: The Decision to
can-East Asian Relations 1 (Spring 1992), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January Enter the Korean War (originally published 8-41; Thomas J. Christensen, “Threats, As1950-October 1958] (Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1960; Stanford: Stanford University Press, surances, and the Last Chance for Peace: 1983). This last item, the second volume of 1968) was a path-breaking work that long The Lessons of Mao's Korean War Telethe Wu memoirs, is translated as Eight Years stood as the single, indispensable work. His grams,” International Security 17 (Summer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January account of Chinese signalling from June to 1992), 122-54; and Michael H. Hunt, 1950-October 1958: Memoirs of a Diplo- November 1950 depicted Beijing as neither “Beijing and the Korean Crisis, June 1950mat (Beijing: New World Press, 1985). Moscow-dominated nor irrational but acting June 1951,” Political Science Quarterly 107
Documentary collections are beginning essentially out of fear of “a determined, pow- (Fall 1992), 453-78. to open the window on PRC foreign rela- erful enemy on China's doorstep” (159). A Treatment of Sino-Soviet relations durtions. See in particular Jianguo yilai Mao decade later Edward Friedman, “Problems in ing the initial phase of the Korean War was Zedong wengao (cited above); the tightly Dealing with an Irrational Power,” in for a time sharply limited by the lack of held collection compiled by Zhongguo America's Asia: Dissenting Essays on Asian- documentation. Robert R. Simmons, The renmin jiefangjun zhengzhi xueyuan dangshi American Relations, ed. Friedman and Mark Strained Alliance: Peking, Pyongyang, Mosjiaoyanshi (renamed Zhongguo jiefangjun Selden (New York: Pantheon, 1971), fol
, cow and the Politics of the Korean War guofang daxue dangshi dangjian zhenggong lowed Whiting in stressing the defensive, (New York: Free Press, 1975); Wilbur A.
, jiaoyanshi), Zhonggong dangshi jiaoxue calculated, and rational nature of Chinese Chaffee, “Two Hypotheses of Sino-Soviet cankao ziliao [Reference materials for the policy and Beijing's “complex and differen- Relations as Concerns the Instigation of the teaching of CCP history](vols. to date num- tiated view of American foreign policy” (212). Korean War,” Journal of Korean Affairs bered 12-27 with 25-27 withdrawn; n.p. The theme that China was essentially re- 6:3-4(1976-77), 1-13; and Nakajima Mineo, [Beijing?], n.d. [preface in vol. 12 dated sponding in Korea to a danger to its security “The Sino-Soviet Confrontation: Its Roots 1985]); Xinhuashe xinwen yanjiubu, comp., again enjoyed prominence in Melvin Gurtov in the International Background of the KoXinhuashe wenjian ziliao xuanbian (A se- and Byong-Moo Hwang, China under Threat: rean War,” Australian Journal of Chinese lection of documentary materials on the The Politics of Strategy and Diplomacy (Bal- Affairs 1 (January 1979), 19-47, were early New China News Agency](4 vols.; no place timore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1980), chap. efforts to explore that topic and especially and no publisher, [1981-87?]); and 2., although by this point other competing the ways the war may have intensified strains Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun dangshi concerns—domestic issues, divisions within that would eventually bring about the Sinodangjian zhenggongjiaoyanshi and Guofang the leadership, and strong internationalist Soviet split. Drawing on new materials, daxue dangshi dangjian zhenggong elements in Beijing's justification for inter- Kathryn Weathersby treats “The Soviet Role jiaoyanshi, comps., “Wenhua dageming” vention—were beginning to creep into the in the Early Phase of the Korean War: New yanjiu ziliao [Research materials on “the picture and blur the interpretation.
Documentary Evidence,” Journal of AmeriCultural Revolution"](3 vols., Beijing: pub- The last few years have witnessed a can-East Asian Relations 2 (Winter 1993), lisher same as compiler, 1988; withdrawn flurry of publications, one after another broad- 425-58, and also presents Soviet archival from circulation). The second series of ening and enriching our understanding of materials on the war in issues 3, 5, and 6 of ZhongMei guanxi ziliao huibian [A collec- Chinese policy and China's place in an inter- the Cold War International History Project tion of materials on Sino-American rela- national history of the early Cold War (while Bulletin. tions], comp. Shijie zhishi (2 vols.; Beijing: unfortunately neglecting the domestic di- The most detailed and up-to-date acShijie zhishi, 1960; “internal circulation”), mensions of that conflict). Chen Xiaolu, counts of the war's origins are to be found in reads like a “white paper” with a strong “China's Policy Toward the United States, Chen Jian, China's Road to the Korean War: emphasis on materials between 1949 and 1949-1955,” and Jonathan D. Pollack, “The The Making of the Sino-American Confron1958, virtually all from the public domain. Korean War and Sino-American Relations,” tation (New York: Columbia University Two new collections are helpful in putting both in Sino-American Relations, 1945-1955, Press, 1994), notable for its stress on the early PRC foreign relations in a broad policy 184-97 and 213-37, were soon followed by strong revolutionary streak in Mao's foreign
policy, and Sergei N. Goncharov, John W. Jian, “Peng Dehuai and China's Entry into over the Taiwan Strait and Vietnam is getLewis, and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: the Korean War,” Chinese Historians 6 ting increasing scrutiny by scholars exploitStalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford: (Spring 1993), 1-29.
ing fragmentary PRC revelations and docuStanford University Press, 1993), which The Chinese military has made a major mentation. Zhang Shu Guang, Deterrence depicts the two leaders as shrewd national- effort to tell its Korean War story not only in and Strategic Culture: Chinese-American ists and resolute realpolitikers engaged in an some of the general accounts noted above Confrontations, 1949-1958 (Ithaca: Cornell intricate game of international chess with but also in a long string of memoirs. They University Press, 1992), relates new inforideology counting for little.
include Peng Dehuai zishu bianjizu, ed., mation from Chinese sources to theoretical Within the Chinese historical establish- Peng Dehuai zishu [Peng Dehuai's own concerns with deterrence, calculated deciment, Yao Xu, Cong Yalujiang dao account] (Beijing: Renmin, 1981), which sion-making, and "learning” by
“ Banmendian: Weida de kangMei yuanChao contains treatment of Korea prepared before policymakers. John W. Lewis and Xue Litai, zhanzheng [From the Yalu River to the Cultural Revolution and apparently with- China Builds the Bomb (Stanford: Stanford Panmunjom: the great war to resist America out access to personal files; Du Ping, Zai University Press, 1988), reveals how Mao's and aid Korea) (Beijing: Renmin, 1985; “in- zhiyuanjun zongbu [With the headquarters public dismissal of the American nuclear ternal circulation”); and Chai Chengwen of the volunteer army] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, threat was belied by a high-priority program and Zhao Yongtian, KangMei yuanChao 1989); Yang Chengwu, Yang Chengwu to create a Chinese bomb. jishi [A record of resisting America and huiyilu [Memoirs of Yang Chengwu] (2 A long list of special studies helps furaiding Korea) (Beijing: Zhonggong dangshi vols.; Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1987 and 1990); ther fill out our picture of PRC policy: Chen ziliao, 1987; "internal circulation"), were Yang Dezhi, Weile heping [For the sake of Jian, “China and the First Indochina War, the first to deal in detail with the war. Their peace] (Beijing: Changzheng, 1987); and 1950-54,” China Quarterly 133 (March work was in turn improved on by Junshi Hong Xuezhi, KangMei yuanChao 1993), 85-110; Qiang Zhai, “Transplanting jiaoxueyuan junshi lishi yanjiubu, comp., zhanzheng huiyi [“Recollections of the war the Chinese Model: Chinese Military AdvisZhongguo renmin zhiyuanjun kangMei to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea"] ers and the First Vietnam War, 1950-1954," yuanChao zhanshi [A battle history of resis- (Beijing: Jiefangjun wenyi, 1990). Peng's Journal of Military History 57 (October tance to America and aid to Korea by the memoir is translated as Memoirs of a Chi- 1993), 689-715; Qiang Zhai, “China and the Chinese people's volunteer army] (Beijing: nese Marshal: The Autobiographical Notes Geneva Conference of 1954,” China QuarJunshi jiaoxue, 1988; “internal circulation”); of Peng Dehuai (1898-1924), trans. Zheng terly 129 (March 1992), 103-22; Gordon H. Chai Chengwen and Zhao Yongtian, Longpu and ed. Sara Grimes (Beijing: For- Chang and He Di, “The Absence of War in Banmendian tanpan: Chaoxian zhanzheng eign Languages Press, 1984).
the U.S.-China Confrontation over Quemoy juan [The Panmunjom talks: a volume on There are abundant published source and Matsu in 1954-1955: Contingency, Luck, the Korean War] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1989); materials on the Korean conflict. Aside Deterrence?” American Historical Review Ye Yumeng, Chubing Chaoxian: kangMei from Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao and 98 (December 1993), 1500-24; Xiaobing Li, yuanChao lishi jishi [Sending troops to Ko- Mao Zedong junshi wenxuan (both noted "Chinese Intentions and 1954-55 Offshore rea: a historical record of the resistance to above), see Peng Dehuai zhuanji bianxiezu, Islands Crisis,” Chinese Historians 3 (JanuAmerican and assistance to Korea) (Beijing: comp., Peng Dehuai junshi wenxuan [A ary 1990), 45-59; He Di, “The Evolution of Beijing shiyue wenyi, 1990); Qi Dexue, selection of Peng Dehuai writings on mili- the People's Republic of China's Policy Chaoxian zhanzheng juece neimu [The in- tary affairs] (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian, toward the Offshore Islands,” in The Great side story of the Korean War decisions] 1988); and Zhongguo renmin kangMei Powers in East Asia, 1953-1960 (cited (Shenyang: Liaoning daxue, 1991); yuanChao zonghui xuanchuanbu, comp., above), 222-45; and Chen Jian, “China's “Dangdai Zhongguo” congshu bianji “
Weida de kangMei yuanChao yundong [The Involvement with the Vietnam War, 1964weiyuanhui, KangMei yuanChao zhanzheng great resist-America, aid-Korea campaign] 69,” China Quarterly 142 (June 1995), 357[The war to resist America and aid Korea] (Beijing: Renmin, 1954), a collection of 387. (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1990); documents on domestic mobilization. For a Our understanding of the PRC's Taiand Xu Yan, Diyici jiaoliang: kangMei selection of Korean War materials trans- wan and Vietnam policies is, much like yuanChao zhanzheng de lishi huigu yu fansi lated from Jianguo yilai, volume 1, see Li insights on Korea, in debt to the Chinese [The first test of strength: a historical review Xiaobing et al., “Mao's Despatch of Chinese military. Xu Yan, Jinmen zhi zhan (1949and evaluation of the war to resist America Troops into Korea: Forty-Six Telegrams, 1959 nian) [The battle for Jinmen (1949and aid Korea] (Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo July-October 1950,” Chinese Historians 5 1959)](Beijing: Zhongguo guangbodianshi, dianshi, 1990), the most complete and fully (Spring 1992), 63-86; Li Xiaobing and Glenn 1992), and Zhongguojunshi guwentuan lishi researched of the Chinese studies. Zhang Tracy, “Mao's Telegrams During the Ko- bianxiezu, Zhongguo junshi guwentuan Xi's unusually revealing “Peng Dehuai rean War, October-December 1950,” Chi- yuanYue kangFa douzheng shishi [Historishouming shuaishi kangMei yuanChao de nese Historians 5 (Fall 1992), 65-85. cal facts about the struggle by the Chinese qianqian houhou” [The full story of Peng Goncharov et al., Uncertain Partners, 229- military advisory team to assist Vietnam and Dehuai's appointment to head the resistance 91, serves up a generous sampling of Chi- resist France] (Beijing: Jiefangjun, 1990; to the United States and the assistance to nese as well as Soviet documents on the “internal circulation”), are but examples from Korea],Zhonggong dangshi ziliao 31 (1989), origins of the war.
what is likely to become an imposing body 111-59, is available in a translation by Chen The subsequent Sino-American crisis of work.
culation only,” it is not difficult for scholars the early 1980s, contains many previously continued from page 131 outside of China to gain access to them. For unknown inner-Party instructions and tele
grams by Mao, especially the telegraphic how the situation has changed in the age of example, the Yenching Library and the li
brary of John K. Fairbank Center at Harvard communications between Mao and Chinese “reform and opening to the outside world.”
field commanders during the early stage of Insofar as the original works of CCP leaders University, the East Asian Library at Colum
bia University, the East Asian Library at China's military intervention in Korea (Ocare concerned, the archives storing them, especially Beijing's Central Archives, re
Stanford University, the East Asian Library tober-December 1950). Its circulation was
at Toronto University, the Asian Section of highly restricted at first; after the mid-1980s, main inaccessible to most scholars (both Chinese and Western). If one carefully Library of Congress, and many other East however, it became available to scholars
Asian libraries in North America have colexamines the contents of the selected works
outside of China through several channels, lected various volumes of this set. of CCP leaders that have been compiled and
especially after it had been reprinted by a published since the early 1980s (especially
The documents published in this collec- publisher in Hong Kong. The six-volume
tion are of high historical value. They cover, the editions “for internal circulation only”),
Mao Zedong junshi wenji was published in however, it is easy to find that the policy of
among other things, such important events as December 1993, on the 100th anniversary of
Mao Zedong's visit to the Soviet Union in “reform and opening to the outside world”
Mao's birthday. Its coverage is extraordi1949-1950; China's participation in the Ko- narily uneven. The first five volumes, which has made its stamp on them. Put simply, the "selected works” compiled and published in
rean War in 1950-1953; Mao Zedong's di- cover the period from the late 1920s to 1949,
rection of the "Three-Antis” and “Five-Antis" the 1980s and 1990s are more substantial,
include many documents released only for Movements in 1951-1952; Mao's and the the first time. The sixth volume, which and, so far as their texts are concerned, more reliable than previous collections. To make
CCP leadership’s management of relations covers the period from 1949 to 1976, con
with the Soviet Union in the mid- and late this point clear, I will introduce and exam
tains almost nothing new compared with the 1950s; Mao's management of the Taiwan previously published Mao Zedong junshi ine several major “selected works” compiled and published during this period.
Crisis and the potential confrontation with wenji and Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao. 1. Zhonggong zhongyang wenjian
the United States in 1958; Mao's handling of In actuality, many documents concerning
the “Anti-Rightist Movement" and the “Great Mao's military activities during this postxuanji (Selected Documents of the CCP Central Committee). This documentary colLeap Forward” in 1957-1958; and Mao’s revolution period published in the other two
collections are deleted from this volume. lection covers the period from 1921 to 1949 presentations at the Lushan Conference in
1959. In many places, the documents pub- This is a great disappointment for scholars in two different editions: A fourteen vol
lished in this collection confirm the inner- who are interested in Mao's activities during ume internal edition published in the mid
Party statements and instructions by Mao the PRC period. 1980s, and an eighteen volume open edition
4. Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan (Sepublished in the early 1990s.2 Both editions divulged during the “Cultural Revolution”
years. But the majority of the documents lected Diplomatic Papers of Mao Zedong).8 contain many previously unpublished ma
contained in this collection have never been This collection focuses on Mao's diplomatic terials. The open edition contains almost
released in the past. Most of the documents and strategic activities, emphasizing the postfifteen percent more documents than the earlier internal one (however, a few "sensi
are published in their entirety; some, how- 1949 period. Some of the documents pubtive documents” that were included in the
ever, are published only in part. The quality lished in this volume are of high historical internal edition disappeared from the open
of the eight published volumes is uneven. value. For example, it has long been known
The first volume, which covers the period to scholars that in the summer of 1958, a edition). The "quality" of some of the documents is impressive. For example, the
from October 1949 to December 1950, is one major dispute emerged between Beijing and Central Committee's “Instructions on Dipof the best. It offers, among other things, a Moscow in the wake of Moscow's proposal
to establish a joint Chinese-Soviet submalomatic Affairs,” dated 18 August 1944, quite detailed coverage of Mao's visit to the clearly reveals the CCP leadership’s perSoviet Union, as well as how the CCP lead- rine flotilla. However, it has been unclear to
scholars how this dispute developed. The ception of international affairs as well as its ership made the decision to enter the Korean
War.5 Volume Four, covering the 1953- minutes of a talk between Mao Zedong and calculation on how the Party should best
1954 period, is, compared with other vol- P. F. Yudin, the Soviet ambassador to China, deal with the perceived situation. These documents provide scholars with valuable
umes, extremely thin. As a whole, this col- on July 22, 1958, published in this issue of information for understanding important de
lection provides scholars with much fresh the CWIHP Bulletin, reveal the Chinese cisions by the CCP leadership.
information (compared with what we knew attitude, including Mao's reasoning under
in the past) and, therefore, must be regarded lying it, toward this question.9 2. Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao
as a basic reference for the study of Mao 5. Mao Zedong wenji (A Collection of (Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the
Mao Zedong's Papers).10 This collection Founding of the People's Republic of Zedong, the Chinese revolution, and the hisChina).3 The publication of this series be
tory of the People's Republic of China. publishes Mao's speeches, instructions, and 3. Mao Zedong junshi wenxuan (Se- telegrams not included in Mao Zedong xuanji.
( gan in late 1987, with eight volumes published by 1995, covering the period from
lected Military Papers of Mao Zedong)6 and Among the quite impressive documents re
Mao Zedong junshi wenji (A Collection of October 1949 to December 1959. Although
leased are those about the CCP leadership’s these volumes are marked "for internal cir
Mao Zedong's Military Papers, 6 volumes).7 handling of the Xian Incident of 1936.
) Mao Zedong junshi wenxuan, published in 6. Mao Zedong nianpu (A Chronicle of