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solved when it is electrolyzed. Jiang Jieshi This will not affect the overall situation, and Americans blame us, Jiang Jieshi blames us, is [for us]a domestic issue, and you [Ameri- we can continue the Great Leap Forward. and Syngman Rhee blames us. Maybe there cans) are [for us] a diplomatic issue. [The We should strive to produce eleven mil- are some others (who blame us], but mainly two] cannot be mixed up.

lion tons of steel, doubling last year's output. these three. Britain is a vacillating element. America now attempts to dominate four Next year another twenty million tons, striv- While it will not be militarily involved, it is out of the five continents, except for Austra- ing to reach thirty million tons. The year said that it has strong sympathy politically. lia. First of all, in North America, this is after next, another twenty million tons. Is it This is because Britain faces problems in mainly America's own place, and its armed not fifty million tons by then? Three years of Jordan. How can it handle the situation in

? forces are there. The next is Central and hard efforts, fifty million tons of steel. At Jordan if the Americans withdraw from LebaSouth America where it intends to provide that time, we will occupy third place in the non because [the British] failed to show “protection," although it does not have gar- world, next only to the Soviet Union and the sympathy [to the Americans]? Nehru issued

] risons there. Then, there are Europe, Africa, United States. The (steel] output of the a statement, which basically echoed us, sugand Asia, to which [America) has given its Soviet Union reached fifty million [tons] last gesting that Taiwan and other [offshore] main attention, and deployed its main force year. In three years, they can make it sixty islands should be returned to us, but hoping in Europe and Asia. I do not know how it million [tons). If we make hard efforts in the that a peaceful solution can be reached. The [America) can fight a war with a few sol- next three years, it is possible that [our steel countries in the Middle East, especially Egypt diers scattered everywhere. Thus, I believe output] may surpass fifty million tons. In and Iraq, warmly welcomed [our artillery that it focuses on occupying the intermedi- another two years, by 1962, it is possible [for bombardment] this time. They praise us ate zone. As far as the territories of our

us to produce] eighty to a hundred million every day, saying that we have done the right [socialist countries) are concerned, I be- tons [of steel], approaching the level of the thing. This is because our [artillery bomlieve that the Americans do not dare to United States (because of the impact of bardment] here has reduced the pressure the come, unless the socialist camp encounters economic recessions, America's (steel out- Americans put on them. big trouble and they are convinced that the put] will probably only reach a hundred I think that we can tell the people of the Soviet Union and China will totally collapse million tons at that time). [At the end of the

] world publicly that, in comparison, a tense as soon as they come. Except for [the second five-year plan, we will approach or

situation is more disadvantageous to the countries belonging to] our camp, America even surpass America. In another two years, western countries, as well as more disadvanis seeking hegemony everywhere in the in seven years, [we may] produce a hundred tageous to America [than to them). Why is world, including Latin America, Europe, fifty million tons of steel, and surpass America it advantageous to them (the people of the Africa, Asia, and, also, Australia. Australia to become the number one in the world. It is world]? Does the tense situation in the has linked itself with America through a not good for us to name ourselves as the most Middle East do any good for America? Does military alliance and follows its orders. Is it superior in the world, but it is not bad to it do any good for Britain? Or is it more better for America to try to control these become the number one steel producer. [We advantageous to the Arab countries and to places by utilizing the banner of “anti-com- should also] make hard efforts in the next the peace-loving people in Asia, Africa, munism” or by fighting a real war against three years to [increase] grain production. ”

Latin America, and other continents. To communism? To fight [a real war) against The output of this year is between three which side is the tense situation in the Taicommunism means to dispatch its troops to hundred fifty to four hundred million tons. wan (Straits] more advantageous? Let us fight us and fight the Soviet Union. I would [The output] will double next year, reaching, take our country as an example. Our country say that the Americans are not so stupid. probably, seven hundred fifty million tons. is now experiencing a nationwide mobilizaThey only have a few soldiers to be trans- We should slow down a little bit the year tion. If during the Middle East crisis about ferred here and there. After the incident in after next, for we have to find outlets for thirty to forty million people participated in

, Lebanon, American troops were transferred [extra) grain. Food will be grain's main the rallies and protest parades, this time there from the Pacific. After they arrived in outlet; but we also need to find other outlets [during the Taiwan crisis] we will probably the Red Sea area, the situation changed in industry. For example, [using grain] to mobilize 300 million people [to participate unfavorably [in the Pacific), and they turned produce ethyl alcohol, and, through ethyl

produce ethyl alcohol, and, through ethyl in rallies and parades), educating them and around quickly and landed at Malaya. They alcohol, to produce rubber, artificial fiber, toughening them. This event will also benannounced that [the troops) were taking a plastic, and other things.

efit our unity with all democratic parties36 in vacation there, and kept quiet for seventeen Let me talk a little bit more about the China because all the parties now share a days. Later, after one of their reporters tense situation. You [Americans) cause the common goal. As a result, those who in the claimed that [America] was taking charge tense situation, and you think it advanta- past had knots in their hearts, who were of the Indian Ocean, everyone in the India geous to you, do you not? You may be unhappy, and who were criticized will now Ocean [area] expressed opposition. When wrong. The tense situation can mobilize the feel a little bit more comfortable. If we can we began our artillery bombardment, people in the world, making everyone blame continue to handle the situation in this way, America came here since there were not you Americans. When a tense situation

When a tense situation doing it again and again, we will all belong enough [of its) troops here. It will probably emerges in the Middle East, everyone blames to the working class one day. Therefore, in better serve America's interests if it leaves the Americans. When tension comes to my view, the tense situation caused by the such places like Taiwan in an earlier time. If Taiwan everyone again blames the Ameri- imperialists eventually becomes advantait continues to stay, let it be noosed here. cans. Only a few people blame us. The geous to hundreds of millions of Chinese

or not.

people who oppose imperialism, to peace- panic[ky] and restless day and night. It Dulles's talks with reporters do not clearly loving peoples all over the world, and to all seems to me that [doing this] is a big, or at indicate [America's new position), he exsocial classes, all social ranks, and the gov- least moderate, advantage [to us]. What is

least moderate, advantage [to us]. What is pressed ambiguously that if China commits ernments [in various countries]. They now your opinion about it? On the days of heavy to acease-fire, America can persuade Jiang's have to believe that America, always arro- shelling we will not fire scattered shells. On troops to withdraw from the offshore islands gant and aggressive, is no good after all. the days of light shelling we will use this [under his control]. Apparently America [The U.S. government] moved six of its method. For the sake of shelling Liaoluowan intends to carry out basically a policy to help thirteen aircraft carriers [to the Taiwan at night, [we] should accurately calibrate Jiang slip away from Jinmen. Straits). Among these carriers, there are battery emplacements during daytime, which After Dulles made this suggestion, Jiang some big ones with the size reaching 65,000 will make the shelling at night more accu- Jieshi became very upset. Jiang knew the tons. It is said that with 120 ships, it forms rate. Please seek opinions from [the people content of Dulles's talks in advance. Thus, the strongest fleet in the world. It does not at] the front, to see if this method is workable he gave a speech on 29 September, and matter if you want to make it even stronger.

another on 1 October, stating that the AmeriIt does not matter if you want to concentrate

As far as the Warsaw talks are con- cans had done a disservice to him. Two days all of your four fleets here. I welcome you cerned, in the next three to four days, or one later, when he talked to British reporters all. After all, what you have is useless here. week, [we) should not lay all of our cards on from The Times [of London), Jiang asked Even though you move every ship you have the table, but should test [the Americans). It Britain to advise America not to be fooled here, you cannot land. Ships have to be in the seems that it is unlikely for the other side to [by the communists). This is really funny. water, and cannot come to the land. You can lay all of their cards out, and that they will Last night the Indian ambassador [to do nothing but make some threatening ges- also test us. What is your opinion, Zhou Beijing] hurriedly informed me of V. K. ture here. The more you play, the more the [Enlai], Peng [Dehuai], Zhang [Wentian],40 Krishna Menon's plan [at the United Napeople in the world will understand how and Qiao [Guanhua]41 ?

tions].46 Menon believes that current changes unreasonable you are.

Congratulations for the success from in the situation have already become a tenthe very start.

dency. Thus, he is planning to make a 7.Telegram, MaoZelong to Ho Chi Minh,

general speech at the UN meeting, including 10 September 1958

9. Letter, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai, 19 a suggestion that Jiang's troops withdraw Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, September 1958

from the offshore islands and a request to us 7:413 Source: Mao Zedong waijiao wenxuan, 353 to stop fighting against Jiang. Britain at

tempted to mediate this affair in the past, but Comrade President: Comrade (Zhou] Enlai:

we refused it. Dag Hammarskjold47 of the Your letter of 8 September37 has been Your letter dated the night of the 18th UN intended to talk to us through Norway, received. Thank you.

has been received. It is indeed very good.42 [but] we also turned it down. Even though I believe that (1) the Americans are [I am] very happy after reading it since [we) America was not willing to invite India sto afraid of fighting a war. As far as the current have gained the initiative. Please take due mediate] before, it had no choice but to situation is concerned, it is highly unlikely actions immediately. Please also pass your invite Menon this time. Menon was unwillthat a big war will break out; and (2) it seems letter and my reply here at once to Comrades ing to come himself, if America did not send to me that the business in your country Wang Bingnan43 and Ye Fei. Make sure that an invitation to him, or if he was unsure should go on as usual.

they understand [the key to] our new policy about the situation. At the present, since

and new tactics is holding the initiative, Menon feels certain about the situation be8. Letter, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai and keeping the offensive, and remaining rea- cause America has asked for his help, he is Huang Kecheng, 13 September 195838 sonable. We must conduct our diplomatic planning to deliver this proposition. Our Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong Wengao, struggle from a far-sighted perspective so assumption is as follows: after Menon makes 7:416-417 that it will develop without any difficulty. his proposition, it will be accepted by UN

members, and then by most countries in the Part One

Mao Zedong

world. Through this approach, the UN can Premier Zhou and Comrade Huang Kecheng: 4:00 A.M., 19 September, Hefei put pressure on Jiang Jieshi and meanwhile [I] have received [the documents] you

ask us to make compromises. Thereby, sent to me, including two intelligence re- 10. Minutes, Zhou Enlai's Conversation America can maneuver between Jiang and ports on Jinmen's situation and the order of with S.F. Antonov44 on the Taiwan Issue, us to make a bargain. our military.39 In addition to carrying out 5 October 1958 (Excerpt)45

We calculate that America has three [the operations] in accordance with the lines Source: Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan, 262- cards to play: set up by the order, it is also necessary to fire 267

First, to defend Jin[men)-Ma[zu]. some scattered shells day and night around

America's proposition on 18 September rethe clock, especially at night, shelling espe- The entire situation has already changed quested our cease-fire on Jinmen, we recially the area within the three-mile radius of at this point. Dulles's press conference jected it immediately. We have been ever Liaoluowan. The sporadic shelling (200 to published on 30 September reveals some since condemning America's occupation of 300 shells a day) will make the enemy changes in America's position. Although

changes in America's position. Although Taiwan. America now attempts to expand


oppose it.

its occupation to Jinmen-Mazu, we must this kind of joint statement. If the statement stays at Jinmen and Mazu, and America oppose it firmly. America dares not engage mentioned a cease-fire, it would benefit continues to intervene. It will educate the in a war merely for the sake of Jinmen, America; we had to oppose it. If the state

America; we had to oppose it. If the state- people of the world, especially the Chinese because the American people and its allied ment criticized both America and China, it people. We will not let America go, when it countries oppose it. Moreover, if America would be unable to tell right from wrong, we wants to get away from Jinmen and Mazu. wants a war for Jinmen, we are prepared to had to disagree as well. A just statement We demand that America withdraw its armed fight against it. In addition, the Soviet should include the following major points: to forces form Taiwan. Under this circumUnion supports us.

After our rejection, recognize firmly that Taiwan is China's ter- stance, if we need tension, we can shell America took back its first card, that is ritory, and that no foreign countries are al,

Jinmen and Mazu; if we want relaxation, we defending Jinmen and Mazu.

lowed to intervene; America should with- can stop shelling. As Comrade [Liu] Shaoqi Its second card is about “two Chinas.” draw from the Taiwan Straits; no creation of said to you, [we can] have small-, or meAmerica's proposition on 30 September had “two Chinas”; China and America should dium-, or large-scale shelling of Jinmen. We a central point of lining up China with the continue their talks. Obviously, some coun- can have shelling while negotiating, and we Soviet Union on the one side, and Jiang tries that follow America will not agree to can stop shelling anytime we like. This is Jieshi with the United States on the other these points. Thus, if the Asian and African advantageous for us. So we are not going to side. It puts forth a “two Chinas” scheme countries cannot issue a just statement, it is recover these offshore islands in the near and pushes us to accept the status quo. We better for them not to issue any joint state- future. We will take back them together with firmly oppose it now, and will continue to ment.

the Penghus and Taiwan later.

Moreover, this morning Comrade Chen Thus, we decided to issue a “Message to The third is to freeze the Taiwan Straits. Yi49 met diplomatic envoys from eight con- the Compatriots in Taiwan” in the name of America intends to persuade Jiang's troops cerned Asian and African countries that have our defense minister. [It indicates that) we to withdraw from the offshore islands as an diplomatic relations with China. Regarding will suspend our shelling for seven days exchange to freeze the situation in the Tai- these countries' discussion about issuing a from 1:00 p.m. on 6 October so as to allow wan Straits, requesting our renouncing the joint statement, he clarified the above posi- Jiang's troops to transport their logistic supuse of force on Taiwan, or our accepting tion of the Chinese government and made plies easily. Our suspension of bombardAmerica's occupation of Taiwan as legiti- further explanations.

ment, however, has a precondition that no mate and“two Chinas” as “an existing fact.” I talked to you on 30 September [about American ships provide escort. Moreover, America may not play its third card at once. our policy toward Taiwan). Originally, our [it] suggests a direct negotiation with Jiang As soon as Dulles's meeting with press plan had two steps: the first was to recover Jieshi searching for peaceful solutions to the caused Jiang Jieshi's big complaints, Dulles the offshore islands; the second to liberate conflicts between both sides. Since our wrote to Jiang for explanation and comfort. Taiwan. Later, after we began shelling shelling is actually a punitive operation At the same time, Eisenhower informed the Jinmen, our bombardment played a role to against Jiang's troops, we can slow it down Democratic chairman of the Senate Foreign mobilize the people of the world, especially as long as Jiang is willing to cooperate [with Relations Committee that America could the Chinese people. Thereafter, many coun- us]. If he is not, we will continue to punish not yield to force. He, however, also said tries launched and joined a new anti-Ameri- him. Therefore, we will always be in a that if Communist China ceased fire, can movement on a much larger scale than positive position. [America) could reconsider [the situation that after the Lebanon event. The situation Our purpose in publishing this “Mesthere]. It shows that America is still waver- already becomes clear. America knows that sage to the Compatriots in Taiwan” is to ing, though it wants to get away from Jinmen- we do not want to fight a war against it. deepen the conflicts between America and Mazu.

When it escorted Jiang Jieshi's ships, we did Jiang. Jiang's current garrison on Jinmen, According to the above calculations, I not fire [on them). We have no intention to about 80,000 men under the command of told the Indian ambassador yesterday that liberate Taiwan immediately. We know that Chen Cheng, 50 is the main strength of Jiang's we did not want Menon to deliver his propo- America does not want to fight a war against forces. Jiang Jieshi wants to defend Jinmen sition to the UN. We cannot trade a settle- us over Jinmen either. It strictly restrained its to the last and drag America down to the ment of Jinmen-Mazu for a recognition of air and naval forces from entering our terri- water. Chen Cheng, however, wants to save America's occupation of Taiwan as legiti- torial waters between three and twelve miles these troops. If we bottle up the troops on mate and acceptance of the existence of so- from our coast. Currently America works on Jinmen, it is easier for America to encourage called “two Chinas.”

how to persuade Jiang's troops to withdraw Chen to persuade Jiang to withdraw his Meanwhile, some Asian and African from Jinmen-Mazu to prevent its forces from troops from the offshore islands. If we let countries are suggesting that the Eight-na- being pinned down in this region.

these troops stay on Jinmen, Jiang and Chen tion Committee48 can draft a statement about As I said to you on 30 September, we can use them to drive a hard bargain with the Taiwan situation. I also told the Indian realized that it was better to keep Jiang Jieshi America. In our message to the compatriots ambassador yesterday that we believed that on Jinmen-Mazu. After the Central [in Taiwan), we warn them that America the Asian and African countries could hardly Committee's discussions, we still believe will abandon them sooner or later. There is issue such a joint statement since there ex- that it is the best to keep Jiang Jieshi on no need to fight for America's interests isted two different positions among them- Jinmen, Mazu, and other offshore islands. It between the two Chinese sides. Although selves. I said to him it was better not to have is extremely beneficial [to us] that Jiang we can possibly fight for thirty more years,



it is better [for both sides] to talk for solu- P.S.: After you have handled this letter, 14. Notation, Mao Zedong on Zhou Enlai's tions. please convey it to the Premier. 52

Report, “On the Shelling of Jinmen,” 20 To be sure, (on the one hand,] Jiang

October 195857 Jieshi will likely hold a press conference [as 12. Letter, Mao Zedong to Huang Kecheng Source: Jiangguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, soon as we publish our message], accusing and Peng Dehuai, 6 October 1958

7:466 us of attempting to cast a bone between him Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, and America, saying that he will never sit 7:437

Part I down with the Chinese Communists for ne

The report is approved. gotiations, and so forth. In his mind, how- Peng [Dehuai] and Huang [Kecheng]: ever, Jiang can figure out himself that there Please pass on to Han [Xianchu) and Ye Part II is a lot behind this, and that he can make a [Fei]:

It is more appropriate to start shelling one further bargain with America. This is his old Yesterday I said not to issue any public hour after, or half hour after, the reading [of trick. On the other hand, Americans will statement, and to wait and see for two days. the order] is finished.58 also criticize the Chinese Communist at- Later [I] thought about this again, and contempt to drive a wedge between them and sidered it more appropriate to issue a state- 15. Letter, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai, Jiang. But, meanwhile, they will suspect in ment first. This is the reason for [me to Chen Yi, Huang Kecheng, 31 October their minds that we suddenly let up pressure write] the “Message to the Compatriots in 1958 on Jinmen, almost blockaded to the death, Taiwan.”53 This statement is about to be Source: Mao Zedong Wengao, 7:479 because there might be a tacit agreement issued, please instruct the Fujian Front radio between us and Jiang. The louder Jiang station to broadcast it repeatedly.

Comrades [Zhou] Enlai, Chen Yi, and yells, the more suspicious the Americans

[Huang) Kecheng: will become.

Mao Zedong

[We) should extend the areas where no Therefore, we cause a new dilemma for 2:00 A.M., 6 October

shelling is allowed on even-numbered days. America, and it does not know how to cope Send this to [Huang] Kecheng for handling That means shelling will be prohibited on with it. America is facing a very difficult immediately. 54

even days on all fronts. Allow Jiang's troops situation right now. It originally planned to

to come outdoors and get some sunshine so persuade Jiang's troops to withdraw [from 13. Telegram, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai, that they can continue to stay there. Only fire Jinmen). If it again suggests withdrawal, 11 October 1958

a few shells on odd days. Instruct the Fujian Jiang Jieshi will say that America abandons Source: Jiangguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, [front] by internal channels to carry it out. him. If America stops persuading Jiang to 7:449-450

Do not issue public statement at this point. If withdraw, we will achieve our goal.

there is a need later, [we] will consider Comrade [Zhou] Enlai:

making an announcement then. Please dis11. Letter, Mao Zedong to Huang Kecheng No hurry to reply to the letters from the cuss and decide on this matter. and Peng Dehuai, 5 October 1958 Soviets.55 Need to discuss them first.

I am leaving for a southern trip this Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, Cao Juren56 has arrived. Ignore him for afternoon. 7:437

a few days, do not talk to him too soon. [I]

will think about whether I need to meet him Mao Zedong Comrades [Peng] Dehuai and [Huang] or not.

2:00 A.M., 31 October Kecheng:

Tell [Huang] Kecheng to double-check Our batteries should not fire a single accurate numbers of how many enemy air- 16. Letter, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai, shell on 6 and 7 October, even if there are planes we shot down, and how many of our Chen Yi, Huang Kecheng, 2 November American airplanes and ships escorts. If the planes were shot down in more than fifty 1958 enemy bombs us, our forces should still not days of air engagements since the Shantou Source: Jiangguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao, return fire. [We should] cease our activities, air battle on 19 August. Prepare the statistics 7:490 lie low, and wait and see for two days. Then, for the Soviets' information. They believed we will know what to do. Although the air the enemy's false information and do not Comrades [Zhou] Enlai, Chen Yi, and force must carry on our defense, the air- know the true story. [The Soviets) should [Huang] Kecheng: planes should not fly off the coast. One more sell ground-to-air missiles to us, and let us Suggest having a heavy all day shelling thing: do not issue any public statement control the employment of them. The Sovi- tomorrow (the 3rd, an odd day). Fire at least during these two days because we need to ets may send a few people to teach us how to 10,000 shells and bomb all the military tarwait and see clearly how the situation will use them. I intend to adopt this policy. [We gets [on Jinmen] in order to affect America's develop. Please carry out the above order can] discuss and decide whether it is appro- election, promoting the Democrats' victory immediately. Or [you can] pass this letter priate tonight or tomorrow night.

and the Republicans' defeat. Meanwhile, [as an order] to Ye Fei and Han Xianchu.51

give Jiang's troops an excuse for refusing to Mao Zedong

withdraw [from Jinmen). Please consider Mao Zedong

and decide if this is proper. 8:00 A.M., 5 October

10:00 A.M., 11 October

Mao Zedong

tee, served as director of Xinhua (New China) News 14. The Juixiang Study was the location of Mao's office


in Zhongnanhai. 5:00 A.M., 2 November in Zhengzhou Agency and editor-in-chief of Renmin ribao (People's Daily) in 1958.

15. General Zhang Zhizhong, who had been Jiang 2. Beidaihe is a beach area located at the border of Hebei Jieshi's subordinate, shifted to the Communist side in 17. Letter, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai, 2 and Liaoning provinces, where Chinese leaders regu- 1949 and was then vice chairman of China's national November 1958

larly take vacations and hold meetings during summer. defense commission.
3. Hu Qiaomu, a CCP theorist, was Mao Zedong's 16. For the transcript of Dulles's answers, see The New

political secretary and a member of the CCP Central York Times, 1 October 1958, 8.
Part One 59

17. Hu Shi (1891-1962), a prominent Chinese scholar Attention, Military and Civilian Compatri- 4. This refers to the Communist takeover in China in and Chinese ambassador to the United States during the ots on the Jinmen Islands: 1949.

Second World War, had a pro-American reputation. He Tomorrow, 3 November, is an odd

5. In late 1957, the Beijing leadership began to plan to then served as president of the Central Academy

deploy air force units in the Fujian area, so that the [Academia Sinica) in Taipei. numbered day. You must make sure not to

Guomindang air force would no longer be able to 18. Sun Liren, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, come outside. Do be careful!

control the air (for more information on this matter, see commanded the Taiwan garrison in 1949, when the

document 1). On 18 July 1958, the CCP Central Military Guomindang government moved from mainland China Part Two

Commission held an urgent meeting attended by heads to Taiwan. In 1955, Jiang dismissed Sun and placed him

of the PLA's different arms and branches. Peng Dehuai, under house arrest. Deliver to Premier Zhou.

the defense minister, conveyed to the meeting Mao 19. This is also known as the “May 24th Incident.” On The Xiamen Front must broadcast (the Zedong's instructions: Under the circumstances that 20 March 1957, an American army sergeant, Robert R. message] this afternoon (2 November) for America and Britain continued to dispatch troops to the Reynolds, shot a Chinese, Liu Zhiran, in Taipei's Amerithree times.

Middle East, the Guomindang planned a diversion by can military residence area. On 23 May 1957, an Americausing a tense situation in the Taiwan Straits. In order can court-martial found Reynolds not guilty. The next

to provide effective support to the anti-imperialist day, a riot involving tens of thousands protesters erupted 18. Comments, Mao Zedong, on "Huan

struggle by the people in the Middle East, it was neces- in Taipei, with the American Embassy and other AmeriXiang on the Division within the Western sary for China to take action. First, air force units should can agencies as the target. Guomindang authorities World,”60 25 November 1958

be deployed in Fujian. Second, Jinmen islands should be announced martial law in Taipei on the same evening to

shelled. The air force units must enter the air bases in control the situation. Source: Jianguo yilai Mao Zedong wengao,

Fujian and eastern Guangdong by July 27. The next day, 20. Tian Jiaying (1922-1966) was Mao Zedong's sec7:581-582

the Air Force Headquarters issued the operation order. retary from October 1948 to May 1966, when he com

After extensive preparations, on July 27, 48 MiG-17 mitted suicide. Part I

planes finally took position in the two air bases located 21. This is a collection of bizarre stories by Pu Songling

respectively at Liancheng, Fujian province, and Shantou, written during Qing times. Huan Xiang's viewpoint is right. The

Guangdong province. (See Wang Dinglie et al., Dongdai 22. Mao Zedong wrote his remarks on the 9 December situation in the Western world is indeed zhongguo kongjun (Contemporary Chinese Air Force) 1957 report of Chen Geng, the PLA's deputy chief of disintegrating. Even though currently it is (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1989), 334- staff, to Peng Dehuai. Chen Geng's report stated: “This in the middle of a gradual disunification and 336.)

year, planes from Taiwan have frequently invaded [the 6. Liu Shaoqi, vice chairman of the CCP Central Com- air space) of important coastal cities and the inner land not yet breaking into pieces, the West is

mittee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the of the mainland, dropping large numbers of reactionary moving toward its inevitable final disinte- People's National Congress, was China's second most leaflets and condolence gifts, creating a very bad gration. It will probably take a long time, important leader; Zhou Enlai was vice chairman of the impression on the masses. Because some leading mem

CCP Central Committee and China's premier; Deng not overnight nor a single day, for this

bers of our army failed to take anti-aircraft operations Xiaoping was the CCP's general secretary

seriously and their superiors failed to supervise them process. The so-called united West is purely

7. Wang Shangrong headed the operations department closely, [we have been) unable to shoot down any of the empty talk. There may be a kind of unity


of the PLA General Staff; Ye Fei was political commis- invading planes (dispatched by] Jiang (Jieshi]. In order that Dulles is struggling for. But [he] wants sar of the Fuzhou Military District.

to improve quickly this situation, we have arranged for [the West] to “unite” under the control of

8. Cangao ziliao (Restricted Reference Material], an the air force and all military regions to take every

internal publication circulated among high ranking positive and effective step necessary to attack the Jiang America, and asks all his partners and pup

Chinese Communist officials, published Chinese trans- planes that are invading the mainland, trying our best to pets to get close to America in front of its

lations of news reports and commentaries from foreign shoot them down." (Source: Mao Zedong junshi wenji, atomic bombs, paying their tributes and news agencies, newspapers, and journals in a timely 6:372.) Chinese air force units finally took position in

fashion. kowtowing and bowing as America's sub

Fujian on 27 July 1958. See note 5. 9. On 23 April 1955, Zhou Enlai stated at the Bandung 23. Mao Zedong composed this letter on the eve of the jects. This is America's so-called unity.

Conference that China was willing to hold talks with the deadline previously established by the CCP leadership The current situation must move toward the

United States to discuss all questions between the two to shell Jinmen. On 15 July 1958, the Eisenhower so-called unity's opposite—disunity. Com- countries. On 13 July 1955, through Britain, the U.S. administration dispatched 5,000 American marines to rades, please take a look at today's world

government proposed holding bilateral meetings at land in Lebanon. On July 17, the Beijing leadership

Geneva, Switzerland. The Chinese-American ambassa- made the decision to bombard Jinmen, and China's and ask which side has the real control.

dorial talks began on 1 August 1955 at Geneva and defense minister, Peng Dehuai, conveyed the decision

lasted until December 1957. In September 1958, during to the General Staff. On the evening of July 18, Mao Mao Zedong

the Taiwan crisis, the Chinese-American ambassadorial Zedong spoke at a decision-making meeting attended Part II talks resumed in Warsaw, Poland.

by vice chairmen of the Central Military Commission 10. On 4 September 1958, Premier Zhou Enlai formally and leading officers of the air force and navy, emphasizComrade [Deng] Xiaoping:

announced a twelve-mile zone off the Chinese coast as

ing that the Arab people's anti-imperialist struggle Please print and distribute this report. China's territorial waters.

needed more than moral support and China would take 11. For the minutes of these two talks, see documents 5 real action. He stated that since Jinmen and Mazu were

and 6. Mao Zedong

China's territory and the shelling of Nationalist troops 12. See note 9.

there was China's internal affair, it would be difficult 10:00 A.M., 25 November

13. Zhongnanhai is the compound where top Chinese for the enemy to use this as an excuse [to attack

leaders live and work, and Fengzeyuan was Mao mainland China) while at the same time it would play 1. Wu Lengxi, a member of the CCP Central CommitZedong's residence in the 1950s.

the role in checking American actions in the Middle

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